Why did the romans crucify jesus of nazareth
Why was Jesus of Nazareth executed by the Romans?
To his Christian followers, Jesus of Nazareth, also known as Jesus Christ, was the spiritual founder of the religion of Christendom. His ideas were considered heretical by the Jewish leadership and politically hazardous by the Roman authorities, and he was famously crucified in Jerusalem as a result of this collaboration between the two.
Why did Romans crucify?
Crucification was meant to be a gory sight, the most agonizing and humiliating death possible, and it was meant to be a show. Abolitionists, pirates, and other enemies of the state were punished with it. The punishment for a slave who kills his or her master was the crucifixion of all of the slaves under the master’s command, according to ancient Roman law.
What was the purpose of Jesus crucifixion?
In order to be a horrible sight, the Crucifixion was supposed to be the most excruciating and humiliating death possible. He used to punish slaves, pirates, and others who opposed his government’s policies. The punishment for a slave who kills his or her master was the crucifixion of all of the slaves under the master’s command, according to Roman law.
What did the Romans find Jesus guilty of?
Instead of beginning with the conviction for blasphemy, Caiaphas asserted that Jesus was guilty of sedition, which was later overturned. Caiaphas said that Jesus believed himself, or that his supporters believed, or that people believed that he was the King of the Jews. The crime against Rome was a capital offense, and Pilate was obligated to deal with it, whether he wanted to or not.
What did the Romans do to the Jews?
The First Jewish–Roman War began in the year 66 CE. Veselagian and Titus, who would become the future Roman emperors, put down the rebellion. During the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE, the Romans demolished much of the Temple in Jerusalem and, according to some sources, looted treasures from the Temple, including the Menorah, for their own use.
When did the Romans stop using crucifixion?
In the fourth century AD, Constantine I banned the practice of crucifixion, which the Romans had mastered for 500 years before its abolition. Romans executed slaves, disgraced soldiers, Christians, and foreigners on a large scale; only a small number of Roman citizens were executed on a similar scale.
Could Jesus have survived the crucifixion?
″It is impossible,″ says Alexander Metherell, and ″it is a fantastic hypothesis without any possible basis in truth″ that Jesus survived the crucifixion. In addition, the Journal of the American Medical Association published a detailed investigation in which they decided that Jesus was very likely dead even before the Crucifixion.
What Roman emperor crucified Jesus?
Roman prefect (governor) of Judaea from 26 to 36 CE under the reign of Tiberius, Pontius Pilate (Latin: Marcus Pontius Pilatus) presided over the trial of Jesus and delivered the order for his death. Pilate died after the year 36 CE.
What did Jesus mean by it is finished?
Hebrews 9:12; Hebrews 9:26 Because his deed provided final fulfillment to what their sacrificial system prophesied, Jesus’ statement ″it is done″ signaled to the Jewish world that there was no longer a need for offerings or for the building of temples.
Did the Romans believe in Jesus?
According to the Romans, Jesus was a troublemaker who had gotten what was coming to him. To the Christians, on the other hand, he was a martyr, and it was immediately apparent that the killing had exacerbated the instability of Judaea. Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of Judaea and the man who ordered the execution, was expelled from the city and told to return to Rome in shame.
Was Jesus alive during the Roman Empire?
It wasn’t only that Jesus was dead; he died via crucifixion as a traitor to the Roman Empire. The preaching of the coming kingdom of God had not manifested, either, at this point. In the communities of his disciples, two types of responses evolved.
Why the Romans Crucified Jesus
- Jesus was most likely crucified by the Roman authorities, who were in control of Israel and Palestine at the time, since he was viewed as a political danger by the ruling authority.
- It was inevitable that anyone who caused a commotion at the Temple, which served as a significant focal point of Jewish life and a symbol of Jewish national independence, would attract the attention of the rulers.
- As a result of what we know about Pilate from other sources, such as Josephus, a Jewish historian who lived during the time period, I believe that the Roman leader was an effective administrator who would not tolerate the rise of rebellion against Rome and his realm.
- Transcript in its entirety When it came to matters like this, I believe the high priestly leadership in the Jerusalem community was pragmatic.
- In fact, the sentiment attributed to Caiaphas in the fourth Gospel, which is probably accurate, reflects some of their attitudes, namely, that it is more expedient to have one person die than for the entire nation to perish.
- As a result, I believe they cooperated with the Roman authorities, but Pilate made the choice to crucify Jesus.
- Crucifixion is, of course, a manner of execution that originated in ancient Rome.
- While there is a tendency to whitewash the Roman involvement, particularly in Luke’s Gospel, there is also a tendency to suggest that Christianity was not a politically dangerous movement and that whenever Roman authorities encountered it, they determined it to be so, that Christianity is not dangerous.
- My understanding is that the Roman authorities in first-century Jerusalem were extremely sensitive to political risks, and they perceived Jesus to be a threat, leading them to condemn Jesus to death.
- Harold W.
- Attridge is the Sterling Professor of Divinity at Yale Divinity School, where he has taught for over 30 years.
- He is a graduate of Boston College, Cambridge University, and Harvard University, and has served on the faculties of Perkins School of Theology, Southern Methodist University, the University of Notre Dame, and Yale Divinity School, where he served as dean from 2002 to 2012.
- He is married with two children and lives in New York City.
- Essays on John and Hebrews are only a couple of the books he’s written (Mohr-Siebeck, 2010; repr., Baker, 2012).
Why Did Pontius Pilate Have Jesus Executed?
- ″What is truth?″ Pontius Pilate asks Jesus of Nazareth in the Gospel of John, and Jesus responds with a question.
- It’s a question that may be raised regarding Pilate’s own personal background as well.
- As told in the New Testament of the Christian Bible, the Roman ruler of Judea appeared to be a shaky judge who originally exonerated Jesus before bowing to public pressure and executing him on the orders of the mob.
- Non-Biblical sources, on the other hand, present him as a barbaric commander who wilfully rejected the traditions of the Jewish people under his command.
- Which version of the truth was correct?
- WATCH: JESUS: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Vault
Pilate’s early life is a mystery.
- Before his time as Roman governor of Judea, from 26 and 36 A.D., nothing is known about Pilate’s early life and career.
- It is believed that he was born into an equestrian family in Italy, however some tales indicate that he was actually born in Scotland, rather than Italy.
- From the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria emerges one of the earliest—and most damning—accounts of Pilate’s reign as governor.
