Christ Carrying the Cross – Wikipedia
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Christ Carrying the Cross on his way to his crucifixion is an episode depicted in all four Gospels, and it is a very common subject in art, particularly in the fourteen Stations of the Cross, which are now found in almost all Catholic churches.Christ Carrying the Cross is an episode depicted in all four Gospels, and it is a very common subject in art.But the topic appears in a variety of various contexts, including single works as well as cycles depicting Christ’s life and passion, such as the Passion of Christ.Procession to Calvary, Road to Calvary, and Way to Calvary are all names for the place where Jesus was crucified outside of Jerusalem.Calvary or Golgotha is another term for the place where Jesus was crucified.According to history, the actual route followed in Jerusalem is referred to as the ″Via Dolorosa,″ however the exact path of this journey has changed throughout the ages and continues to be the topic of discussion.
The story is recounted in passing in all four of the canonical Gospels: Matthew 27:31–33, Mark 15:20–22, Luke 23:26–32, and John 19:16–18, with no more explanation.Only the Gospel of John explicitly states that Jesus carried his crucifixion, and all accounts, with the exception of John, include Simon of Cyrene, who was recruited by the soldiers from the crowd to carry or assist in the carrying of the cross.Plautus and Plutarch described offenders carrying crossbars, which modern scholars interpret as implying that Jesus, as Simon, carried only a heavy patibulum, the crossbar, to a pole, stipes, which was permanently put into the ground at Golgotha, in accordance with the Gospel depiction.In Christian imagery, on the other hand, Jesus and Simon are depicted as carrying the entire cross, including the patibulum and stipes.
Only Luke makes reference to the ″ladies of Jerusalem,″ who were eventually understood to encompass the Three Marys and the Virgin Mary, according to patristic texts and Christian art.This gathering was often held before the city gates, as seen in the artwork above, which is also common in the Gospel of Luke and depicts Jesus bending his head to speak to them as he approaches them.The other events were later additions, with the Veil of Veronica first appearing in the 13th century and the falls of Christ, which finally numbered three, first appearing in the Late Middle Ages and becoming popular in the Renaissance.Even though Luke mentions that the two thieves were also present in the group walking out to Golgotha, he does not specify whether or not they were required to carry their crosses.Moreover, while their silhouettes may be distinguishable among the walking figures, their crosses are only rarely visible in depictions of the group as a whole.Some paintings, such as Raphael’s Il Spasimo, Bruegel’s Vienna Procession (both of which are seen below), and the Jacopo Bassano in London, depict the criminals’ two crosses already put up at the site of their execution in the backdrop of the painting.
Additionally, Matthew 16:24, which is the verse with which St Francis of Assisi began his first Rule in 1221, is relevant: ″Then Jesus said to his disciples, ″Whoever wants to be my disciple must deny themselves, take up their cross, and follow me.″ St Francis was also led with a cord around his neck as a penitential exercise, and the cord is a feature that has been added to numerous portrayals of the story from two Old Testament chapters to emphasize its penitential nature.This is from Isaiah 53:7: ″He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth; he was brought to the slaughter like a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before its shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth,″ and Jeremiah 11:19: ″I had been as gentle as a lamb led to the slaughter.″ Both of these passages were frequently cited by medieval commentators.When it comes to medieval typology, the narrative is most typically shown as a complimentary scenario, with Isaac hauling wood up the mountain for his sacrifice being the most popular counterpart.In traditional art history nomenclature, this scene is referred to as ″Isaac Bearing the Faggots″ (or ″wood″).
In popular devotions
Stations of the Cross, which are grouped into a number of occurrences, which between them account for the majority of sculptures depicting the narrative, reflect the fully developed traditional version of the episode:
- Christ is sentenced by Pilate
- The cross is placed in front of Jesus.
- Jesus is knocked down for the first time.
- Jesus and His Mother had a meeting.
- The cross is carried by Simon of Cyrene.
- Veronica wipes the tears from Jesus’ eyes
- Jesus is knocked down for the second time.
- The daughters of Jerusalem are introduced to Jesus.
- Jesus is knocked down for the third time.
The remaining chapters of the Passion are numbered ten through fourteen.It is also one of the Sorrowful Mysteries of the Rosary, and the encounter with Mary is the fourth of the Virgin’s Seven Sorrows, which are a collection of sorrows that she has experienced.There are still a number of yearly Good Friday processions held in Catholic nations, some of which involve actors portraying the main characters as well as a cross in certain cases.On the Via Dolorosa, these kind of festivities take place all year round.
