How did really Jesus die?
At least three hours had passed before Jesus succumbed to an extraordinarily severe sort of blood loss-induced shock and a type of asphyxia that was not usually associated with the crucifixion.
Did Jesus have a wife?
According to a new book, Jesus Christ and his wife Mary Magdalene had two children.
What did Jesus do after he died?
According to the writings of the New Testament, he was the firstborn from the dead, heralding the establishment of the Kingdom of God. Following his resurrection and ascension into Heaven, he appeared to his disciples, admonishing them to carry out the Great Commission of proclaiming the Gospel of eternal salvation through his death and resurrection.
Who was Jesus’s dad?
Life of Jesus in a nutshell He was born to Joseph and Mary somewhere between 6 bce and just before the death of Herod the Great (Matthew 2; Luke 1:5) in 4 bce, according to the earliest available evidence.However, according to Matthew and Luke, Joseph was solely his legal father in the eyes of the law.Articles on ThaJokes are based on information that we have gathered from various sources on the internet.When it comes to data collection, we rely on reputable sources.
- The material provided on this website may be partial or erroneous, despite the ongoing care and attention we devote to its compilation.
- Is there anything in this article that you think is wrong or incomplete?
- If you have any questions, please contact us at [email protected] thajokes team
Most frequently asked questions
Where is Jesus now?
God the Father is seated at the right hand of Jesus in heaven at this very moment.″ As a result, according to the Bible, Jesus is in a physical location known as heaven, which is a realm of splendor where God resides with His angels and redeemed children.
Who cried at Jesus crucifixion?
When the sun went down at midday, the entire country was enveloped in darkness, which lasted for three hours. Jesus shouted out, ″Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?″ at three o’clock in the morning. ″My God, my God, why have you abandoned me?″ is what this phrase signifies. The people assumed he was summoning the prophet Elijah, and they waited to see if he would come to their aid and save Jesus.
Was Mary a widow when Jesus was crucified?
Mary (the mother of Jesus) was not a widow at the time of Jesus’ birth.
What happened to Mary after Jesus was crucified?
It is mentioned in the book that Mary was in Jerusalem not long after the crucifixion. The alternative options are that she returned home to Nazareth and went to live with family there, or that she traveled to Ephesus and stayed with the ″beloved disciple″ who is referenced in John’s gospel and became his companion.
Did Mary cry when Jesus was crucified?
In the eyes of Catholics, Mary’s tears hold unique significance: she weeps not just for the sins of the world, but also over the suffering she underwent during her earthly existence, which are collectively referred to as ″the seven sorrows of Mary.″ A total of seven swords pierce Mary’s blazing breasts to represent her grief, which include the Crucifixion and Death of Jesus, are represented.
Risen-Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews
Where is the tomb of Jesus?
The refurbished Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, which is located in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem’s Old City, is where Jesus is believed to be buried.
Where is heaven in the Bible?
As stated in the very first line of the Bible, heaven and earth are both formed at the same time (Genesis 1). According to the biblical tradition, it is principally God’s dwelling place: a parallel universe in which everything runs in accordance with God’s will.
Where is heaven located in space?
Others have claimed that heaven might be found in the star cluster Pleiades. People who believe that heaven can be found in outer space make use of biblical terminology to support their claims. In the case of God, for example, ″he looks down from the sky.″ The psalmist directs his gaze upward to God, whose seat is in the heavens.
Who is Jesus’s mom?
Mother of Jesus and sainted virgin (flourished beginning of Christian period), Mary is a popular topic in Western art, music, and literature. She is worshipped in the Christian church since the apostolic age and is a favorite subject in Western art, music, and literature.
What is God’s real name?
Yahweh is the name given to the God of the Israelites, and it is derived from the biblical pronunciation of ″YHWH,″ which is the Hebrew name revealed to Moses in the book of Exodus. The tetragrammaton is the name YHWH, which is composed of the consonants Yod, Heh, Waw, and Heh in the order Yod, Heh, Waw, and Heh.
How many children did Mary and Joseph have?
In his fortieth year, Joseph married a lady who was known by several names, some of which were Melcha or Escha, others which were Salome; they were married for forty-nine years and had six children, two girls and four boys, the youngest of them was James (known as ″the Lord’s brother″).