- Around the year 50 A.D., he denounced the prefect for ″briberies, insults, robberies, outrages and wanton injuries, executions without trial, constantly repeated, endless and extremely severe brutality,″ among other things.
- The early Christian historian Stephen J.
- Patterson, who teaches early Christianity at Willamette University and is the author of several books including The Forgotten Creed: Christianity’s Original Struggle Against Bigotry, Slavery, and Sexism, says that Philo describes Pilate’s rule as ″corrupt and full of bribery.″ Although such behavior would not have been out of the norm in the case of a Roman emperor, Pilate appears to have done so with greater ruthlessness than usual.″ But, as Helen Bond, dean of the University of Edinburgh’s School of Divinity and author of Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation, points out, it’s difficult to determine how historically accurate Philo’s tale truly was in the first place.
- ″Philo is a really dramatic writer,″ she observes, ″and one who has very apparent biases: persons who maintain Jewish rules are documented in highly favorable ways, whereas people who do not uphold Jewish laws are represented in quite bad ways.
- Given Pilate’s resistance to Jewish law, Philo depicts him as ″very severe″ in his description.
- READ MORE: The Bible Claims That Jesus Was a Real Person.
- Is there any further evidence?
Pilate clashed with the Jewish population in Jerusalem.
- As part of his account, Philo claims that Pilate allowed a pair of golden shields emblazoned with the name of the Roman Emperor Tiberius to be brought into King Herod’s former residence in Jerusalem, in defiance of Jewish tradition.
- Writing more than a half-century later, the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus related a similar story, claiming that Pilate let troops bearing military standards with the likeness of the emperor into Jerusalem, despite Jewish law prohibiting the carrying of images in the holy city.
- A large number of people journeyed to the Judean city of Caesarea to express their displeasure, and they laid prostrate outside Pilate’s palace for five days until he finally yielded.
- Because Josephus was born in Jerusalem the year Pilate resigned, Bond believes he would have had ″pretty good information,″ according to the historian.
- This account has the ring of a rookie governor experimenting with his powers and entirely underestimating the depth of local opposition to graven images.
- However, Bond points out that the incident demonstrates his readiness to back down and to heed public opinion in the long run.
- Josephus related another event, this one with a bloodier conclusion, in which Pilate used cash from the Temple treasury to construct an aqueduct to provide water to Jerusalem.
- When demonstrators gathered again, Pilate despatched plain-clothed soldiers to enter the mob.
- They were successful.
- When he gave the signal, they withdrew clubs disguised in their clothing and beat many of the demonstrators to death with the clubs they had removed.
More information may be found at Where is the Head of Saint John the Baptist?
The Gospels portray an indecisive Pilate.
- Josephus also mentioned Pilate’s notorious role in agreeing to the execution of Jesus.
- According to the Gospels, the Sanhedrin, an elite council of priestly and lay elders, arrested Jesus during the Jewish festival of Passover, deeply threatened by his teachings.
- They dragged him before Pilate to be tried for blasphemy—for claiming, they said, to be King of the Jews.
- And they pressured Pilate, the only one with power to impose a death sentence, to call for his crucifixion.
- Contrary to the depiction of Pilate as a merciless ruler by Philo and Josephus, all four Gospels portray him as a vacillating judge.
- According to the Gospel of Mark, Pilate came to the defense of Jesus before yielding to the desire of the crowd.
- But Mark had an ulterior agenda, notes Patterson, since he wrote the Gospel in the midst of the failed Jewish Revolt against Roman rule between 66 and 70 A.D., while the Christian sect was undergoing a bitter break with Judaism and seeking to attract Roman converts.
- READ MORE: Inside the Conversion Tactics of the Early Christian Church “Mark’s purpose is not really historical,” Patterson says.
- “It’s to cast the Jewish War in a particular light.
- Mark blamed the Jewish rulers in Jerusalem for its destructionbecause the high priests and officials rejected Jesus when he had come to the city.
Mark’s telling of the story of the trial of Jesus is less about Pilate and more about shifting the blame to the Jewish leaders.” According to the Gospel of Matthew, Pilate washed his hands in front of the crowd before announcing, “I am innocent of this man’s blood; see to it yourselves.” The Jewish people shouted in response, “His blood be on us and our children.” It’s a passage that would be used for millennia to persecute the Jewish people.“Matthew says that while the Romans actually carried out the deed, the Jews were responsible—a line of argument that has of course had disastrous consequences ever since,” Bond says.“If Jesus was causing trouble at a gathering like Passover, when the city was crowded to bursting, I don’t think Pilate would have spent much time worrying about what to do with him.It was entirely up to the governor as to how he dealt with the case, and after hearing the evidence he no doubt thought that getting rid of Jesus was the best course of action.” Another element of the New Testament story still unsupported by historical evidence is Pilate’s offer to commute the death sentence of a criminal by popular vote—which according to the Gospel writers was an annual Passover tradition.In the Gospels, the crowd chose the criminal Barabbas over Jesus.
“Scholars have looked for evidence,″ Patterson says, and so far ″have never found anything in reference to the so-called custom of releasing a prisoner on Passover.” READ MORE: Discovery Shows Early Christians Didn’t Always Take the Bible Literally
Pilate disappears from history after his rule.
- After employing disproportionate force to quell a possible Samaritan uprising, according to Josephus and the Roman historian Tacitus, Pilate was dismissed from office and exiled to the city of Rome.
- Pilate vanished from the historical record as soon as he arrived in Rome.
- His execution by the Emperor Caligula or his suicide, with his body being thrown into the Tiber River, are two theories that have been floated around.
- In fact, the early Christian author Tertullian said that Pilate had become a disciple of Jesus and had attempted to convert the emperor to Christian beliefs.
- Archaeologists in Caesarea uncovered concrete proof of Pilate’s presence in 1961, according to the Associated Press.
- A portion of a carved stone with Pilate’s name and title etched in Latin on it was discovered face down in an antique theater, where it had been used as a stair.
- According to the evidence available, the ″Pilate Stone″ was initially intended to be used as a dedication plaque for another construction.
- According to a November 2018 article in the Israel Exploration Journal, improved photography showed Pilate’s name engraved in Greek on a 2,000-year-old copper alloy ring found at Herodium, which was previously thought to be a Roman coin.