History of the depiction
After 1100, Simon of Cyrene was more frequently depicted bearing the cross than Jesus, and from this point on, the number of other characters who are generally featured in the scenario grows.According to Byzantine portrayals, Jesus usually walks with his hands bound and with a soldier accompanying him and carrying the rope, while Simon bears the cross on his shoulders.In some early images, Jesus and Simon are seen carrying the cross side by side.It is possible that a vast throng of figures surround Jesus in the later Middle Ages, maybe influenced by Passion plays, and that they express a wide range of emotions, ranging from disdain to sadness.
The culmination of this evolution is the monumental landscape known as Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s Procession to Calvary (Vienna).Although the cross is not always depicted as a heavy burden, and it may be lifted off the ground by either Simon or Jesus in early and Eastern depictions, by the later Middle Ages, the cross is always clearly difficult to carry, and the base is dragged along the ground, in keeping with the increased emphasis placed on the sufferings of the Passion during this period.As of this time period, Jesus is generally seen wearing his Crown of Thorns, which he did not wear earlier in his life.A little panel by Barna da Siena, dating from 1330-1350, in the Frick Collection is an early example of a form of devotional artwork in which Jesus is depicted alone.Through the Renaissance and Baroque periods, they were continued, with a ″close-up″ half-length composition making its first appearance in Northern Italy about 1490.Although the suffering of Christ is frequently represented less dramatically in these than in bigger scenarios when he is surrounded by a hostile throng, they do so in certain cases in contrast to the majority of andachtsbilder.
Because of the popularity of triptychs, the scenario is commonly found as the left-hand wing of a central Crucifixion, with an Entombment or Resurrection depicted on the right-hand wing of the composition.With the advent of single-piece altarpieces in Italy, the subject began to be used more frequently.It was usually depicted in one of two ways: either depicting the meeting with Veronica or the Swoon of the Virgin (spasimo), in which the Virgin swoons, faints or at the very least falls to her knees, both of which were relatively recent and highly controversial introductions that had no scriptural authority.
- The following are examples of individual works that contain articles (aside from a vast number of cycles that feature the scene): On the Way to Calvary (Raphael), also known as Lo Spasimo, is a painting of Christ falling.
- Several works by Titian, including Christ Carrying the Cross (Titian), Cristo della Minerva (Michelangelo), Christ Carrying the Cross (Bosch, Ghent), Christ Carrying the Cross (Bosch, Madrid), Christ Carrying the Cross (Bosch, Vienna), Christ Carrying the Cross (El Greco), and Christ Carrying the Cross (Bosch, Ghent).
- Painting by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, depicting the procession to Calvary.
The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ, Lorch in the Rhine Valley, around 1425, Bodemuseum Berlin
- The patibulum (see comments at 19:17), and he is obliged to carry his cross to the location of his execution.″ 13 As a result, Tertullian, De pudicitia 22 (quoted in Köstenberger 2002c: 194)
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Antiquitates romanae 7.69
- Schiller, 78–81
- Zuffi, 283
- Tertullian, De pudicitia 22 (cited in Köstenberger 2002c: 194)
- Tertullian, De pudicitia 22 (cited in Köstenberger 2002c: 194)
- Tertullian, De pu For later exceptions, including one by Tintoretto, see Schiller 81
- Penny, 8
- Sawyer, 89
- Israels, 423
- Schiller, 80, 82
- Blackwell, Amy Hackney, Lent, Yom Kippur, and Other Atonement Days, 44–48, 2009, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 1-60413-100-4, ISBN 978-1-60413-100-0, google books
- Schiller, 80-81
- Brown etc., 102
- Brown, David Alan, Pagden, Sylvia Ferino, and Anderson, Jaynie, eds., The New York Times Book Review. Israls, Machtelt, Sassetta: the Borgo San Sepolcro altarpiece, Volume 1, 2009, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-03523-2, ISBN 978-0-674-03527-9, Google books
- Penny, Nicholas,National Gallery Catalogues (new series): The Sackler Collection, National Gallery of Art (Washington), National Gallery Catalogues (new series): The Sackler Collection, National Gallery of Art (Washington), National
The Three Falls of Our Lord and the Three Degrees of Tiredness
The following points of discussion were extracted from a presentation presented by Prof.Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira.They have been translated and altered for publishing without his involvement or approval.– Ed.
