Answering The Question – Was Jesus Born Again?
Several individuals have asked me in the last year or two whether or not Jesus was reborn after His death on the cross, and I have answered them all affirmatively.Following Jesus’ death and resurrection, a number of renowned preachers made the claim that He was the ″first born-again man.″ This prompted them to inquire into Jesus’ claim.It was the following verse from Colossians that these preachers used as a jumping off point to arrive to this type of conclusion: ″And He is the head of the body, the church, who is the beginning, the first-born from the dead, that in all things He may have the preeminence.″ (See Colossians 1:18 for further information.) For the record, we do not believe that Jesus was resurrected from the dead following His death and resurrection.We feel that this is an erroneous way of teaching.However, after reading the poem above, it is easy to understand how someone may get to this conclusion without thinking.
- According to my understanding, the following biblical reasons clearly disprove this incorrect assertion.
1. This Verse Should Be Interpreted Literally
First and foremost, pay special attention to the language used in the preceding lyric.This passage declares that Jesus is the ″first-born from the dead,″ according to the Bible.We feel that this passage should be taken to its most literal interpretation.If God intended for Jesus to be born ″again,″ as all humans must do in order to enter paradise, he would have made certain to include the word ″again″ following the word ″born.″ But take note of the fact that He did not.It is highly significant that the word ″again″ follows the word ″born,″ and there is no way that God would overlook this if His Son Jesus genuinely had to be born again in order to be let back into heaven following His death on the cross.
- However, I can see how some individuals could be tempted to leap to this conclusion without thinking.
- When you first encounter the words ″first-born,″ it is quite tempting to want to put the word ″again″ after the word ″born,″ since we all know about the scripture in the Gospel of John that refers to being ″born again.″ The scripture from John that tells us that we must all be born again in order to be able to enter into heaven once we die and cross over is presented here once more.
- I say to you, unless one is BORN AGAIN, he will not see the kingdom of God…
- until one is born of water and the Spirit, he will not enter the kingdom of God.″ ″…
- I say to you, unless one is BORN AGAIN, he will not see the kingdom of God…″ (See also John 3:3, 5) It is important to note that this scripture is speaking to the human race rather than Jesus himself.
And once again, if Jesus had to be reborn in the same way that we all must, I believe He would have said as much explicitly as possible when He was making this declaration to Nicodemus.For everyone of us, a straightforward, severe, and literal interpretation of this verse from Colossians will provide the solution to this issue.
2. The Doctrine of the Incarnation
The Doctrine of the Incarnation, which is found in our Bible, is the second item that will provide us with an answer to this issue.That when Jesus came down to our world in the flesh, He did so as both entirely God and totally Man, according to this theology, is what we should believe.What this implies is that when Jesus came down to us and totally incarnated Himself into a human flesh body, He did not lose even a speck of His divine character.He was still Jesus.The entire time He was in the flesh, He was still fully God in all of His attributes.
- As a result, if Jesus was still fully God at the time of His descent among us, He would never have needed to be born again, because His fundamental essence and personality are already perfectly divine and do not require any further birthing.
- Even though Jesus became entirely human when He came to earth to suffer on the cross for our sins, His divine essence and personality were not in any way diminished as a result of His human nature and personality.
- When Jesus came down to our planet to die on the cross for our sins, He remained true to who He was and who He had always been in every aspect.
3. The Doctrine of the Trinity
The Doctrine of the Trinity is the third item that will provide us with an answer to this question.According to this concept, we are dealing with one God who exists in three Persons: God the Father, who is the first Person of the Divine Trinity, Jesus Christ, who is the second Person, and the Holy Spirit, who is the third Person of the Divine Trinity.It follows logically that, since God the Father and God the Holy Spirit will never need to be born again in any manner, then it follows that Jesus Christ, as the second Person of the Divine Trinity, will also never need to be born again in any way.The fact that Jesus came down to our planet in the flesh as a completely human being does not in any way decrease or take away from His divine essence, nor does it diminish or take away from His position as the second Person of the Divine Trinity.As far as logic goes, Jesus being reborn by the Holy Spirit makes no sense at all, given that He was still completely God when He came down to our planet in the flesh, and that He had never lost His original position in the Divine Trinity.
- If Jesus had to be reborn in order to be able to return to heaven after His death on the cross, this would have immediately removed Him from His position as the second person of the Divine Trinity, because He would no longer have been perfectly divine in His own nature and personality, as He was before His death on the cross.
- Overall, only flawed and sinful human people require the gift of new life by the Holy Spirit, not the perfect and sinless Second Person of the Divine Trinity, Jesus Christ, who was born sinless on the cross.
4. Regeneration by the Holy Spirit
- Upon accepting Jesus Christ as their personal Lord and Savior, a person is instantaneously reborn into life. Following their rebirth, the Holy Spirit will restore their human souls, allowing them to live anew in Christ. The next passage will demonstrate to you that the Holy Spirit will do a significant restorative sort of activity in the life of every born-again believer: When the kindness and love of God our Savior toward man appeared, it was not through our works of righteousness that we were saved, but through the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit, whom He poured out on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Savior, that we might be declared righteous in His sight and inherit eternal life. (See Titus 3:4–7). According to many Bible dictionaries and commentaries, the term ″regeneration″ refers to the process of becoming renewed. The state of being spiritually reborn
- the state of being spiritually reborn causing a new beginning
- A spiritual rebirth in which one is renewed, reformed, or rebuilt
- a spiritual rebirth in which one is rejuvenated or restored after a descent to a poor condition
- The beginning of a new life, the beginning of a fresh birth
- The rebirth of one’s moral and spiritual nature
- In the resurrection of the human spirit, a renewed relationship with God is established.
- By placing trust in God, one is given fresh life and salvation.
- An act of God by the Holy Spirit that results in an inner, personal resurrection from sin to new life in Jesus Christ
- A drastic spiritual transformation in which God transforms an individual from a state of spiritual defeat and death to a state of holiness and life in Jesus Christ
What happens when the Holy Spirit regenerates someone can only be explained in terms of sinful human beings if you examine the process in great detail.Since Jesus Christ has always been absolutely divine in the Holy Trinity, there is no way that He will ever require any form of regeneration action from the Holy Spirit.We do not require any sort of rebirth, change, or renewal for Jesus because He has always been absolutely divine and always the second Person of the Divine Trinity, as the definitions above suggest.If He did, He would be kicked out of the Divine Trinity because He would no longer be totally divine, which would result in His expulsion from the Trinity.All of the definitions of regeneration that have been provided thus far are limited to sinful human beings.