The Roman Empire: in the First Century. The Roman Empire. Jesus
|Painting of Jesus and his disciples|
- Jesus’ brief life and violent death were sufficient to assure that his message of hope and everlasting life would spread throughout Judaea, into the Roman Empire, and ultimately over the entire globe.
- Judaea, located in one of the most remote regions of the Roman Empire, was a province rich in ancient customs and religious zeal.
- Years of Roman control had bred increasing hatred among the populace.
- Descendance into anarchy A family from the hamlet of Nazareth, near the Sea of Galilee, gave birth to Jesus, who was raised by them.
- As he grew older, Judaea was descending into complete and utter disorder.
- Its populace had become divided into antagonistic factions.
- Hundreds of thousands of people flocked to see preachers and prophets as they traveled the countryside.
- One of these sects accepted Jesus into their ranks when he was thirty years old, and Jesus was baptized in the Jordan River.
- After that, he started his own ministry, which was short-lived.
- Along with many other preachers, he journeyed across Judaea, bringing his message to the homes and synagogues of some of his country’s most impoverished citizens.
A new message has arrived.That there was a kingdom bigger than Rome, that God would provide, and that the weakest segments of society would find solace and hope in this message were all declared in this message.It was a radically different message, and it piqued the interest of his viewers.Despite the fact that his teaching was becoming increasingly popular, many people were outraged by the assertion made by his disciples that Jesus was the son of God.Furthermore, his views were revolutionary, and they posed a danger to thousands of years of social tradition if they were implemented.
Jerusalem is in a state of flux.Jesus journeyed to the city of Jerusalem for the Jewish festival of Passover, which took place in the year 33 AD.There were thousands of pilgrims from all over the world, and the temple provided services for them such as currency exchange and the purchase of animals for sacrifice, among other things.
- Jesus erupted with rage.
- He argued that such commercial activity polluted the sacred location.
- Following the account of St John, he destroyed the moneylenders’ booths and drove them all out of the temple complex.
- Are you a criminal or a martyr?
- This outburst infuriated religious authorities and constituted a serious danger to the fragile calm that had been enforced by Rome.
- Jesus was imprisoned on suspicion of treason and crucified, which was a standard method of punishment for accused criminals at the time.
- According to the Romans, Jesus was a troublemaker who had gotten what was coming to him.
To the Christians, on the other hand, he was a martyr, and it was immediately apparent that the killing had exacerbated the instability of Judaea.Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of Judaea and the man who ordered the crucifixion, was obliged to return to Rome in disgrace after ordering the execution of Jesus.By murdering Jesus, the Romans had set the stage for the birth of a completely new religion that would soon spread throughout Rome and, eventually, the entire globe.Where to go from here: Religion in the Ancient Roman Empire Christians in the first century Religion in the Ancient Roman Empire The Enemies and Rebels of St.
Paul – Josephus and Judea
- From around the 6th century bce until the 4th century ce, the crucifixion was a popular means of capital punishment, notably among the Persians, Seleucids, Carthaginians, and Romans, among others.
- Out of reverence for Jesus Christ, the most famous victim of the crucifixion, Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, banned it in the Roman Empire in the early 4th century ce, making him the first Christian ruler.
- There were a number of different approaches to carrying out the execution.
- Usually, after being beaten or ″scourged,″ the condemned man would pull the crossbeam of his cross to the area of punishment, where the upright shaft of the cross was already embedded in the ground.
- He was stripped of his garments, either at the time of his scourging or earlier, and either tied tightly to the crossbeam with his arms spread or nailed securely to it through the wrists.
- Afterwards, the crossbeam was hoisted up against the upright shaft and fastened to it at a height of around 9 to 12 feet (nearly 3 metres) above the ground.
- The feet were then firmly tied or fastened to the upright shaft at this point.
- A ledge placed around halfway up the upright shaft provided some support for the torso; however, evidence of a corresponding ledge for the feet is uncommon and late in the archaeological record.
- A notice with the criminal’s name and the nature of his crime was posted over his head.
- A combination of constricted blood circulation, organ failure, and asphyxiation happened as the body strained under the force of its own weight, finally leading to death.
- By striking the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club, it was possible to accelerate the process of asphyxiation and shock by preventing the legs from bearing the body’s weight and making breathing more difficult.
- Critics of political or religious agitation, pirates, slaves, or people who lacked civil rights were the most commonly targeted for execution by crucifixion.
Around the year 519 BCE, Darius I, the king of Persia, executed 3,000 political opponents on the streets of Babylon; in 88 BCE, Alexander Jannaeus, the Judaean king and high priest, executed 800 Pharisaic opponents on the streets of Jerusalem; and around the year 32 CE, Pontius Pilate executed Jesus of Nazareth on the cross.
Crucifixion of Jesus
- As recorded in the Gospels, Jesus is scourged before being nailed to the cross for his crimes against humanity.
- As a result, the Roman troops humiliated him and derided him as the ″King of the Jews,″ dressing him in a purple robe and a crown of thorns, and leading him slowly to Mount Calvary, also known as Golgotha; one Simon of Cyrene was allowed to assist him in bearing the cross.
- At the execution site, he was stripped and nailed to the crucifixion, or at the at least affixed to the cross by his own hands, and above him, at the very top of the cross, was a condemnatory inscription proclaiming his crime of professing to be King of the Jews, which he had committed.
- (″Hebrew,″ or Aramaic, as well as Latin and Greek,″ according to the Gospels, which varied somewhat in their phrasing but all agree that the inscription was written in ″Hebrew,″ or Aramaic, as well as Latin and Greek.) Jesus was in anguish while he hung on the cross.
- The troops split his clothing and drew lots for his seamless robe, which was the winner.
- Several people on the street teased him.
- Two guilty thieves were crucified on either side of Jesus, and the soldiers dispatched them at the conclusion of the trial by breaking their legs.
- It is possible that one of the soldiers thrust a spear into Jesus’ side, causing blood and water to flow out.
- However, it seems unlikely that this was the case.
- To comply with Jewish tradition, he was hauled down before sundown and buried in a rock-hewn grave on the grounds.
Crucifixion in art
- Beginning in the early Middle Ages, the image of Christ on the crucifixion has been a popular topic in Western art.
- Early Christians were preoccupied with simple symbolic affirmations of salvation and eternal life, and they were repulsed by the ignominy of the punishment; instead, the Crucifixion was represented first by a lamb, and later by a jewelled cross, following the official recognition of Christianity by the Roman state in the early 4th century.