Despite the fact that I am not an exegete, I am naturally inclined to attempt to reason things out.Knowing that nothing happens by chance in the New and Old Testaments, it is appropriate to inquire as to why Our Lord fell three times, in accordance with sound exegetical principles.This was not an accident, as if a plumber were to trip and fall three times while carrying a large pipe.He fell once because he tripped over a stone, another time because he was really weary, and a third time because he was slack on his feet.It was not an accident that happened.Because Our Lord was crucified three times, the number three must be associated with high concerns and elevated meditations on fatigue, pain, and even the number three itself, among other things.
Consequently, I shall attempt to take inferences from the fact that Our Lord Jesus Christ’s fatigue was shown in three falls while He bore His Cross, which I believe is significant.I am unable to analyze this topic as an exegete, but rather as a rational man who uses common sense to make his decisions.Tiredness may be both genuine and illegitimate.Clearly, there are two different types of fatigue.There are two kinds of illegitimacy, none of which Our Lord had.The other is genuine exhaustion, which Our Lord did experience at times.
Illegitimate weariness occurs when a person lacks love for God and is forced to bear his or her burden without their will.This is the exhaustion of the slothful person.Consider the following scenario: A man who has been accustomed to sleeping twelve hours a day wakes up exhausted and continues to be fatigued throughout the day because he is unmotivated.
- Obviously, Our Lord never experienced this fatigue since He is the epitome of perfection.
- A guy who has been active or committed for a long period of time may suffer fatigue to varying degrees of intensity when his common energies are depleted.
- This is known as the first degree.
- There are also three levels of human resistance and exertion that correlate to the three levels of exertion.
- As a result, it is logical to assume that these three degrees correspond to the three calamities that Our Lord experienced.
- The first stage of fatigue occurs when a guy bears a burden until all of his common energy have been depleted and he collapses beneath the weight of the task.
- The sheer act of falling leads him to regain some strength, and he experiences a second inspiration, which allows him to mobilize his most profound energy.
- He summons all of the latent strength he possesses, and he does so with admirable control over his body.
- Despite the fact that he is not accustomed to mobilizing this energy in his regular life, he manages to do so and forges on.
- In the first fall, man thinks to himself: ″Wow, this is extremely difficult!
- I’m not going to be able to accomplish it.
- However, because it must be done, I am willing to bear this load and make this effort, despite the hardship.
- ″I want to dedicate myself to this act of service and complete my purpose.″ ″If I truly dig deep, maybe I’ll be able to conjure fresh bravery and discover the strength I need to continue.″ he muses.
- As a result, there occurs a second mobilization of the energy of the soul.
- A bigger effort is made by the soul, and it continues until the following fall, which is the second degree of exhaustion.
- The Second Degree of Tiredness: The Soul exhausts all of its resources before collapsing once more.
- In this second degree, the soul reflects: ″I mobilized everything I had and did everything I could to achieve my goals.″ Despite this, I have once again been crushed beneath the weight of this responsibility.
- My energies are now far more depleted than they were after the initial fall.
Nonetheless, I have already reaped more benefits from myself than I could have believed imaginable, and I intend to continue on this path.″I’m not willing to give up.″ At the risk of becoming dejected, he reflects on his purpose and concludes, ″Although my objective is good and important, the weight of my load has risen.″ The fact that he has exhausted his energy causes him to strengthen his prayers and turn to Our Lady, saying: ″My Mother, thou seest that I am unable to go any farther on my own.″ If thou helpst me more than before, or if I am unable to carry out your instructions, I shall be grateful.″ Upon closer inspection and a thorough search of his energy stores, he discovers that there is still something he must give up in order to complete his mission.His plea has been heard and granted.In addition to the energy of which he was previously ignorant, he discovers fresh superhuman power, which allows him to continue.He rises a second time and progresses, with the assistance of angels rather than by his own strength.He comes to the realization that he has something more to contribute.
- He is able to pull himself along despite the fact that he is unable to walk.
- He has made the decision to complete his goal, even if it means requesting a miracle from God.
- The Third Stage of Tiredness is characterized by the feeling that everything is exhausted.
- In the third stage, he loses his footing once more.
- He is a wreck, and he knows that he no longer has the ability to fight back.