Do people eat in Heaven?
The experience of heaven is a spiritual one, and there is no need for food while one is in the state of spirit. Only the human body requires nourishment in order to function properly. They are not hungry and have no need to eat.
Will pets go to Heaven?
When it comes to the conditions for human salvation, the Bible is quite clear, yet it says nothing about the qualifications for animal salvation. As a result, many people believe that because animals cannot be ″saved,″ they cannot possibly be allowed to enter the kingdom of heaven. Animals do not require saving since they are not considered ″sinners,″ and so do not require saving.
What happens when go to Heaven?
In heaven, there will be no more pain, suffering, sickness, deception, sin, or death since there will be no more of these things. It’s going to be fantastic. In the presence of Father God, Son of God (Jesus), the Holy Spirit, and the holy angels, we shall experience everlasting life. The world will be reconstructed, and there will be no longer be any seas on the planet.
Where are the bones of Jesus?
Traditionally, Jews were not allowed to be buried within city walls; therefore, the Gospels explicitly state that Jesus was buried outside of Jerusalem, at the scene of his crucifixion on Golgotha (″the place of skulls″).
Who Wrote the Bible?
Jewish and Christian dogma hold that Moses wrote the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy (the first five books of the Bible, as well as the rest of the Torah) around 1,300 years before the present. Although this is true, there are certain problems with it, such as the absence of evidence that Moses actually existed.
Can you visit the tomb of Jesus?
The Garden Tomb is available to the public Monday through Saturday from 8:30 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. Tours in English are available, but they must be reserved in advance. Ample amenities are provided for visitors to the park, including bathrooms, drinking water, seats, and a well-stocked gift store.
Where was Joseph when Jesus died?
I’m dead and buried beneath the earth. Joseph, Mary’s betrothed, died when Jesus was in his adolescence, according to tradition. Mary’s uncle Joseph of Arimathea, it is said, subsequently assumed charge of the household. This Joseph worked as a tin merchant, and his work required him to travel to the tin mines in Cornwell on a regular basis.
How long did Mary live after the death of Jesus?
Mary might have been engaged at the age of 12 or 13, according to ancient Jewish tradition. According to Hyppolitus of Thebes, Mary survived for 11 years following the death of her son Jesus, dying in the year 41 AD.
Scripture and tradition give us a few possibilities.
Christians believe that Jesus rose from the grave and ascended into heaven, according to the Scriptures.But what happened to his mother after that?While those sentences do not supply us with a specific address, they do present us with a number of hints.At the time of Jesus’ death, it is generally considered that his foster-father Joseph had already died, according to traditional accounts.
- As a result, Jesus would be the primary family member responsible for caring for his ailing mother.
- More information may be found at: Is it possible that Jesus and Joseph were true carpenters?
- According to the Gospel of John, just before he was about to die on the cross, Jesus appointed one of his followers to look after her and care for her.
- Jesus called out to his mother and the disciple whom he adored who were standing nearby, and he said to his mother, ″Woman, see!
- It’s your son!″ Then he turned to the disciple and said, ″Look, here’s your mother!″ That same hour, the disciple picked her up and carried her to his own house.
- (See also John 19:26-27.) The ″beloved disciple,″ according to tradition, was St.
John the Evangelist, which is supported by the majority of biblical academics.
In the beginning of the book of Acts, it appears that John looked for her in Jerusalem, according to what is written.Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem and a sabbath day’s journey away; and when they had entered, they went up to the upper room, where they were staying, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot, and Judas the son of James.Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem and a All of these people, together with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus, as well as his brothers and sisters, joined together in prayer.(See Acts 1:11-14.) This indicates that, at the very least, following the death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus, Mary resided in Jerusalem with the apostles during the time of his ministry.
- The ″Way of the Cross″ was where Mary spent the remainder of her life, according to legend, walking it every day and repeating the steps taken by her son.
- According to this legend, Mary’s assumption took place in Jerusalem, and the apostles were present to witness it.
- More information may be found at: Find out more about the grotto in Turkey where Saint Peter said Mass.