- The Crucifixion was not represented realistically until the 5th century.
- Although few depictions of the Crucifixion exist today, they became more common in the 6th century as a consequence of contemporary church attempts to oppose a theory that Christ’s character was not dual—human and divine—but rather solely divine and consequently invulnerable.
- These early Crucifixions, however, were triumphal representations, depicting Christ as alive and well, with wide eyes and no sign of agony, having triumphed over death and the grave.
- Byzantine art began to depict a dead Christ with closed eyelids in the 9th century, indicating a growing interest in the mystery of Christ’s death and the essence of the Incarnation at the time of the art’s creation.
- As part of the mysticism of the time, this version of the story was embraced in the West in the 13th century, with an ever-increasing emphasis placed on Christ’s pain and suffering.
- Parallel to this evolution in the image of Christ himself was the creation of an increasingly complex iconography that encompassed other elements that had traditionally been featured in the scene, such as animals and plants.
- Aside from the major mourners (the Virgin Mary and St.
- John the Apostle), the only other figures incorporated in the piece are typically the apostles themselves.
There are several other figures, both historical and symbolic, that traditionally appear to the right and left of the cross.These include the two thieves, one of whom was repentant, who were crucified with Christ; the centurion who pierced Christ’s side with a lance (and later acknowledged Christ to be the Son of God) and the soldier who offered him vinegar on a sponge; and small personifications of the Sun and Moon, which were eclipsed a few days after Christ’s death.The Other people that might be depicted are the soldiers who drew lots for Christ’s clothing and St.Mary Magdalene, amongst others.The development of devotional art at the end of the Middle Ages resulted in depictions of the Crucifixion becoming vehicles for the representation of Christ’s sufferings.
Intended to inspire piety in the viewer, this spectacle became the primary concern of artists, who depicted the scene with gruesome realism and occasionally included the horror of a crowd of jeering spectators.St.John the Baptist appears on a number of Crucifixions from this period, pointing to Christ and his sacrifice in the same way that he had foretold Christ’s arrival earlier in the period.
- The Baroque period, on the other hand, maintained the peaceful idealization of the scene that had been restored by Renaissance painting, but with a more overt display of emotion.
- In common with much Christian religious art, the theme of the Crucifixion declined in popularity from the seventeenth century; some twentieth-century painters, on the other hand, generated very distinctive interpretations of the subject.
- Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Melissa Petruzzello was the person who most recently improved and updated this article.
Romans are to blame for death of Jesus
- Among religious specialists and laypeople alike, the soon-to-be-released Mel Gibson film ″The Passion of the Christ″ is causing quite a commotion in the media.
- Many people believe the film contains anti-Semitic implications.
- Although the Jews are often believed to have been involved in Jesus’ death, according to Dr.
- Frank K.
- Flinn of Washington University in St.
- Louis’ department of religious studies, the Romans are truly to blame for the death of Jesus.
- As Flinn pointed out, ″had the Jewish authorities been directly engaged, Jesus would have been stoned, just as Stephen was in Acts 7,″ he stated.
- ″Crucifications could only be authorized by the Roman authorities, and they frequently did so on a brutal, mass scale.″ In the opinion of Flinn, an expert on Catholicism, Gibson’s film appears to merge all of the gospel stories about the Passion into one epic, a made-for-the-big-screen story that fails to show how opinions about the Jews’ role in the crucifixion have changed dramatically over time, as has been shown in other films about the Passion.
- The author points out that our oldest accounts of the crucifixion, such as the Gospel of Mark, which was written about 60-70 C.E., make it apparent that Pilate was the one who ordered Christ’s execution.
- The gospels written considerably later, like as those of Matthew and Luke, show a variety of interests and points of view, and each assigns increasing amounts of blame to Jews.
″Matthew, most likely as a result of inter-Jewish competition, places the ultimate responsibility fully on the shoulders of the Jewish leadership,″ Flinn explained.″In Luke, the ″whitewashing″ of the Romans comes close to being completed.When it came to Jewish persecution and murder throughout the Middle Ages, the label ″Christ-killers″ became a rhetorical club to legitimize the ghettoization, persecution, and slaughter of Jews.We are all aware of the conclusion to this harrowing chapter in history.″ Who was responsible for Jesus’ death?
A Guide to Taking in the Show Mel Gibson’s next film Written by Frank K.Flinn The Romans assassinated Jesus because he posed a political threat, just as they had assassinated several other prophets, brigands, and rebels during the first century.In his books The Jewish War and Jewish Antiquities, Josephus, the Jewish historian, records several incidents.
- As Stephen was stoned in Acts 7, if the Jewish authorities had been actively engaged, Jesus would have been stoned as well.
- Only the Roman authorities had the authority to order crucifixions, and they did it on a brutal and enormous scale on a regular basis.
- They have demonstrated their brutal authority via the revolt and crucifixion of Sparticus’ troops.
- The first Galilean disciples of Jesus regarded him as a prophet similar to Elijah, who wandered the Galilean hills healing the sick and reviving the dead, as did the prophet Elijah.
- Like all of the prophets before him, Jesus called for a renewal of the conditions of the covenant (Leviticus 19), a restoration of the land to its original tribal owners (the law of Jubilee), and he spoke out against the corrupt government in Jerusalem on several occasions.
- Sadducees and Pharisees were among the Jewish leaders who owed their positions to their patron-client relationship with the Roman rulers (notice the word ″some″).
- The procurator of Judea, who in turn nominated the High Priest, was appointed by the emperor.
In addition to the teachers and prophets in rural Galilee and the Dead Sea Scrolls community at Qumran, other Jewish groups and individuals either rejected or rebelled against the corrupt relationship between Jerusalem and Rome.Julius Caesar had previously excused Jews from participating in imperial worship by requiring them to pay a special fee to the Roman government.Along with the Temple tax, this tax was collected for Rome by the Temple officials, who distributed it to tax farmers.Poor farmers in Galilee were forced to mortgage their ancestral lands to the powers that be in Jerusalem as a result of their plight.