- We are the ones who need to be spiritually reborn, changed, and restored to right relationship with God the Father – not the flawless and sinless Son of God, who has always been perfect and restored to right relationship with God the Father throughout all of time.
5. The Definition of the Word – “First-Born”
- Another element that will help us to answer this issue is the definition of the phrase ″first-born″ in the preceding text from Colossians, which we will look at next. According to several Bible dictionaries and commentaries, the term ″first-born″ might signify any of the following things: When referring to a family’s oldest son or daughter, the Bible uses the term ″eldest″ to characterize them.
- Christ is the first-born of the Father because He has a superior position in relation to others
- He is also the ″first-born from the dead″ because He is the first to rise bodily from the grave and not die again
- He is the ″first-born from the dead″ because He is the first to rise bodily from the grave and not die again
- He is the ″first-born from the dead″ because He is the first to rise bodily from the grave and not die again
- He is the ″first-born
- Because he was the first to emerge from the dead, it emphasizes Christ’s superiority over all other beings. Christ, as the firstborn, is the supreme ruler over all things and the head of the church.
Remember the last two meanings – the phrase ″Jesus, being the first born among the dead″ refers to Him being the first person who has ever physically risen from the dead, thereby avoiding the necessity of dying a second time.Given that Jesus was the first person to bodily revive from the dead, this therefore grants Him complete preeminence over everything because He was the first to accomplish this feat.Also, keep in mind that Jesus’ being the first-born from the dead has absolutely nothing to do with His divine essence and personality, nor does it have anything to do with Him needing to be altered or transformed in any manner, as we all must be through the power of the Holy Spirit.When Jesus rose from the dead, this statement was merely alluding to the fact that He was the first person to do so physically.It has absolutely nothing to do with Him being reborn via the power of the Holy Spirit.
- Once again, this verse from Colossians must be taken literally in order to be understood properly.
- It means precisely what it says – nothing more, nothing less – and nothing in between.
- The moment you insert the word ″again″ after the phrase ″born,″ you are introducing something into Scripture that was never intended to be there in the first place.
- And once you do that, you will have entirely altered the insight that God is attempting to offer us via this passage of Scripture.
- In this passage, God expresses exactly what He intends to convey, which is a rare occurrence.
- If you go back to the verse from Colossians above, take note of how it concludes.
Finally, the verse finishes with the words, ″that in all things He may have the preeminence.″ These words inform us exactly what this passage is talking about, and they are quite clear.This scripture is informing us that, as a result of Jesus becoming the first person to physically resurrect from the tomb, He now has complete authority over all of creation.He has risen to the position of Lord of Lords and King of Kings.
The word ″preeminence″ is the most important word in this statement.To be preeminent over all others is what this term denotes.
Again, I understand that it is very tempting to want to insert the word ″again″ after the word ″born″ in the preceding scripture since we all have the verse about being born again etched into our brains.However, it is at this point that you should take a moment to consider the exact words that God is using in a text.God will sometimes speak to us in His Word in such a literal way that we will miss what He is trying to communicate to us at the moment.And there is a passage where something like this will happen to some of us from time to time.The bottom line is that because Jesus Christ is the perfect Son of God and the second Person of the Divine Trinity, there is no need for him to ever have to go through any form of born-again experience with the Holy Spirit, as some believe.
- The perfect, divine personality of Jesus Christ does not require any type of renewal, rebirth, or transformation through the Holy Spirit, as our personalities do, because Jesus Christ is already perfectly divine in His own nature and personality – and He has always been perfectly one with God the Father and the Holy Spirit in the Divine Trinity – Only flawed and sinful human people require rebirth by the Holy Spirit, not the one and only begotten Son of God, Jesus Christ, who has already atoned for our sins.
The Bible’s answer
- According to these reference books, the Bible does not provide a definite date for the birth of Jesus Christ, indicating that ″the real birth date of Christ is uncertain.″ —From the New Catholic Encyclopedia. According to the Bible, ″the exact day of Christ’s birth remains unknown.″ Early Christian Encyclopedia
- Encyclopedia of Early Christianity
While the Bible does not explicitly answer the question, ″When was Jesus born?″ it does relate two incidents that occurred around his birth that have led many to believe that he was not born on December 25, as is commonly believed.
Not in winter
- The registration process. Caesar Augustus issued an edict shortly before Jesus’ birth, mandating ″the registration of all the inhabited world.″ This occurred shortly before the birth of Jesus. To register, everyone had to go to ″his own city,″ which may take a week or more if they were not already there. (See Luke 2:1-3 for more information.) That decree, which was most likely issued to support taxes and military conscription, would have been unpleasant at any time of year, but it seems doubtful that Augustus would have irritated his countrymen any more by requiring many of them to travel vast distances during the frigid winter months. The sheep, of course. Shepherds ″were forced to live outside and maintain watch over their flocks at all hours of the day and night.″ (See Luke 2:8 for further information.) According to the book Daily Life in the Time of Jesus, flocks were forced to dwell in the open air from ″the week before the Passover″ to the middle of October. This is followed by the statement, ″They spent the winter under cover
- therefore from this alone it may be concluded that the conventional date for Christmas, which occurs in the winter, is unlikely to be correct, since the Gospel states that the shepherds were in the fields.″
In early fall
We can determine the date of Jesus’ birth by counting backward from his death on Nisan 14, which occurred in the spring of the year 33 C.E., which occurred on Passover (John 19:14-16) According to Luke 3:23, Jesus was around 30 years old when he began his three-and-a-half-year ministry, which means he was born in the early fall of 2 B.C.E.
Why is Christmas on December 25?
Why is Christmas celebrated on December 25 since there is no proof that Jesus Christ was born on that day?What is the significance of this day in the Christian calendar?According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, church officials most likely picked the date ″to correspond with the pagan Roman celebration celebrating the ‘birthday of the unconquered sun,’″ which occurred around the time of the winter solstice.Numerous experts, according to The Encyclopedia Americana, feel that this was done ″in order to make Christianity more significant to pagans who had become Christians.″
The nature of God and Jesus in Christianity
- Christians believe in the Trinity – one God who is all-loving and all-powerful, manifested in three persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit – as the source of all truth and goodness. All were there at the beginning of time, and they each play a unique function in the development of the world.