- Even today, a church erected near the Mount of Olives, which is supposed to be the site of Mary’s ″burial,″ is revered by the Eastern Orthodox Church and is dedicated to her memory.
- In addition to the Church of the Dormition, which is maintained by Benedictine monks, there is another location in Jerusalem known as the Church of the Annunciation.
- It is claimed that these places are the location of Mary’s ascension into Heaven.
On the other hand, there is a story that John the Evangelist was born in the city of Ephesus, which is supported by historical evidence.Numerous people think that because John stayed in this city, the Virgin Mary also dwelt there with him and that her assumption took place in this city as well.Some private visions of Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich in the nineteenth century, which identified Ephesus as the location of the Virgin Mary’s home, served to further cement this conclusion.More information may be found at: In the ancient city of Ephesus, there are five Christian sites worth seeing.
- Sister Marie de Mandat-Grancey found a first-century home at Ephesus in 1891, along with the ruins of a church erected on top of it in the 4th century, and she named it the ″House of the First Century.″ This location has long been a famous pilgrimage destination for many people, including multiple popes during the course of the twentieth century.
- Make sure to go through the slideshow below to learn about some of the earliest depictions of the Virgin Mary.
What happened to Mary Magdalene after Jesus death?
Life of Mary Magdalene following the events of the Gospels. According to Eastern legend, she followed St. John the Apostle to Ephesus, where she died and was buried. St. John the Apostle is said to have accompanied her. … She was brought to Ephesus (near modern Selçuk, Turkey), where she died and was buried by John the Evangelist.
Was Mary Magdalene pregnant when Jesus was crucified?
According to her reconstruction, a pregnant Mary Magdalene went to Egypt and then France after the crucifixion, where she gave birth to Jesus. She believes that this is the origin of the narrative linked with the worship of Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, which she describes as follows:
Why is the Gospel of Mary Magdalene not in the Bible?
The Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Philip, and the Acts of Peter are among the books that have been discovered. Because the substance of these works did not adhere to Christian belief, none of them were included in the Bible, and they are thus referred to as apocryphal texts. They have a tendency to concentrate on topics that are not mentioned in the Bible.
What happened when Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalene?
Ninety-nine days after his resurrection, on the first day of the week, Jesus appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had driven out seven devils the day before. She went to them and informed them she had been with him while they were mourning and crying. And they were skeptical when they learned that he was still alive and had been spotted with her in the past.
Did Mary Magdalene see Jesus after resurrection?
The Bible, on the other hand, is cited by both Bond and Taylor as additional proof of Mary Magdalene’s close knowledge of Jesus. When the other disciples flee from the cross, she stands by it, and she is the first person to view Jesus after the Resurrection of the dead.
How many children did Mary have after Jesus?
James, Joseph/Joses, Judas/Jude, and Simon are all mentioned as brothers of Jesus, the son of Mary, in the Gospel of Mark (6:3) and the Gospel of Matthew (13:55–56), respectively. The same lines also refer to unidentified sisters of Jesus who are mentioned in passing.
Did Jesus have a twin?
Actually, the name Thomas Didymos is derived from the Hebrew word for twin, which is Thomas. Didymos is the Greek word meaning twin…. The inference is that he is Jesus’ identical twin brother. In the Gospel of John, however, this figure occurs, and he’s one of the disciples, and he’s also known as ″the twin.″
What is the name of Jesus wife?
Mary Magdalene in the role of Jesus’ wife.
What happened to Mary Magdalene after Jesus ascended to heaven?
Life of Mary Magdalene following the events of the Gospels. According to Eastern legend, she followed St. John the Apostle to Ephesus, where she died and was buried. St. John the Apostle is said to have accompanied her. French folklore states that she evangelized the region of Provence (southeastern France) and lived her final 30 years in an Alpine grotto, which is untrue.
Is Mary Magdalene the Holy Grail?
However, he claims that the Holy Grail is genuinely present, at the right hand of Jesus.He claims that the grail is represented by the figure to the right of Jesus, who is widely believed to be John, but who is actually Mary Magdalene.According to certain versions of the tale of the Holy Grail, the relic was transported out of Jerusalem and stored away in a cave somewhere in Europe for hundreds of years.