Due to the annual ordinance of Jubilee, it should have been possible for the rich in Jerusalem to restore this territory to the original tribes, but they failed to do so.Jesus, like the prophets of old, taught the gospel of the kingdom of God.According to Leviticus 19:4, ″render unto Caesar″ means ″return to Caesar″ his own coin with Caesar’s image on it (a blasphemy to the pious Jew!) and ″return to God″ what is God’s, which is the land itself, which God ultimately owns and which God gave directly to Israel in the covenant (Joshua 24:13)!″ The message of Jesus was both spiritually and politically dangerous, first to the Roman rulers and then, secondary, to their client appointees in Jerusalem, who were first threatened by it.The Gospel of Mark, the earliest Gospel we know, was written between 60 and 70 CE.He portrays Jesus’ killing as a sort of 50/50 collaboration between the compromised leaders and Pilate, although Mark 15:15 makes it plain that Pilate was the one who ordered his execution.Matthew and Luke were written considerably later, in the year 80-95, and show a wide range of interests and points of view.
- According to Matthew, Jesus is portrayed as a Super Teacher or Rabbi, following in the footsteps of Moses.
- Aside from his status as a Jewish disciple of Jesus (Antioch being the site of the first use of the term ″Christian″), Matthew also comments on the era following the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE, when tensions broke out between rabbinic Yavneh Jews and Jewish followers of Jesus.
- In around 90 CE, the remaining rabbis at the Council of Yavhneh attempted to bar ″Nazoreans″ (followers of the man from Nazareth) from participating in the synagogue’s services.
- It’s possible that the rabbis weren’t all that successful.
Recently discovered archaeological evidence suggests that later Jewish Christians continued to worship at the synagogue until the 7th century!(I constantly point out to my pupils that a Christian may attend any Jewish Sabbath service and participate fully in all of the prayers with complete religious commitment.) Matthew goes to great lengths to disassociate himself from the actions of the Roman authority.Jesus is interceded for by Pilate’s wife, which is not uncommon in Rome (many emperor’s wives interceded for Christians), and Pilate is seen washing his hands as a gesture of innocence.Perhaps as a result of intra-Jewish competition, the phrase ″His blood be upon us and our offspring″ is added to place the ultimate responsibility squarely on the shoulders of the Jewish leadership (Matthew 24:25).The ″whitewashing″ of the Romans is practically complete by the time Luke gets up.
- The Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts should be read together as a single piece of literature.
- The book of Luke/Acts is written for a Roman audience, most likely a noble readership, and is presented in escalating dyptychs.
- We can now use the name ″Christian,″ which appears for the first time in Acts 11:26, but the term was probably definitely coined as a derogatory slur in its original context.
- The events of Luke/Acts develop in the following order: from John the Baptist to Jesus, from Galilee to Jerusalem, from Peter to Paul, and from Jerusalem to Rome.
- Against the backdrop of Roman criticism, Luke is attempting to defend Christianity against the charge of ″superstition″ leveled against it.
- Luke goes beyond and beyond Matthew in establishing the innocence of the Romans.
The paragraphs about Jesus being crowned with thorns and being mocked have been omitted.After then, Pilate affirms Jesus’ innocence three times in front of the mob.″But Jesus hedelivered over to theirwill,″ says Luke, elaborating on Pilate’s guilt (Luke 23:26).Perhaps I should use the term ″Romanwash″ rather than ″whitewash.″ Pontius Pilate, according to some sources, was a very ruthless governor who would not tolerate any resistance.
In its present form (ca.100-110 CE), the Gospel of John stands on its own, according to most scholars, but one of the signs of its lateness (ca.100-110 CE) is that John does not place the blame for Jesus’ death solely on Pilate, or Pilate’s Jewish authorities, or even the Jewish authorities alone, but on ″Jews″ collectively (John 19:12).
The separation from Judaism is almost complete.The stage is laid for the later, tragic accusation that ″the Jews murdered Jesus,″ despite the fact that John does not state so explicitly.The ″Jews″ were characterized by Christian apologists as a ″stiff-necked people″ who refused to accept the light of redemption in the years that followed.
- It was not until after Constantine established a complete break with Judaism as such that the term ″Christ-killers″ was coined to describe these individuals.
- Even in this situation, there is an intriguing subtext to be discovered.
- Bishop John Chrysostom of Constantinople (ca.
- 398-407) was the first to accuse Jews of being ″Christ-killers,″ but he did so because his Christian congregants were continuing to attend the local synagogue, no doubt because the rabbis were more learned than many priests and were better biblical preachers than the priests themselves!
- By the Middle Ages, the label ″Christ-killers″ had evolved into a linguistic club used to legitimize the ghettoization, persecution, and death of Jews around the world, particularly in Europe.
- We are all aware of the conclusion to this harrowing chapter in history.
- My argument establishes a chronological order for determining who was responsible for Jesus’ killing, as well as the appropriate terminology for each stage: Romans Leaders of the Romans and Jews The High Priest, the Scribes, and the Elders/Romans Chief Priest, Scribes, Elders, and the general populace/Pilate (sort of) Jews are a group of people who live in a community that is surrounded by other Jews (in general) ″Stiff-necked People″ and ″Christ-killers…″ are just a few of the terms used to describe people who are difficult to deal with.
- According to what I’ve read about Mel Gibson’s movie in published accounts, it appears to be similar to many other films about Jesus in that it combines all of the gospel tales about the passion into a single narrative.
- As I’ve demonstrated above, the multiple gospels express quite different messages.
Second, according to Gibson himself, the film is brutal and horrific, and it places a strong emphasis on the role of Mary in a manner that none of the gospels do.This makes it seem eerily similar to the infamous traditional Catholic Oberammergau Passion Play in Germany, which was in its original form grossly stereotyped and anti-Semitic in its content.Most crucially, the inclination in virtually all Christian interpretations of Jesus’ death is to adopt as one’s frame of reference, not the first phrase in the sequence I listed above, but the last term in the series.But, to be fair, we’ll have to wait till the film is out before we can find out.
Why was Jesus crucified?
A historical perspective.
- Among the other articles in Slate, Patton Dodd examines violent Passion performances, and Michael Sean Winters provides a behind-the-scenes look at the preparations for Holy Week at a Catholic church.
- Traditional Christian creeds include the assertion that Jesus was crucified ″under Pontius Pilate,″ which is a basic statement in the faith.
- However, the vast majority of Christians have only the vaguest understanding of what the term means, and the vast majority of non-Christians are unlikely to comprehend why it is such an important component of Christian faith.
- The phrase ″Crucified under Pontius Pilate″ establishes the most evident connection between the Jesus tale and the rest of human history.