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- As a Christian, you believe in the resurrection because you believe Jesus rose from the dead three days after he was killed on the cross. Several passages in the Gospel of Luke (24:1–9) provide insight into how Jesus’ followers learned that he had been resurrected: On the Sunday after Jesus’ death, Jesus’ female disciples went to see his tomb
- \sA stone had been blocking the tomb’s entrance. However, the stone had been pushed away and the tomb was empty
- \sTwo men appeared before the women in dazzling garments. The ladies were terrified, but the men questioned them, saying, ″Why are you looking for the live among the dead?″ He is not present
- he has ascended into the heavens! Remember how he told you, when he was still with you in Galilee: ‘The Son of Man must be thrown up to the hands of sinners, be crucified and on the third day be risen again’ (Luke 24:5–7)
- The female followers then returned to notify Jesus’ apostles and other people that Jesus had risen from the grave
- Many Christians place a high value on their belief in the resurrection because: the resurrection demonstrates that Jesus beat death
- the resurrection demonstrates that Jesus defeated sin and death
- and the resurrection demonstrates that Jesus defeated sin and death.
- It is seen as evidence of the continuation of life after death.
- Aside from that, the resurrection serves as evidence of God’s supreme power and generosity.
St.Paul emphasizes the importance of believing in Jesus’ resurrection from the dead in the biblical book 1 Corinthians, which is written by the apostle Paul.He adds that he personally saw Jesus after his resurrection, and that Jesus appeared to the apostles as well as over 500 other people during that time period.The apostle Paul then informs the audience that Jesus’ resurrection offers the possibility of life beyond death: If it is proclaimed that Christ has been risen from the dead, how can some of you claim that there is no such thing as a resurrected body?Even if there is no resurrection of the dead, it is unlikely that Christ has been risen from the grave.
- And if Christ has not been risen from the dead, our message, as well as your faith, is pointless.
- 15:12–14; 1 Corinthians 15:12–14 Jesus was reborn after he died on the cross, according to the question.
- Is this true or false?
- He was raised from the dead.
- Reincarnation is the process by which something is reincarnated and begins its existence all over again, usually in a new form.
As far as we know, Jesus has returned to life in the same physical shape and at the same stage in his life as he was when he died.
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When Was Jesus Born, and When Did He Die?
While Christians commemorate Christmas and Easter on an annual basis, few are aware of the dates on which Jesus was born and when he was crucified.Not that any significant theology is founded on the calculations presented here, but it is comforting to know that we may have fair confidence in the dates of Jesus’ birth and death, which can be determined from a mix of biblical and extrabiblical historical facts, as demonstrated below.I may not be prepared to put my life on the line for the accuracy of the information provided below, but I am confident enough in my calculations to have my van’s license plate displayed as follows: 5BC–AD33.So here’s what you need to know: Jesus’ birth most likely occurred in late November of the year 5 B.C.(the most authoritative treatment of this topic that I am aware of is Paul L.
- Maier’s ″The Date of the Nativity and the Chronology of Jesus’ Life,″ in Chronos, karios, Christos: Nativity and Chronological Studies Presented to Jack Finegan, 113–30; see also Paul L.
- Maier, ″The Date of the Nativity and the Chronology of Jesus’ Life,″ in As a side note, this would give Herod (who died in 4 B.C.) ample time to prepare his campaign to have all the boys two years old and younger in Bethlehem and the surrounding area slaughtered, as well as for Jesus to be born (see Matt 2:16, 19).
- The crucifixion of Jesus most likely took place on Friday, April 3, A.D.
- According to Luke 3:1–3, John the Baptist, Jesus’ forerunner, began his ministry ″in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar’s rule,″ which means ″in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar’s reign.″ Tacitus (Annales 4:4) and Suetonius (Tiberius 73:1) both place the beginning of Tiberius’ rule at A.D.
- 14 (the actual date is August 19, the day of Emperor Augustus’ death) and state that Tiberius was the first Roman emperor.
As a result, dating from August 19, A.D.14, the 15th year of Tiberius’ rule gets us to the year A.D.29 (14 plus 15 = 29).
According to the Gospels
The Bible states that Jesus was ″around 30 years old″ when he began his public ministry in Luke 3:23.If Jesus was born in 5 B.C.(as argued above) and began his public ministry shortly after the death of John the Baptist (that is, in the latter part of the year A.D.29), as indicated by all four Gospels, this would mean that Jesus was approximately 33 years old when he began his public ministry (see H.W.
- Hoehner, Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ, 31–37; and B.
- Messner, ″’In the Fifteenth According to John’s Gospel, Jesus appeared during at least three Passovers: (1) in Jerusalem (2:13, 23); (2) in Galilee (6:4); and (3) once again in Jerusalem (2:13, 23).
- (11:55; 12:1).
- There’s also a good chance he went to a fourth Passover that wasn’t documented in John but was recorded in the Synoptics (Matt 12:1 pars.?
- This comes up to a total of around 3 12 years for Jesus’ public ministry.
- If Jesus began his preaching in late A.D.
29, the crucifixion would take place in A.D.33, according to the calendar.It just so happens that, due to astronomical calculations, the years A.D.
30 and 33 are the only possible dates for Jesus’ crucifixion in terms of the date of Passover in these two years (for more information on the dating of the four Passovers in question, see, for example, C.J.Humphreys and W.G.
- Waddington, ″The Jewish Calendar, a Lunar Eclipse, and the Date of Christ’s Crucifixion,″ Tyndale Bulletin The temple was built 46 years ago according to John 2:20 (see A.
- Köstenberger, John, 109–10 for a translation of this verse).
- In accordance with Josephus’s account, the renovation of the temple building proper began in 20/19 B.C.
(Antiquities 15.11.1 380) and was completed eighteen months later in 18/17 B.C.(Antiquities 15.11.6 421).Again, calculating backwards from 18/17 B.C.and adding 46 years leads us to A.D.29 (there was no year zero)—a fantastic method to double-check our calculations from before.
- Consider the chart in A.
- Köstenberger, John (BECNT; Grand Rapids: Baker, 2004), 11–13, as well as the comments at 1:19 and 2:20 in that book, as well as the prior article on Johannine chronology here.
- For more information, see H.