What did Jesus first say to Mary Magdalene?
″Do not cling to me,″ Jesus told her, ″for I have not yet ascended to…my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.″ ″Do not cling to me,″ Jesus added. As a result, Mary of Magdala went to the disciples and informed them that she had seen the Lord and that he had spoken these words to her.
How did Jesus reveal himself to Mary Magdalene?
When Mary Magdalene arrives to Jesus’ empty tomb, according to the Gospel of John (20:11–17), she inquires of a neighboring gardener as to where she may locate Jesus’ corpse. The gardener identifies himself as Christ and requests that she inform the disciples of his resurrection by addressing her by name.
Who saw Jesus after Mary Magdalene?
Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene at the empty tomb (who initially fails to recognize him), then to the disciples minus Thomas, then to all of the disciples including Thomas (the ″doubting Thomas″ episode), and finally to Peter and six (not all) of the disciples in Galilee for an extended period of time.
How long did Jesus live after resurrection?
According to Christian belief, Christ physically left from Earth by ascending into Heaven, in the presence of eleven of his disciples, which is referred to as the ‘ascent of Jesus.’ According to the New Testament story, the Ascension took place forty days after the resurrection of Jesus Christ.
What did the disciples do after Jesus died?
They were dispatched, most likely in small groups, to teach and accomplish many of the miracles that Jesus performed, albeit on a more modest scale. In the aftermath of Jesus’ death, the disciples were left feeling lost and confused, but his apparition to them and the powerfully inspiring events of Pentecost helped to restore their faith.
Where did Mary Magdalene see Jesus after his resurrection?
They were dispatched, most likely in small groups, to teach and accomplish many of the miracles that Jesus performed, albeit on a more limited scale. In the aftermath of Jesus’ death, his followers were left feeling lost and confused, but his presence to them and the powerfully inspiring events of Pentecost helped to restore their faith.
When did Mary die? How did Mary die?
Answer to the question The last time Mary, the mother of Jesus, is mentioned in the Bible is when the Holy Spirit descended upon her (along with many others) on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:1–4).Following that, we don’t get to hear anything further about Mary in the Bible.According to John 19:27, Mary most likely spent the remainder of her days at John’s house.We don’t know exactly where John used to reside.
- He could have had a residence in either Jerusalem or Ephesus.
- Several scholars have proposed that, because it seems likely that John managed many of the churches in Asia Minor, Mary followed him to Ephesus, where she became a member of the Ephesian church, which Timothy served as pastor (1 Timothy 1:3).
- However, we cannot know for definite if this is true.
- The year AD 43 and AD 48 are mentioned in two different traditions, but we have no method of authenticating either date.
- Traditions and tales attempt to fill in the blanks as to what could have occurred to Mary in the years after Pentecost, but they fall short.
- According to one tradition, Mary never lived in Ephesus, but rather in a modest stone home constructed over a spring on a hill on the road outside of Jerusalem, where she spent her days.
According to folklore, Mary’s home had a prayer chapel as well as an alcove in which she erected a cross, which she used to pray.According to folklore, Mary built memorial stones indicating the locations of the various stations of the cross beside her home.Another tale claims that Joseph of Arimathea transported Mary to Glastonbury, which is located in southern England, shortly after Jesus’ crucifixion.She died and was buried there with the Holy Grail, which she had brought with her from France.
- None of these tales can be substantiated by historical data in any way.
- Catherine Emmerich, a Catholic mystic who lived in the early 1800s, claimed to have had a vision in which she saw Mary’s dying minutes.
- She wrote about it in her autobiography.
- Her vision depicts the apostles’ presence at Mary’s deathbed, Peter’s administration of the Mass and extreme unction to Mary, her death (at the same hour as Jesus), her spirit’s ascension into heaven (accompanied by a large number of souls released from purgatory), her burial, and the assumption of her body the next night.
- Anything Catherine Emmerich claims to have seen in her extrabiblical (and extremely Catholic) visions is completely implausible, and we have no grounds for believing her.
- At the end of the day, we have to face the truth that we do not know anything about Mary’s latter life or her death.