- Pilate was a historical character who served as the Roman procurator of Judea.
- He was recorded in various historical records of the period and was even named in an inscription discovered at the site of ancient Caesarea in Israel, which was dedicated to him.
- It is the argument that Jesus was a genuine person, rather than a mythical or legendary character, that is represented by linking Jesus’ execution with Pilate.
- Beyond that, the term expresses in a succinct manner some rather significant details about that particular historical event.
- For starters, the assertion says that Jesus was not just slain; rather, he was executed.
- A young guy died in agony and public disgrace, not in a quiet manner at the conclusion of an extended lifespan.
Furthermore, this was not a mob action.Not lynched, but executed, it is said, and this was done by the lawfully appointed administrative power of Roman Judea, not by the mob.There was some form of hearing, and the official in charge of civic order, Roman peace, and justice sentenced Jesus in the presence of the crowd.This indicates that Pilate discovered something so terrible that it warranted the imposition of the death sentence.However, there was a unique type of death punishment in this case.
The Romans had a variety of methods for carrying out a judicial death; some, such as beheading, were quicker and less severe than crucifixion, while others, such as beheading, were more painful and time-consuming.Death by crucifixion was only reserved for specific crimes and specific social levels in medieval times.Censorship was meant to be reserved for those who had earned their citizenship by genuine Roman citizenship, however they may still be executed by other ways.
- The crucifixion was widely viewed as not just the most horrifyingly agonizing but also the most dishonorable of all possible death.
- Primarily, it was reserved for those who were perceived to be raising their hands against Roman rule or those who in some other way appeared to be challenging the social order—for example, slaves who attacked their masters, and insurrectionists, such as the large number of Jews crucified by Roman Gen.
- Vespasian during the Jewish revolt of 66-72.
- As a result, the accusation that was affixed to Jesus’ cross in the Gospels, ″King of the Jews,″ reflects the most likely offense for which Jesus was crucified: ″King of the Jews.″ To put it another way, either Jesus personally declared himself to be the Jewish royal messiah, or his disciples made the same assertion.
- It would be a shame to be crucified by the Romans, wouldn’t it?
- Indeed, one criteria that might be used more rigorously in current academic arguments concerning the ″historical Jesus″ is what we can term the condition of ″crucifiability″: the condition of ″crucifiability″ is the ability to be crucified.
- You should create an image of Jesus that explains how he came to be crucified on the cross.
Urging people to be friendly to one another, arguing for more flexible interpretations of Jewish law, and even denouncing the Temple and its leadership are all offenses that are unlikely to have resulted in crucifixion, according to historical evidence.For example, the first-century Jewish writer Flavius Josephus talks of a man who prophesied against the Temple and was killed as a result of his predictions.Instead of sentencing him, the governor determined that he was harmless, despite the fact that he was slightly insane and irritating to the Temple priests.As a result, he was freed after being flogged.
The argument that Jesus was a royal messiah would also assist to explain why Jesus was crucified but his disciples were spared.This was not a plotting cell in the traditional sense.The problem was with Jesus himself.Furthermore, Pilate received a great deal of criticism for being a little too aggressive in his approach to Jews and Samaritans who were just protesting his policies in a loud and organized manner.Pilate most likely determined that publicly murdering Jesus would snuff out the messianic zeal of his followers while not accumulating an excessive number of Jewish bodies in the process.Of course, the Gospels also link Jewish religious authorities—specifically, the priestly leaders who operated the Jerusalem Temple under a Roman government-issued franchise—in the events that occurred.
- In Jesus and Judaism, E.P.
- Sanders concludes that the Temple officials were most likely engaged in Jesus’ coming to the notice of Pilate, which is supported by many other academics.
- After all, the high priest and his entourage were able to maintain their positions by proving their continued commitment to the Roman Empire.
- If they came to the conclusion that Jesus posed a threat to Roman authority, they were obligated to repudiate him publicly.
For the same reason, it is not so difficult to accept the Gospels’ claim that the Temple authorities were at least partly motivated by resentment over Jesus’ criticism of their administration of the Temple, as may be seen in the account of Jesus reversing the tables of the money-changers who were permitted to operate in the premises by the high priest.However, Jesus was not crucified by Jewish officials.The phrase ″Crucified under Pontius Pilate″ refers to the Roman authority, which bears responsibility for the execution.It’s very obvious what St.Paul was getting at when he said that ″the preaching of the cross is folly″ to the majority of people in his day.
- As Martin Hengel demonstrated in his book Crucifixion in the Ancient World and the Folly of the Message of the Cross, authors of the Roman era considered crucifixion to be the harshest penalty imaginable, a sentence of awful humiliation.
- Celsus, a Roman adversary of Christianity, scoffed at Christians for treating someone who had been crucified as if he were a divine being.
- It is well-known among historians who study the historical period for its anti-Christian graffito, which displays a crudely drawn crucified man with a donkey’s head underneath a human figure, with the words ″Alexamenos worships his god″ scrawled beneath the image in scornful cursive.
- Overall, announcing a crucified savior in a context where the practice of crucifixion was an everyday occurrence had little benefit.
- The crucifixion of Jesus was avoided by some early Christians, while others favored one or more alternative scenarios.
- Apocryphal Christian texts provide many versions of the story, one of which has the soldiers mistaking a bystander for Jesus and crucifying him instead, with Jesus appearing to chuckle at their mistake.
This notion is believed to have been echoed subsequently in the Muslim story that a member of the crowd was wrongly crucified while Jesus fled.A large number of faithful Muslims think that Jesus was a legitimate prophet, and it is thus unfathomable that God would have permitted him to suffer the kind of death that he did.There’s no doubt that at least some early Christians felt the same way as we do.In truth, the crucifixion of Jesus presented a slew of issues that may have caused difficulties for early Christians.
It implied that the state execution that lay at the foundation and core of their religion had occurred, and that their cherished messiah had been tried and pronounced guilty by a representative of Roman imperial power at the time of his death.Many people were probably left wondering whether the Christians weren’t part of some sort of serious subversive organization as a result of this.The group was, at the very least, not the type of organization that would easily appeal to individuals who were concerned about their social status.
A confrontation between the person of Jesus and Roman political power resulted in his death, which was a clear liability for early Christian efforts to spread their beliefs throughout the world.Despite this, they managed to pull it off somehow.Years of Christian tradition have made the picture of Jesus being crucified so ubiquitous that the offensiveness of the act that it depicts has almost totally faded away from public consciousness.