Hoehner, ″Chronology,″ in Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (eds J.B.Green and S.
McKnight; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1992), pp.118–22 (also available in print).Also,
When Was Jesus Born?
Was it really on December 25th?
Dr.David R.Reagan contributed to this article.According to Luke 1:24-26, Mary was six months pregnant with Jesus when she became pregnant with John the Baptist through Elizabeth.The angel Gabriel appeared to Elizabeth’s husband, Zacharias, 15 months before Jesus was born, informing him that his wife was expecting a child.
- Following Luke 1:5, Zacharias was a priest of the Abijah division, according to the Scriptures.
- According to Luke 1:8, Gabriel came to Zacharias as he was performing his priestly duties in the Temple.
- Our knowledge of Abijah’s division as priests is based on the Talmud and other sources, which indicates that they served as priests during the second part of the fourth month of the Jewish holy calendar, which would have put them in late June (the Jewish religious calendar begins in March with Passover).
- The birth of Jesus would take place in the seventh month of the Jewish calendar, fifteen months after the event.
- During the fall of the year, in either late September or early October, this would be the case.
- His conception, not His birth, would have taken place in December of the previous year, according to the calendar.
Traditionally, the Feast of Tabernacles is celebrated in the seventh month of the Jewish calendar.When referring of Jesus as the Word, the Bible states in John 1:14: ″And the Word became man and dwelled among us, full of grace and truth.″ The term ″dwelt″ is derived from the Greek word ″skenoo,″ which literally translates as ″to tabernacle″ or ″to dwell.″ Consequently, it appears that when God visited the world and set up a tabernacle among men, He chose the Feast of Tabernacles to correspond with His appearance in the Bethlehem stable.That was only fitting, because the Feast of Tabernacles is the most happy of all the Jewish feasts, and it was only fitting.
It is, in reality, a feast of thankfulness observed by them.The full significance of that feast will not be realized until the Lord returns to earth to sojourn among men for a thousand years, during which time He will reign over the entire world from Mt.Zion in Jerusalem.Isn’t the Word of God a wonderful thing?
It’s About Time:
When was Jesus Born?
Dr.James Ya’akov Hugg contributed to this article.Note from the editor: James W.Hugg, PhD, has been a follower of the Messiah since 1971, and he has served on the Lamb and Lion Board of Trustees from its inception in 1982.James has taken an active role in leading worship and teaching Bible lessons to both youth and adults.
- Since 1989, he has been actively involved in Messianic Judaism, participating in street evangelism with Jews for Jesus and acting as cantor in a number of Messianic Jewish congregations around the United States.
- Besides having dual nationality in both the United States and Israel (where he goes by the name Ya’akov), James is a member of Northway Fellowship Church in Clifton Park, New York, and Seed of Abraham Messianic Jewish Congregation in Albany, New York.
- Hugg is a senior research physicist at the General Electric Global Research Center in Niskayuna, New York, where he develops molecular imaging scanners, such as SPECT, PET, and MRI scanners, among other things.
- Hugg graduated from Stanford University with a degree in nuclear physics.
Shoshanna, his wife, and their two children are the source of his happiness.As a research physicist, I have managed to free myself from the bonds of loyalty to the atheist religion of secular humanism and the evolutionary worldview that had held me captive.A variety of biblical issues that are connected to a better understanding of ″time″ have been researched by me, and I would like to share some of my faith-building findings with you.
God created time ″in the beginning…″ and brought humanity into this temporal world in order to separate the sheep from the goats in preparation for the eternal state where we sheep shall live in His presence, as described in the Bible.″It’s about time,″ the title of my article, has a double meaning: I want to write about topics that are related to questions of time, and the phrase ″it’s about time″ serves as a reminder to all of us that our Lord and Savior will soon return to bring this chapter of world history to a close and to establish His Millennial Kingdom on this planet.
The Christmas Tradition
We commemorate the birth of Messiah (Christ) on the 25th of December, which is known as Christmas (from the Old English word for ″coming of Christ″).This day was first commemorated in 336 AD, approximately 24 years after the Roman emperor Constantine declared Christianity to be the official state religion of the Roman Empire..According to tradition, Pope Julius I opted to replace the pagan winter solstice feast in honor of Mithra, the ″Unconquered Sun,″ which had been acknowledged by the Roman emperor Aurelian in 274 AD with a feast in honor of Mithra, the ″Unconquered Sun.″ Over the course of the next century, the new feast commemorating the birth of the ″Sun of Righteousness″ (Malachi 4:2) extended to all other churches (with the exception of the Armenian church) as a result of the influence of Rome.According to many Christians, the modern Christmas celebration combines many strands of tradition, including the ancient Roman pagan festival of Saturnalia (merrymaking, gift-exchanging), old Germanic midwinter customs (Yule log, decorating evergreen trees), the tradition of Francis de Sales (displaying the crib, or crèche of Jesus), the medieval feast of St.Nicholas (Sinterklaas in Dutch, hence ″Santa Claus″), and the British tradition of sending greeting cards.
- The modern Christmas celebration (1840s).
- Because of the numerous unbiblical overtones associated with Christmas, the Puritan pilgrims chose not to celebrate it.
- In 1870, the holiday was formally recognized by the government of the United States.
- The origin of the North American Santa Claus may be traced back to the Dutch Sinterklaas (Saint Nicholas).
- On December 5, Saint Nicholas’s Eve, according to mythology, Sinterklaas makes his rounds around the world.
- Sinterklaas, who is dressed in the attire of a catholic bishop, rides through the streets offering sweets to the children of the world.
A character known as Black Peter is said to accompany him in certain versions of the popular mythology, and he is responsible for disciplining misbehaving youngsters with a whip.
The Historical Evidence
If we acknowledge that the date chosen by Constantine and Pope Julius I to commemorate the birth of Jesus was not founded on solid historical or scriptural evidence, I believe we are being fair and not being excessively judgmental of one another.Let’s take a look at the historical narrative of Jesus’ birth, as recounted by Dr.Luke, to see if there is any missed evidence.Luke 1:5 provides us with our first piece of information.The following is how it is written in the Complete Jewish Bible: 1 It says that during the reign of Herod the Great (King of Judah, Israel), there was a cohen [Jewish priest] by the name of Z’kharyah (Zacharias) who belonged to the Aviyah (Abijah) division.