His available energy have been depleted to the point of exhaustion.Despite this, he refuses to quit up.″I’m going to have to hope against all odds,″ he says to himself.It is imperative that I at least get back on my feet and attempt to take one step, even if I just have the stamina to stand.
Beyond this, everything is a question of blind confidence, a dark night, and complete tiredness, but I shall walk regardless of the circumstances.″I’ll make it to the finish line.″ He gets back on his feet and starts walking again.This allows him to contribute something from the depths of his being that he had never believed he could give.
- He takes what is genuinely the last breath of his soul and gives it everything to love in the most comprehensive way he knows how.
- Only then, when he completely surrenders himself to his goal, can he get the clearest image of his ideal.
- He gets up from his third stumbling block and walks a few more stumbling steps till he reaches the site of the sacrifice.
- There, he is nailed to the cross and completely consumed by the flames.
- The Three Degrees of Separation Explained These are the three levels of exhaustion that correlate to the three phases of human devotion, as described above.
In the first stage, one expends the energy that he or she is aware that he or she possesses.He begs for Our Lady’s intervention as well as the support of the entire community of grace.In the second stage, he expends energy that he had no idea he possessed and begs Our Lady with increased fervor to send him specific support since he is concerned that he would not be able to continue walking with only the general assistance of grace.In the third step, he delivers something that is well in excess of what he had anticipated.
He discovers that he has a capacity for devotion and effort that is far more than he had previously imagined.He makes his way forward in complete darkness, relying more on a miracle and utter faith than on any natural means.He, on the other hand, continues to go forward in his life.Finally, via a genuinely amazing move, he completes his task and achieves success.He has a complete and total union with the supernatural.When a soul has done everything it can, it attracts other souls.
- Man increasingly emanates the beauty of self-denial to the extent that he rises after each justifiable defeat.
- This boosts his ability to attract others, because men despise egoism and run away from it when they see it.
- Men will only follow those who are willing to deny themselves.
- As a result, only the guy who has achieved the pinnacle of self-denial and has done all in his power to attract souls is capable of attracting them.
- This is why Our Lord, having suffered three times on the Cross, was ready to be revealed to all peoples from the height of the Cross.
- He had previously gone through the process of internal immolation before.
- He had been robbed of all he own.
- However, it is only after the sacrifice has been made that the indescribable magnificence of the Crucifixion is revealed.
- Our Lord had already carried the Cross all the way to Calvary, where he willingly permitted Himself to be crucified, despite the severe anguish he was going through.
As time passes, his anguish grows more intense until He pronounces the ″Consummatum est.″ With the Crucifixion, He, on the other hand, no longer carries the Cross.Because of His nailed-to-the-cross position, the Cross carries Him.Every man goes through stages in his spiritual life during which he must bear his cross and persevere.More than that, at times Our Lord exhorts man not only to accept what has befallen him, but also to seek out and progress towards what is awful, tragic, and apocalyptic in nature.Then and only then is he ready to follow Our Lord wherever he may lead him.
- After that, he is prepared to be nailed to the Cross and to be united with Christ for all time as a result.
- As a result, there are two stages of suffering and three dimensions of pain.
- The first step is to come face to face with the Cross.
- The second option is to allow oneself to be nailed to the wall.
- In the first level, man reaches the pinnacle of renunciation, despoiling himself to the greatest extent possible.
- In a second stage, having reached the pinnacle of renunciation, he makes the decision to continue in it for the rest of his life, with the cross serving as his support.
Stations of the Cross
- Home Philosophy and religion are two different things.
- Art & Music of the Sacred Christianity Alternative titles include: The Way of the Cross is a spiritual journey that takes place on a crossroads.
- Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome is home to the 14 Stations of the Cross, commonly known as the Way of the Cross, which depicts events in the Passion of Christ from his judgment by Pontius Pilate to his entombment.
- The stations are arranged in the following order: The following events occur: (1) Jesus is condemned to death, (2) he is forced to bear his cross, (3) he falls for the first time, (4) he meets his mother, (5) Simon of Cyrene is forced to bear the cross, (6) Veronica wipes Jesus’ face, (7) he falls for the second time, (8) the women of Jerusalem weep over Jesus, (8) he falls for the third time, (10) he is stripped of his garments, (11) he is n The portraits are often put on the inner walls of a church or chapel, but they may also be built in other locations such as cemeteries, hospital hallways, and religious institutions, as well as on mountain peaks.