The Trial & Crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth
- The tale of Jesus Christ’s trial, crucifixion, and death serves as the foundation for all of Christianity’s fundamental principles.
- The events take place between the time when Jesus of Nazareth and his followers arrived in Jerusalem for the celebration of Passover and the morning of Sunday, when his followers announced that he had been risen from the dead, a period of forty days.
- This account is referred to as ″The Passion Narrative″ in Christian theology and liturgy, which comes from one meaning of the Latin term pasio, which means ″to suffer.″ From Palm Sunday until Easter Sunday, the tale takes place during the course of Holy Week.
- In an exact reenactment of the events, hundreds of Christian pilgrims walk along a roadway in Jerusalem known as the Via Dolorosa, which translates as ″the way of suffering,″ every year during this week.
- Each location associated with a specific event in Catholic tradition is referred to as a Station of the Cross.
- From the location where Jesus was convicted by Pilate to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, this path takes you through the most sacred of places (the site claimed to house the tomb of Jesus by Catholics and several Eastern Orthodox communities).
- Art during the Renaissance (and beyond) was dominated by depictions of episodes from the Passion of the Christ.
The Gospel Accounts
- Everything that happened during Jesus’ last days is recorded in the four canonical gospels of the New Testament: Mark, Matthew, and Luke, as well as in the gospel of John.
- Everything that happened during Jesus’ final days may be found in the four canonical gospels of the New Testament: Mark, Matthew, and Luke, as well as the gospel of John.
- The tale is told in three parts, beginning with Mark (the earliest documented gospel, written around 70 CE), and then again in Matthew and Luke.
- The gospel of John has a distinct framework than the other gospels, although it retains the same core tale.
- There are changes in the specifics of Mark’s tale as well as additions to it, despite the fact that most of the gospels agree on many points.
- The gospels detailed Jesus’ ministry (which took place mostly in the region of Galilee), during which he preached that ″the kingdom of God″ was at hand (the final intervention of God in ″the final days,″ as found in the books of the Prophets).
- While preaching, Jesus performed miracles and exorcisms to demonstrate his power (″driving out demons″).
- Following that, the gospels report that Jesus and his followers traveled to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover celebration with the Jews.
The Chronology of “The Passion”
Palm Sunday is a day dedicated to remembering those who have died in the name of Christ.Passover was a yearly commemoration of the Jews’ escape from slavery in Egypt, which took place in the spring of each year.Every year, tens of thousands of Jewish pilgrims descend on the city for this celebration.On the eastern side of the Mount of Olives, near the hamlet of Bethany, Jesus and his followers were staying with friends who had invited them to their home.Jesus instructs his followers on where to locate a donkey, and he then proceeds to enter Jerusalem on the back of the animal.
The crowd erupts in applause and jubilation as they make their way to the stage.This day gets its name from the practice of breaking off palm branches and waving them about.The throng hails Jesus as ″the son of David″ and ″king of the Jews,″ and they clap their hands in greeting.
This alludes to the legend that God will ″raise up″ someone from King David’s line to govern, which is represented by the phrase ″son of David.″ In the book of Samuel, David is referred to as ″anointed,″ and the Hebrew word for ″anointed″ is ″messiah.″ Do you enjoy history?Subscribe to our free weekly email newsletter!In the common cultural heritage of the method in which monarchs (and now the Roman emperor) entered a city, the arrival of Jesus into the city is always referred to be a ″triumph.″ Additionally, the gospels identify to this as a ″fulfillment of prophecy″ in relation to Zechariah 9:9, which states: ″Behold, your king comes to you, lowly and riding on a donkey.″ According to legend, the messiah will emerge from the east, from the Mount of Olives.We are unable to confirm whether or not this occurred on a Sunday.
Those who had undergone ″corpse contamination″ the previous year were not permitted to take part in the Passover celebrations, according to Jewish tradition.The Temple needed to be ″sprinkled″ with holy water every few days leading up to the celebration, so everyone showed there roughly a week earlier than usual to comply.The Incident at the Temple According to popular belief, the incident at the Temple results in Jesus’ death sentence being passed directly onto him.Immediately upon entering Jerusalem, according to the first three gospels, he went to the Temple complex and overturned the tables of the money-changers and animal sellers, declaring: ″My house shall be a house of prayer (for all nations, according to Mark), but you have turned it into a den of thieves.″ This scene was earlier in the tale, according to John.According to the popular perspective, which was initially provided by Mark, this episode immediately leads to Jesus’ death sentence being handed down by the Romans.″Destroy this Temple, and in three days I will restore it back to its former glory.″ (See also John 2:19) Oddly, the gospels say that Jesus returned to the Temple in the following few days and taught there, despite the fact that the Temple was closed.
This is essentially a narrative device that is necessary for the plot; the writers are filling in the gaps of time until the first night of Passover is observed by everybody.Thursday, the day before Easter The first night of Passover is commemorated in the first three gospels by Jesus and his disciples, who gather for a traditional supper known as the Seder (″order of things″).The supper on Wednesday night is changed by John to a regular meal.The Jewish day was reckoned from sunset to sundown, according to the Jewish calendar.
Thousands of lambs were slain in the Temple the day before the Seder to be used in the traditional dinner that followed.In his gospel, John connects these sacrifices to the death of Jesus, referring to him as ″the lamb that was slaughtered.″ An further tale is told by John in which Jesus washes the feet of his followers (as a symbol of true service).On Holy Thursday, this practice is re-enacted in churches, frequently by members of the clergy, as a symbol of humility.The Last Supper (also known as the Last Supper of Jesus Christ) Restoration of this meal has become an important part of Christian devotional practice (and one of the sacraments in Catholicism and Orthodox communities).
- During the meal, Jesus recites the customary words, ″This is my body, this is my blood…
- do this in remembrance of me,″ which are repeated several times.
- We know that this was a ritualistic formula and re-enactment because Paul recites the formula verbatim in 1 Corinthians, indicating that it was a ritualistic formula and re-enactment.
- As a result, the Last Supper is referred to as the Eucharist (which is Greek for ″thanksgiving″) and, subsequently, communion.