- According to the Talmud (rabbinic commentary) and Qumran sources, the service of the Abijah division of priests was planned during the final two weeks of the fourth month of the Jewish holy calendar (15-29 Tammuz, June-July).
- 2 He was serving in the Second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, according to Dr.
- Luke, when he was chosen to enter the holy place and burn incense outside the Holy of Holies, as recorded in the book of Luke.
- A vision of the archangel Gavriel (Gabriel) appeared to Zacharias and revealed that he and his barren wife Elisheva (Elizabeth) would be blessed with a son called Yochanan (John), who would precede and prepare the way for the coming of the Messiah.
- As soon as he got home after his two-week duty, his wife became pregnant, just as Gabriel had predicted.
- The 1st of Av would be the earliest possible date for John’s conception (July).
The angel Gabriel visited Elizabeth in Nazareth during her sixth month of pregnancy (Kislev-Tevet, December) and informed her that she would be expecting a son, whom she would name Yeshua (Jesus, which means ″God’s salvation″), and that she would give birth to him.(Luke 1:31, CJB) (Luke 1:31).Elizabeth, a distant relative of Mary’s, was six months pregnant, according to Gabriel, who also told this to her.
The celebration of the Jewish festival of Hanukkah, also known as the ″Feast of the Dedication″ (John 10:22), which commemorates the rededication of the temple following the Maccabean insurrection, took place during Elizabeth’s sixth month.Mary hastened to visit Elizabeth (Luke 1:39), who lived nearly a week’s trip away on foot from Nazareth and needed to be seen immediately.Elizabeth greeted Mary with the words, ″How blessed is the child in your belly!″ as soon as she arrived.(See Luke 1:42.) Because of this, we may deduce that there was no time lapse between the time of Gabriel’s pronouncement to Mary and the time of Jesus’ conception by the Holy Spirit, as previously thought.
- On the basis of this, we may deduce that the same was true for John’s conception.
- Between the time of the announcement and the fulfillment of each of these two heavenly prophesies, it was just a matter of days at the most.
- In the following three months, Mary lived with Elizabeth, where she stayed until John was born (possibly between 15-21 Nisan, April), circumcised on the eighth day, and given his promised name (Luke 1:57-80).
- Passover is a time when the prophet Elijah is said to return, according to long-standing Jewish tradition (Malachi 3:1; 4:5-6).
The angel Gabriel had predicted to Zacharias that John would come ″in the spirit and might of Eliyahu (Elijah)″ and that he would ″come in the name of the Lord″ (Luke 1:17, CJB).A second angel (perhaps Gabriel) appeared to Mary when she returned to Nazareth, assuring her engaged husband: ″Yosef (Joseph), son of David, do not be frightened to take Miryam (Mary) home with you as your wife; because what has been conceived in her is from the Ruach HaKodesh″ (Holy Spirit).It has been predicted that she will give birth to a son, whom you are to name Yeshua, because He will rescue His people from their sins″ (Matthew 1:20-21, CJB).Because of a census conducted by Emperor Augustus, Joseph was compelled to transport Mary to Beit-Lechem (Bethlehem), where she gave birth to Jesus (probably during Sukkot, the Feast of Tabernacles, 15-21 Tishrei, September-October).″The Wordbecame a human person and shared our world with us″ (John 1:14).
- (John 1:14).
- A messenger angel (possibly the archangel Michael) arrived with the heavenly legions of heaven on the night of Jesus’ birth to proclaim the birth of Jesus to the shepherds of Bethlehem (Luke 2:1-15).
- Perhaps there is a long-forgotten connection between this day and Michaelmas (″coming of Michael″) Day, the feast of Michael the Archangel, which is observed on the 29th of September in various traditions (notably in the United Kingdom).
- Michael is the head of the heavenly forces who, in retaliation for Lucifer’s (Satan, the Devil) treason, cast him from the throne of God (Revelation 12:7).
- 7) On the 40th day following Jesus’ birth (possibly in late Cheshvan or early November), Joseph and Mary brought Him to the Jewish Temple for the rite of Pidyon HaBen (redemption of the firstborn son), where He received the blessings of Shim’on (Simeon) and Hannah, two holy Jewish prophets (Luke 2:22-38).
8) The Magi from the east came to King Herod (possibly during the winter season) to ask about the birth of Jesus.At accordance with the chief cohanim (Jewish priests), the Messiah had to be born in Bethlehem, so the Magi traveled there (about three miles from Jerusalem) and discovered Joseph, Mary, and Jesus living together in a home.They adored Him and presented Him with gifts, then heeded a heavenly warning (possibly from Gabriel) to refrain from disclosing the whereabouts of Jesus to King Herod (Matthew 2:1-12).
9) After the Magi had left Bethlehem, an angel (possibly Gabriel) appeared to Joseph and advised him to take Mary and Jesus to Egypt in order to avoid King Herod’s attempted assassination of Jesus.They left the following night (Matthew 2:13-15).In response to Herod’s command to slay all boys in Bethlehem under the age of two, Joseph and his family fled with their belongings to Egypt (perhaps the Sinai peninsula), where they resided until Herod’s death in 33 BC (Matthew 2:16-18).In determining how old the infant Messiah, King of the Jews, would be, I presume Herod factored in a margin of error.
This would explain his order to kill all Bethlehem boys under the age of two years when they were born.In the aftermath of King Herod’s death, an angel (perhaps Gabriel) appeared to Joseph and informed him that it was safe for him to return to Nazareth (Matthew 2:19-23).In the spring of 4 BC, the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus recounted the death of the wicked King Herod, according to tradition.3 I believe that Herod did not survive for very long after the massacre of the innocent boys of Bethlehem, and that the family of Jesus did not remain in Egypt for very long as a result of this.So we have a somewhat well-constrained period in which to situate the birth of Jesus Christ.
Determining the Date
If, as we have determined from the evidence above, Jesus was born during Sukkot, the Feast of Tabernacles (which began on the 29th of September) in 5 BC, then His conception was most likely during Hanukkah, maybe as late as the 25th of December in 6 BC, according to the evidence.Another possibility is that the Magi came to Bethlehem around the 25th of December in the year 5 BC, when Jesus would have been about 3 months old, and stayed for a few days.Around the eighth century, the use of ‘Anno Domini’ (AD) dating began to spread throughout Western Europe.When the monk Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, which means modest in Latin) attempted to compute the year of Jesus’ birth in 525 AD, he came up short by around three years.Around recent years, we have discovered evidence that Herod died in 4 BC, presumably less than a year after Jesus’ birth.