- The death and resurrection of Jesus, as well as His ongoing ministry in the world via the Holy Spirit, are the central themes of the Bible.
- Mary’s tale is subservient to the story of Christ, despite the fact that it is more than incidental to it.
- Return to: Biblical Characters and Their Relationships with Others.
- When did Mary pass away?
What caused Mary’s death?
5 things to know about Mary, the mother of Jesus
It is definitely true that Mary, the mother of Jesus, is the most revered saint in the Christian faith.Despite this, we know very little about her.There is nothing in the New Testament that mentions her birth, death, physical appearance, or age.Aside from the stories of Jesus’ birth that are exclusively included in the gospels of Matthew and Luke, she is expressly referenced at just three other events in the life of her son, all of which take place after his birth.
- At a wedding when Jesus transforms water into wine, she makes an unsuccessful attempt to visit her son while he is teaching, and she witnesses his execution with her son.
- As a matter of fact, Mary is named more frequently in the Qur’an than she is in the New Testament.
- So, here are five facts we do know about her that are worth sharing.
- More information may be found at: Despite their differences, Jews, Christians, and Muslims are all followers of the same deity.
1. She was an accidental virgin
In the Gospel of Matthew, we are told for the first time that Mary was pregnant before she and Joseph had sexual relations.According to reports, she was ″with child from the Holy Spirit.″ Matthew used a prophesy from the Old Testament to demonstrate this point, stating that a ″virgin will conceive and have a son, and the name of the child will be Emmanuel.″ Matthew was referring to the Old Testament in its Greek translation.As a result, the original Hebrew term ″almah″ had been translated as ″parthenos″ in the Greek Old Testament, and from there into the Latin Bible as ″virgo″ and finally into English as ″virgin.″ Instead of just ″young lady,″ the Greek word ″parthenos″ refers to ″a virgin intacta,″ which indicates literally ″a virgin who has not been defiled.″ Briefly stated, Mary was referred to be a virgin due to a translation error in which the word ″young lady″ was rendered as ″virgin.″
2. She was a perpetual virgin
During and after the birth of Jesus, according to early Christian faith, Mary continued to be a virgin.This was likely only appropriate for someone who was referred to as ″the mother of God″ or ″the God-bearer.″ According to Saint Ambrose of Milan (c.339-97 CE), the doctrine of Mary’s perpetual virginity was vigorously defended: ″Blessed Mary is the gate, whereof it is written that the Lord hath entered in by it; therefore, it shall be shut after birth; for she both conceived and brought forth while still a virgin.″ It was not until the Lateran Council of 649 CE, which was convened in Rome and attended by the Western Church, that it was proclaimed an article of faith that Jesus was conceived ″without seed″ and that Mary ″incorruptibly carried, her virginity being unaffected even after his birth.″ All of this is happening despite the fact that the Gospels state that Jesus had siblings and sisters (Mark 3.32, Matthew 12.46, Luke 8.19).
3. She was immaculately conceived
Since the time of Saint Ambrose, it has been widely acknowledged in Western theology that Mary never committed a sin.Was her sinlessness in this life, however, due to the fact that she was born without ″original sin″?As a matter of fact, according to Western theology, each and every human being was born with original sin, which is considered to be the ″genetic″ result of the transgression of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.Due to an increasing cult of devotion to the Virgin Mary during the medieval period, there were fine-grained theological disagreements on the subject.
- On the one hand, devotion to Mary gave rise to the notion that God had made certain that Mary was not born into a state of ″original sin.″ However, if Mary had been created without sin, she would have been redeemed prior to the redemption brought about by the death and resurrection of her son, Jesus.
- It wasn’t until 1854 that the Catholic Church was able to fix the situation.
- All Catholics, according to Pope Pius IX, should hold fast to the doctrine holding that the Blessed Virgin Mary, in the first instance of her conception…
- was preserved free from all stain of original sin.
- This is a doctrine revealed by God that all Catholics should hold fast to firmly and consistently.
4. She ascended into heaven
The early decades of the Christian tradition were deafeningly silent on the subject of Mary’s death.However, by the seventh and eighth centuries, the belief in the physical ascension of Mary into heaven had gained a solid foothold in both the Western and Eastern churches, and was widely accepted.More information may be found at: What may paradise be like, according to today’s essay?Those who belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Greek Church believed in Mary’s dormition.