One of the disciples will betray Jesus, and it is over this supper that Jesus informs his disciples of this fact.Judas Iscariot infiltrates the Jewish leadership and informs them where they might locate Jesus that night in order to capture him.Selling Jesus for ″thirty pieces of silver″ is an allusion to Psalm 41:9, which speaks of selling one’s soul for money.In the Garden, There Is Anguish After supper, Jesus and the disciples travel to the foot of the Mount of Olives, known as Gethsemane.Here, they pray for forty days and forty nights.
- In this case, it’s not a garden, but an olive mill.
- While Jesus was praying, he urged his followers to remain awake and keep watch with him (although he has to wake them three times).
- His petition to God is said to as a ″agony,″ since he anticipates what is to come and wants God to assist him in avoiding it.
- God does not respond to our prayers, but Jesus accepts his lot in life.
- The Retainment The gospels differ in their descriptions of who captures Jesus: the Temple guards, the Jewish authorities, the Roman allies (according to John), or possibly just a crowd of people.
Judas betrays Jesus by kissing him on the lips.In later Christian tradition, Judas is sentenced to spend eternally in the heart of Hell with Satan; see Dante’s Inferno for more information on this.In response, the disciples use a sword to chop off the ear of a slave, but Jesus heals the wound and orders them to put their swords aside.
- Now in a state of terror, the disciples scatter and desert Jesus, therefore completing what he had said they would do.
- In terms of where they take Jesus, there are some differences: either to the Council, the Sanhedrin or ruling body (Mark), or to the residence of the high priest (John).
- Peter is still standing outdoors.
- After being suspected of becoming a disciple, he denies knowing Jesus three times, just as the prophecy said.
- What about the Jewish Trial(s)?
- In the gospels, there is still another instance of variance and confusion: one trial at night, two trials at night, one trial at night, one trial in the morning, two trials in the morning?
Because Jesus was theoretically a member of Herod Antipas’ tetrarchy, Luke included a second trial in front of Herod Antipas (who was in town for Passover).A connection exists between the Jewish trial and the supposed statements of Jesus, who said, ″demolish this Temple, and in three days I will build it up.″ Mark asserts that the trial was unconstitutional since the witnesses could not come to a consensus.Jesus finally replies to the high priest’s question: ″Are you the blessed one, the messiah?″ This is the culmination of his hesitant behavior up until this point.Jesus acknowledges that he is, and that he is also ″the son of man,″ who will return in splendor after God’s kingdom is established, to judge all of mankind, according to the Bible.The high priest judges this to be blasphemy and sentences him to death, accompanied by displays of grief.
- Pontius Pilate’s Trial: What Happened Pilate is shown as being apprehensive about putting Jesus to death in all four gospels.
- Jesus is brought before Pontius Pilate, the Roman procurator for Judea, on the grounds that the Jewish Council was not authorized to apply the death penalty under Roman province law.
- According to Luke’s narrative, Jesus is accused of teaching the Jews that they do not have to pay taxes to Rome (which, according to Luke’s tale, is demonstrably incorrect).
- Throughout John’s narrative, Jesus is condemned because of the increasing number of people who have seen his raising of Lazarus – the high priest in John argues that the Jews should get rid of Jesus before Rome can intervene – and that only one man should suffer for the sake of a country.
- Pilate is shown as being apprehensive about putting Jesus to death in all four gospels.
He makes an attempt to avoid making a decision by offering to release another prisoner, Barabbas, and by deferring to the (now anti-Jesus) mob by allowing them to make the final decision.As the mob cries out, ″Give us Barabbas,″ Jesus is nailed to the cross and sentenced to death for rebellion against Rome.Matthew (27:24) said that Pilate literally “washed his hand” of the affair.Good Friday Friday morning Jesus is scourged in the Antonia Fortress where soldiers mock him by giving him a crown of thorns.
- They place a cross-beam on him (not the entire cross) to carry to the execution grounds located outside the city walls (the hill of Calgary) (the hill of Calgary).
- In keeping with Roman law, the gospels report that a public plaque starting the charge was attached, ″Jesus of Nazareth, king of the Jews.″ This was the charge of treason against Rome which always resulted in the punishment of crucifixion.
- The Suffering & Death of Jesus Especially in Mark, Jesus suffers incredible tortures.
- Mark incorporates Psalms of lament and references to the “suffering servant” passages in Isaiah (symbolizing disasters that occurred to the nation) (symbolizing disasters that occurred to the nation).
- Mark’s Jesus cried out in agony, ″My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?″ (15:34) Luke is the only gospel that claims that Jesus forgave his tormentors from the cross.
- On the other hand, John’s Jesus (a pre-existent man from heaven), does not suffer.
- In John (19:30), the last words are: ″It is accomplished″ (referring to what he came to earth to do) (referring to what he came to earth to do).
- Mark, Matthew, and Luke claim that the only witnesses to the crucifixion were the women followers of Jesus who watched from afar.
John has ″the beloved disciple″ and Mary, the mother of Jesus at the foot of the cross.″The beloved disciple″ by tradition is allegedly John, the brother of James.Jesus died in a few hours.At his death, the gospels report that a Roman centurion declared: ″Truly this was god’s son.″ (Matthew 27:54) It is only in John’s gospel that a soldier, wanting to make sure that Jesus was dead, pierced his side with a spear.
- As sunset was near and Sabbath about to begin, Jesus’s body was claimed by Joseph of Arimethea and laid in his family tomb, although the funeral rituals were not yet completed.
- Easter Saturday It is only in later Christian tradition that speculation on what Jesus was doing (and where he was) in the interim between Friday night and Sunday morning began.
- Scholars debate the date of an early manuscript known as The Gospel of Peter, which sets up some of the details that will later become incorporated into what is known as the Harrowing of Hell.
- (″Harrowing″ is an Anglo-Saxon term for a ″raid.″) Easter Saturday is now part of the liturgy for Holy Week, claiming that this is when Jesus descended into Hell (a line from the Nicene Creed) on Saturday.
- While there, he fought with Satan for the souls of the righteous dead (famous pagans, the patriarchs of the Bible, etc.) and released their souls when he emerged from the tomb.
Easter Sunday On Sunday morning, the women followers of Jesus go to the tomb to finish the funeral rituals.They find the stone sealing the tomb rolled back and find it empty.In Mark, an angel tells them to tell the disciples to meet him in the Galilee (but the women told no one because they were terrified according to the original ending of Mark) (but the women told no one because they were terrified according to the original ending of Mark).Matthew has the risen Jesus commanding the disciples to preach in his name.Luke and John