Is it really important when Jesus was born or when we celebrate Christmas?Is it really so important?Although it is true that knowing the exact date of Jesus’ birth is not essential, God would have made it clear that He was born on a certain day, month, and year if it were so necessary.As Christians, we have the option to celebrate, or not to commemorate, the birth of our Lord and Savior on any day of the year that we choose (Romans 14:1-12).Christmas is not a religious obligation.
- It is considerably more essential to celebrate in the right way (″remember the reason for the season″) than it is to celebrate when.
- Don’t allow the 25th of December bring us or anybody else into disrepute; instead, let us rejoice in the fact that God’s Son became completely human and lived a perfect life so that He might become our perfect sacrifice, conquering sin and death in our place.
- However, in another sense, it is critical that we analyze the evidence that God has provided us and that we place it in its right Jewish perspective in order to better grasp the foundation of our religion.
- The material offered in this article, for example, makes it evident that a significant prophesy concerning the Messiah was fulfilled during the time of Jesus.
- That prophesy may be found in Genesis 49:10, which states, ″Until Shiloh arrives, the scepter will not go from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his legs, nor will the peoples submit to Him.″ This was interpreted as a Messianic prophesy by the rabbis of the Second Temple period.
- The Romans eliminated the capacity of the Jewish Sanhedrin Council in Judah to pronounce the death punishment about the year 7 AD, according to historical records.
4 Furthermore, Herod was the first king of Israel who was not a descendant of the tribe of Judah, making him the first non-Judahite monarch of Israel.Jesus, on the other hand, had already been born in 5 BC, long before the scepter and staff (authority) were taken away from Judah.In addition to having a deeper meaning and genuine significance, the conclusion that Jesus was most likely born during the Feast of Tabernacles brings part of the prophetic type of that major feast ordained by God into partial fulfillment.
Tents and tabernacles (booths) are impoverished, transitory houses that stress our reliance on God’s providence.In the same way, the transitory human body in which the Son of God lived among us proved what may be accomplished when one completely relies on God.This year’s Feast of Tabernacles will be the culmination of the prophetic significance of the festival, which will come when Jesus returns in glory and majesty to tabernacle among us as King of Kings and Lord of Lords in our midst.Maranatha!
- Dr. David H. Stern, Complete Jewish Bible, 1998, available from Lederer/Messianic Jewish Communications, 6120 Day Long Lane, Clarksville, MD 21029, 1-800-410-7367, www.MessianicJewish.net.
- Shmuel Safrai, ″A Priest of the Division of Abijah,″ www.jerusalemperspective.org/percent 5Cdefault.aspx?tabid=27&Arti
When Was Jesus Born?
On December 25, millions of people across the world will gather to honor the birth of Jesus Christ with Christmas celebrations. However, the majority of experts agree that Jesus was not born on that day, or even in the year A.D. 1; rather, he was born later.
Why is Jesus’ birthday celebrated on December 25?
Many researchers believe that the Roman Catholic Church picked December 25 as the date because it coincides with the winter solstice and Saturnalia, a celebration devoted to the Roman god Saturn, both of which occur on the same day.According to professor Ignacio L.Götz in his book ″Jesus the Jew: Reality, Politics, and Myth-A Personal Encounter,″ the church could also co-opt this prominent pagan holiday, as well as the winter celebration of other pagan faiths, by choosing this day to honor Jesus’ birthday (Christian Faith Publishing, 2019).Nobody, on the other hand, is certain of the precise date of Jesus’ birth.Related: Why do Christians have so many different faiths to choose from?
The Death of King Herod
The biblical tale of King Herod the Great has led some academics to speculate that he was born between 6 and 4 BC, and that he lived between 6 and 4 BC as well.An effort to kill Jesus was made, according to legend, when King Herod ordered the execution of all male newborns under the age of two who resided in the neighborhood of Bethlehem, an incident known as the Massacre of the Innocents.This occurred shortly before Herod’s own death, which is still debated as to when it occurred.According to Roman historians, Herod died in the year 4 B.C., according to most researchers, including Peter Richardson and Amy Marie Fisher in ″Herod: King of the Jews and Friend of the Romans: Second edition″ (Routledge, 2018).However, historians differ on the precise year of Herod’s death, and many believe that the mass infanticide was nothing more than a tale.
- Aslan wrote in his book ″Zealot: The Life and Times of Jesus of Nazareth″ (Random House, 2013) that Herod’s massacre was ″an event for which there exists not a shred of corroborating evidence in any chronicle or history of the time, whether Jewish, Christian, or Roman,″ and that ″no shred of corroborating evidence″ could be found in any chronicle or history of the time, whether Jewish, Christian, or Roman.
The Star of Bethlehem
Another group of researchers has sought to match the ″Star of Bethlehem,″ which is said to have hailed Jesus’ birth, with actual astronomical phenomena in order to determine the year of Jesus’ birth.astronomer Colin Humphreys argued in a 1991 paper in the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society that the mythical star was really a slow-moving comet that Chinese watchers first observed around 5 B.C.Humphreys’ idea, on the other hand, has now been disproved.Related: Is it possible that the Christmas Star is indeed the Star of Bethlehem?In addition, the month of Jesus’ birth has been a source of contention, with one theory proposing that the Star of Bethlehem may have been caused by Venus and Jupiter coming together to form a bright light in the sky, a rare event that occurred in June of 2 B.C., and another suggesting that it was caused by a meteor shower.
- Another option is a comparable conjunction between Saturn and Jupiter, which happened in October of 7 B.C.
- and is thought to have occurred in the year 2000.
- In addition, there has been conjecture that Jesus was born in the springtime.
- Jesus may have been born ″around the late spring of the year,″ according to Götz, ″since pregnancies began in the autumn when the crops were in and there was enough money for a wedding feast.″
—From where did Satan originate?—Did Jesus exist as a genuine person?— Is it possible that the ‘forbidden fruit’ in the Garden of Eden was actually an apple?Joseph Bennington-Castro is a contributing writer for Live Science and Space.com who is based in the Hawaiian Islands.A master’s degree in scientific journalism from New York University as well as a bachelor’s degree in physics from the University of Hawaii have qualified him for this position.