- Visiting each of the 14 stations of the cross and meditating on the Passion of Christ is a devotional exercise that originated with early Christian pilgrims who visited the sites of the events in Jerusalem and walked along the traditional route from the supposed location of Pilate’s house to Calvary, which is now known as ″the Way of the Cross.″ Mary, Jesus’s mother, is said to have placed stone markers outside her home outside Jerusalem to allow her to prayfully retrace the steps of her son’s Passion, although the genesis of the devotion in its current form is unclear.
- The number of stations that were originally observed in Jerusalem was far lower than the current figure of 14.
- The Ways of the Cross were constructed in Europe in the early 16th century, and the custom of 14 stations is said to have originated from the most well-known of them, the one at Leuven (1505).
- Because of the Franciscans’ longstanding popularity with the practice, they submitted to Western Christian devotional sentiment in the 18th century and established 14 stations in Jerusalem.
- The conventional stations have been augmented by the Via Lucis (the Way of Light), in which the meditations are centered on the risen Christ, which was added lately.
- Prayerful meditation via the Stations of the Cross is most popular during Lent and on Fridays throughout the year, in honor of Christ’s crucifixion on Good Friday, and is especially popular during Lent and on Fridays throughout the year.
- The devotion can be performed either alone or in a community setting, and it is particularly significant in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran faith traditions, among other denominations.
Each station is usually visited with a variant of the prayer ″We adore you, O Christ, and we bless you,″ which is spoken at the beginning of each visit.Because it is through your holy cross that the world has been redeemed,″ followed by a reading from a pertinent chapter of Scripture.Several saints, like St.Francis of Assisi and St.Alphonso Maria de’ Liguori, composed devotional guidelines for the Stations of the Cross, which have remained popular over time.
Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Amy Tikkanen was responsible for the most current revision and updating of this article.
Where Christ fell seven times
- On his walk to the cross, how many times did Jesus trip and fall?
- If you answered ″three,″ you are familiar with the Stations of the Cross.
- The Stations of the Cross are a popular Catholic devotion, especially during the Lenten season, and are performed at various locations across the world.
- There are a total of 14 stations in total.
- They show three separate falls of Christ, which occur at the third, seventh, and ninth stations, respectively.
14 Stations in 18th Century
- But it was only gradually that the stations we know today came into being, beginning around the 14th century and continuing until 1731, when Pope Clement XII decreed that the number of stations be limited to 14.
- (Previously, there had been a variety of Stations of the Cross, ranging in number from seven to thirty-seven.) Some of the current 14 stations are based on biblical passages, such as the first station, in which Christ is condemned to death by Pontius Pilate, and station five, in which Simon of Cyrene assists Jesus in carrying the cross, among others.
- The three falls shown in the existing stations, on the other hand, are not mentioned in the Bible.
- A parallel devotional activity known as ″The Seven Falls″ arose with the development of the Stations of the Cross during the course of the practice’s history.
- Particularly famous in Germany and the Netherlands, these ″Seven Falls″ were a renowned tourist attraction.
- In German, they are referred to as ″Christi’s Seven Fussfalls.″
Special Number ‘Seven’
- In the history of the church, the number ″seven″ has held a unique significance. There were seven days in the creation account, seven sacraments, and seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, just as there are seven days in the creation myth. According to tradition, the number seven symbolizes completion and, according to certain authorities, perfection. Another devotion that is popular during Lent is the Seven Sorrows (Dolors) of Mary, which is a collection of seven sorrows (dolors) of Mary. [Note: The Feast of the Sorrowful Mother is celebrated on September 15.] In addition, the Seven Falls are frequently associated with Mary’s sufferings. Finally, some authors point to Proverbs 24:16 as a probable prediction of Christ’s falls, saying that ″though the just fall seven times, they will rise again, but the wicked stumble from only one misfortune.″ Around 1490, a sculptor named Adam Krafft created the most renowned of these ″Seven Falls″ in Nuremburg, Germany, and made them famous worldwide. They were commissioned by Martin Ketzel, who had traveled to the Holy Land on a pilgrimage and had travelled the Via Dolorosa through the Old City of Jerusalem. As a result, in 1468, Ketzel made a second trip to Jerusalem in order to get precise measurements of the lengths along the Way of the Cross. The Fourth Station, at which Jesus sees his mother (the first fall at Nuremberg) is shown today, was reported by Ketzel as being ″200 paces from Pilate’s house,″ according to the current consensus. Nuremberg’s church was reached by way of the Seven Falls. Christ’s first fall (our third station)
- Jesus’ first meeting with his mother (our fourth station)
- Simon of Cyrene’s assistance in carrying the cross (our fifth station)
- Veronica wipes the face of Jesus (our sixth station)
- The second fall (our seventh station)
- Jesus’ meeting with the women of Jerusalem (our eighth station)
- Christ’s death (our ninth station)
- and Christ’s resurrection (our tenth station).