- His research encompasses a wide range of scientific topics, ranging from the bizarre mating practices of various animals to the drug and alcohol habits of ancient societies to the latest breakthroughs in solar cell technology.
- Joseph, on a more personal note, has had a near-obsession with video games since he can remember, and is most likely now immersed in one at this very minute.
When Was Jesus Christ Crucified and Resurrected?: Did He Really Die on Good Friday and Come Back to Life on Easter Sunday?
As recorded in Matthew 12:38, a group of scribes and Pharisees approached Jesus and requested for a sign to show He was the Messiah.However, Jesus informed them that the only sign He would provide would be similar to that of the prophet Jonah: ″For just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the big fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth″ (Matthew 12:38).(Matthew 12:40).The question is, how can we accommodate ″three days and three nights″ between a Friday afternoon crucifixion and a Sunday morning resurrection?According to this conventional perspective, Jesus was only entombed for about a day and a half after his death.
- A number of people feel that Christ’s ″three days and three nights″ remark does not necessitate a precise period of 72 hours, believing that a portion of one day can be counted as a whole day.
- As a result, because Jesus died in the afternoon, they believe that the remainder of Friday constituted the first day, Saturday the second, and a portion of Sunday the third day.
- In this theory, however, only two nights are taken into consideration: Friday night and Saturday night Something is clearly wrong with the traditional perspective of when Christ was buried, and it is not difficult to see why.
- Specifically, the passage from Jonah 1:17, to which Christ alluded, reads that ″Jonah remained in [the belly of] the fish three days and three nights.″ We have no reason to believe that Jesus intended simply two nights and one day, plus portions of two further days.
- In the event that Jesus remained in the tomb just from late Friday afternoon until early Sunday morning, the sign He delivered indicating that He was the predicted Messiah would not have been fulfilled, as previously stated.
- Please take a moment to thoroughly consider each of the Gospel accounts.
When we do this, we unearth the true tale of how Jesus’ words were perfectly fulfilled, a story that was previously unknown.
Two Sabbaths mentioned
Take note of the events described in Luke 23.Luke 23:46-53 tells the story of Jesus’ death and burial, which took place in a hurry because of the approaching Sabbath, which began at sundown that evening.Following that, Luke 23:54 explains, ″That day was the Preparation, and the Sabbath was drawing nigh.″ Many have thought that the weekly Sabbath is being referenced here, and that Jesus was killed on a Friday as a result of this assumption.However, according to John 19:31, the impending Sabbath ″was a high day″—not the weekly Sabbath (which runs from Friday sunset to Saturday sunset), but the first day of Unleavened Bread, which is one of God’s yearly high, or Sabbath, days (as opposed to the weekly Sabbath) (Exodus 12:16-17; Leviticus 23:6-7).It was possible, and in most cases, that these yearly Holy Days would fall on days of the week other than the traditional weekly Sabbath day.
- After witnessing Christ’s corpse being deposited in the tomb just before sunset on Wednesday evening, the women ″returned and prepared spices and aromatic oils″ for the final preparation of the body on Thursday morning, thereby marking the beginning of the high-day Sabbath on Wednesday and Thursday.
- Due to the fact that it was a breach of the Sabbath, such labor would not have been done on a Saturday.
- As recorded in Mark’s account, ″Now when the Sabbath had passed, Mary Magdalene and her sister Mary the mother of James, and Salome went out and bought spices, so that they may come and anoint Him″ (Matthew 26:35).
- (Mark 16:1).
- The ladies had to wait until the end of this yearly ″high day″ Sabbath before they could go out and purchase and prepare the spices that would be used for anointing Jesus’ body.
- They then ″rested on the Sabbath in accordance with the law″ on Saturday, after acquiring and preparing the spices and oils the previous day (Luke 23:56).
This second Sabbath stated in the Gospel reports corresponds to the ordinary weekly Sabbath, which is celebrated from Friday sunset to Saturday sunset every week.Through careful examination of specifics found in both Gospels—where Mark informs us that the women purchased spices after the Sabbath, while Luke informs us that they prepared the spices before resting on the Sabbath—we can plainly discern that two separate Sabbaths are referenced.The first, according to John 19:31, was a ″high day″—the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which happened on a Thursday in the year A.D.
31.The second was a ″low day″—the first day of the Feast of Weeks.The second was the weekly Sabbath on the seventh day of the week.
Sign of the Messiah
″While it was still dark,″ according to John 20:1, after the ladies had had their normal weekly Sabbath rest, they went to Jesus’ tomb on the first day of the week, Sunday, and discovered that He had already been raised (Matthew 28:1-6; Mark 16:2-6; Luke 24:1-3).It becomes evident when we look at the specifics in all four Gospel texts that the picture is painted in black and white.Jesus was killed and entombed late on Wednesday afternoon, shortly before the Jewish Sabbath began at sunset the same evening.That particular Sabbath, however, was a high-day Sabbath, lasting from Wednesday sunset to Thursday sunset that week, rather than the ordinary weekly Sabbath, which lasts from Friday sunset to Saturday sunset every week.The Lord Jesus Christ was buried in the tomb from the evening of Wednesday until the evening of Saturday, when He rose from the dead.
- While no one was present at His resurrection (which took place within a sealed tomb), it had to have occurred about sundown on Saturday, three days and three nights after His body was entombed, according to the biblical timeline.
- It couldn’t have happened on Sunday morning since when Mary Magdalene arrived at the tomb that morning before daylight, ″when it was still dark,″ she saw the stone had been moved away and the tomb had been left vacant.
- We may be confident that the period of Jesus’ entombment, which He used as proof that He was the Messiah, was exactly the length of time He had predicted.
- Exactly three days and three nights after He was laid in the tomb, Jesus resurrected from the dead.
- Because the majority of people are unfamiliar with the biblical high days that Jesus Christ and His followers observed, they are unable to comprehend the historical elements that have been meticulously preserved for us in the Gospels.
- For further information, please see our pamphlet, Jesus Christ: The Real Story, available for purchase.
When and What Time Was Jesus Born?
Posted on December 19, 2017 by Brian Chilton This past Sunday, I was contacted by a young man from our church who had a good question for me.The question came from Matthew Cleary, who was in Sunday school at the time, to his teacher, who then asked me, ″What time of night was Jesus born?″ ″Did it happen at midnight?″ To be completely honest, I had never given any attention to the question.However, while it is hard to offer a precise time and date for Christ’s birth with great accuracy, several indicators can provide us with some insight into the time and day of Christ’s birth.The date of Jesus’ birth and the hour of his birth are inextricably intertwined in Christian tradition.While Scripture does not provide us with a great deal of information on the day and hour, it does provide us with a few hints.
- Clue 1: The details of Jesus’ birth point to him having been born in the autumn.
- Shepherds were remaining out in the fields and keeping watch over their flocks at night, according to Luke’s account of Jesus’ birth, according to the Evangelist, when Jesus was born, according to Luke (Lk.
- It was common practice in Bethlehem to keep the sheep that were used for temple sacrifices in Jerusalem, and vice versa.
- The date of December 25th does not correspond to this component of the birth narrative.
- First and foremost, the sheep would have been transported to Jerusalem by the end of December.
In addition, it would have been too cold for the shepherds and sheep to have remained in the fields on December 25th at this time of year.When it comes to the fall season, sheep and shepherds would have been out in the fields, especially around the time when the Feast of Trumpets was being celebrated.Details of the Star of Bethlehem and the Magi’s Appearance are revealed in Clue 2.
Many people who read these lines may be disappointed to learn that the Magi (wise men) were not there at the time of Jesus’ birth.In fact, it is probable that Jesus would have been one or two years old by the time they arrived in Bethlehem on their journey.When the Magi followed a star, they were led to the Christ child, according to the Gospel of Matthew.One or more stars might have formed the constellation, or it could have been a collection of stars in a particular arrangement.
- Nonetheless, the Magi were overjoyed (Mt.
- 2:10) and when they entered ″the home, they saw the infant with Mary his mother, and dropping on their knees, they worshiped him″ (Mt.
2:11).After the Christ child was born, the Magi were lead to the Christ infant by the Star of Bethlehem.The appearance of the star corresponds to a period of time after the birth of Jesus.However, because the star may have represented a December visiting by the Magi, and because this occurred later than the birth of Christ, it is more likely that the birth took place first.Clue 3: Specifics gleaned from the astrological data included in Revelation 12 Another verse of Scripture is associated with the birth of Jesus, and it may come as a surprise to you.
- It is possible that the vision John experienced on the island of Patmos, which is shown in Revelation 12:1-5, may give more indications as to the period of Jesus’ birth.
- A magnificent sign occurred in heaven: a lady dressed in the sun, with the moon under her feet, and a crown of twelve stars on her head, according to the text.
- During her pregnancy, she screamed in agony and pain as she approached the point of giving birth.
- Then another sign came in heaven: A huge fiery red dragon with seven heads and ten horns, with seven crowns on each of its heads, appeared.
- Its tail wiped away a third of the stars in the sky, hurling them to the surface of the planet.
And the dragon stood in front of the woman who was about to give birth, in the hopes that when she did give birth, the dragon would eat her unborn kid.In the end, she gave birth to an only Son, a male who will reign over all countries with an iron rod.Suddenly, God and his throne were within reach of her kid″ (Rev.
12:1-5).According to Joseph Dumond, the book of Revelation 12 recounts a constellation that occurred at a certain point in time in history.For a few hours, according to Dumond, the constellation Virgo (e.g., ″virgin″) emerged near Bethlehem, near the constellation Leo (representing the ″lion of Judah,″ according to Dumond, with the sun covering the lady and the 12 visible stars encircling her head.During the hours of 6:15 pm (sunset) to 7:45 pm (sunset), this arrangement would only be visible (moonset).
It was possible to see this astrological alignment from Bethlehem on the evening of Wednesday, September 11, 3 BC, according to the Stellarium Astronomy software data base (which is available at this location).Conclusion In recent years, a rising collection of evidence has shown that Jesus was born on September 11, 3 BC, perhaps between 6:15 pm and 7:45 pm local time.Even though September 11th is a day that brings back negative memories for many people in the United States, it would have been a day of joy in ancient Israel.Because it would have marked the beginning of the Feast of Trumpets, a holiday commemorating the Messiah’s ascension and subsequent return.The Feast of Trumpets was a time of national atonement, as well as the beginning of a new agricultural year in the ancient world.
The sound of a shofar would herald the start of the festival.Immediately after the Feast of Trumpets would be Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement).Yom Kippur is considered to be the holiest day of the year for the Jews.It is the day on which the high priest enters the holiest of holies and offers sacrifices in atonement for the sins of the people of Israel.Sukkot is also one of the most important holidays in Israel.It remembers Israel’s desert wanderings and God’s rescuing deed that delivered them from slavery and into eternal life in the Promise Land.
- Sukkot, which occurs after Yom Kippur, commemorates God’s redemption of his people.
- Consequently, Rosh Hashanah (Trumpets) asks for repentance (which would be the period when Jesus was born if this theory is correct); Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) seeks atonement; and Sukkot (Tabernacles) commemorates the completion of God’s redemption (if the theory is correct).
- What if God decided to give the world a huge indication that he was about to redeem the world from its sins by having his Son born at the start of these festivities?
- Wouldn’t it be just like him to do?
- But wait…
- what about the 25th of December?
- Suppose this idea is correct, and Jesus was born on September 11th, does the date of December 25th have any significance?
- Yes, it is correct.
- It is possible that the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary on the 25th of December, although this is unlikely.
- In this case, the date may be seen as the moment when Mary was miraculously conceived with Jesus, as a result of the Holy Spirit’s empowering on that occasion.
- Additionally, it is possible that the Magi traveled to the Christ Child on December 25th after following the star.
This time period is supported by astronomical evidence, which is outside the scope of this article.So, while it is true that Jesus was not born on December 25th, the date still has significant significance and should serve as a constant reminder of the greatest gift that God has ever given to any of us—namely, his Son, Jesus Christ.Background information about the author Brian Chilton is the founder and host of BellatorChristi.com, as well as the Bellator Christi Podcast.
With honors, he got his Master of Divinity in Theology from Liberty University; his Bachelor of Science in Religious Studies and Philosophy from Gardner-Webb University; and certification in Christian Apologetics from Biola University.He is a member of the Society of Biblical Apologetics.Brian is a doctoral student in theology and apologetics at Liberty University, where he is now enrolled in the Ph.D.program.Brian is a full member of both the International Society of Christian Apologetics and the Christian Apologetics Alliance, as well as the Christian Apologetics Association.Brian has been in the