- As we come to the ninth station, we find Jesus on the ground beneath the cross.
Not all are ‘Falls’
- When studying these seven falls, it becomes immediately apparent that they are not necessarily all ″falls″ in the sense that we show them in our stations.
- However, in the religious sense of the period — which placed a strong emphasis on the hardships Christ underwent — each of these was classified as a failure.
- The assumption was that Jesus became dizzy when he saw his mother sobbing, or when Veronica wiped the tears from his face.
- And this brief moment of weakness or more anguish was referred to as ″a fall.″ What has become known as ″the Descent from the Cross″ was also considered a fall in this tradition, as shown by Krafft in the Nuremberg church, because Jesus’ corpse was lowered to the ground during the crucifixion process.
- And the fall that depicts Jesus beneath the crucifixion is based on a narrative that holds that the cross fell forward while Jesus hung from it, dropped to the ground, and had to be hoisted back up from the ground again after it had fallen.
- It is possible that the Seven Falls, which are included in our 14 Stations of the Cross but which we do not recognize now, are still present.
- It is believed that the other four falls coincided with (Jesus’) meetings with his mother, Simon of Cyrene, Veronica, and the women of Jerusalem, and that the mention of the fall has been dropped from these four accounts while it has survived in the other three accounts that have nothing else to distinguish them,″ according to the Catholic Encyclopedia.
- Whether or whether Jesus fell at all on the way to the cross is arguably not the most important message to take away from these devotional services.
- The point is that we have all fallen, and we have all fallen many times in our own personal road to follow Jesus.
This is brought home to us by these stations and falls.
Aids in Prayer
- At the time when these devotions were widespread, the majority of the population of Europe was illiterate.
- Consequently, the usage of pictorial depictions of Christ’s Passion evolved into aids for prayer practice.
- They also contributed to firmly implanting the Passion tales of the Scriptures in the hearts of mankind.
- Interestingly, the cross itself is the most essential feature of each Station of the Cross (and of most renditions of the Seven Falls) rather than the scenario shown in it.
- Today, every station is required to have a cross affixed to it.
- When there isn’t anything else there, the cross alone qualifies it as a genuine station.
- This is due to the fact that the objective of the devotion is to remind us of Christ’s redeeming sacrifice on the Cross, which was the means by which we were saved.
- That is the genuine objective of our meditation on the train station platform, just as it is the true focus of our Lenten journey as well.
- As we walk the Stations of the Cross, we are also walking the road that Christ took to win our salvation: from his sufferings, falls, and death to his resurrection and ascension to provide eternal life.
- The Catholic Encyclopedia, udayton.edu, vocationsnetwork.org, The Voyage of the Cross — The Spiritual Pilgrimage of Jerusalem, katholische-kirche-naumburg.de, Stations of the Cross — Rethinking the Tradition, and The Stations of the Cross: An Account of Their History and Devotional Purpose are some of the resources used.
Luke 23:26-31. Jesus falls under the weight of the cross
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- No, the item has not been digitized at this time. Please proceed to number two.
- Is it possible that the Access Advisory or Call Number fields above indicate the presence of a non-digital surrogate, such as microfilm or photocopies? Yes, there is still another surrogate available. The reference staff can point you in the direction of this surrogate.
- No, there isn’t another surrogate available. Please proceed to number three.
What do the fields for Access Advisory and Call Number imply about the existence of non-digital surrogates such as microfilm or photocopies, if they exist at all? Yes, there is a second surrogate for the purpose of reproduction. This surrogate can be found via the help of reference personnel.
No, there is no alternative surrogate available. If possible, please go to 3.
Contacting the Prints and Photographs Reading Room’s Reference staff is simple. Either utilize our Ask a Librarian service or phone the reading room between 8:30 and 5:00 Monday through Friday (202-707-6394, Press 3) to speak with a member of the team.