- In accordance with this, Mary died in a natural way, and her soul was thereafter accepted by Christ.
- Her corpse was discovered on the third day following her death.
- She was then carried physically into the presence of God.
- According to Catholic tradition, Mary either rose from the dead after a brief period of repose in death and then ascended into heaven, or she was ″assumed″ physically into heaven prior to her death, which has been a source of debate for centuries.
- In 1950, the belief in Mary’s ascension into heaven was officially recognized as Catholic teaching.
- After that, Pope Pius XII proclaimed that Mary was not subject to the law of lingering in the corruption of the tomb, and that she did not have to wait until the end of time for her body to be redeemable.
5. She is a sky goddess
When Mary was physically exalted into heaven, no bodily relics were left behind for us to venerate.Despite the presence of breast milk, tears, hair and nail clippings, the majority of her relics were of a ″second order″ nature, including clothing, jewelry, veils, and shoes.In the lack of her skeletal remains, her worshippers had to make do with visions — in Lourdes, Guadalupe, Fatima, Medjugorje, and other pilgrimage destinations.Her pilgrimage sites, like those of the other saints, were places where she might be summoned in order to beseech God to grant the requests of her followers.
- But she was much more than a saint in the traditional sense.
- In popular devotion, she was depicted as a sky deity who constantly wore blue clothing.
- She was the goddess of the moon and the star of the sea, and she was revered as such (stella maris).
- She was tied to the star sign Virgo (which is not unexpected), and she was known as the Queen of Heaven and the Queen of the Angels, among other titles.
How Early Church Leaders Downplayed Mary Magdalene’s Influence by Calling Her a Whore
She was Mary of Magdala, one of Jesus of Nazareth’s early disciples, and she was one of the most famous women in the world.It is said that she journeyed with him, witnessed his Crucifixion, and was one of those who were informed of his Resurrection, all according to the Scriptures.Everybody, from early church officials and historians to authors and filmmakers, has contributed to the revision and expansion of the tale of Mary Magdalene throughout history.On the one hand, they downplayed her significance by stating she was a prostitute, a wrecked woman who repented and was rescued by Christ’s teachings.
- On the other hand, they emphasized her value by claiming she was a prostitute, a ruined woman who repented and was saved by Christ’s teachings.
- Mary Magdalene, on the other hand, is represented in several early Christian scriptures as more than just a mere follower; she is also depicted as Jesus’ close companion—which some have taken to suggest his wife.
- Which begs the question: is there any truth to either of these tales?
- What exactly do we know about Mary Magdalene, the lady who is considered to be the most intriguing woman in the Bible?
- WATCH: Jesus: A Biography on the HISTORY Vault
What the Bible Says About Mary Magdalene
However, only the Gospel of Luke discussed Mary Magdalene’s role in Jesus’ life and ministry, listing her among ″some women who had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities″ (Luke 8:1–3).All four canonical gospels of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) noted Mary Magdalene’s presence at Jesus’ Crucifixion, but only the Gospel of Luke discussed her role in his life and ministry.According to Luke, when Jesus drove out seven devils from her, Mary joined a group of women who went with him and his twelve disciples/apostles, ″proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God.″ They were ″proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God.″ However, although Magdalene is not a surname, it is associated with the city of Magdala, which is located in Galilee, in the northernmost area of ancient Palestine, and from whence Mary hailed (now northern Israel).In the words of Robert Cargill, an associate professor of classical and religious studies at the University of Iowa who is also the editor of the Biblical Archaeology Review, ″Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus’ early supporters.″ ″She was mentioned in the Gospels, which indicates that she was significant.
- There were hundreds, if not thousands, of followers of Jesus, but we don’t know the names of the majority of them, according to what we know.
- As a result, the fact that she has been identified is significant.″ Mary Magdalene had an important role in the tale of the Resurrection, which took place after Jesus’ crucifixion, which she observed from the foot of the cross with many other women, and after all of Jesus’ male disciples had fled from the scene.
- In accordance with the gospels, Mary went to Jesus’ tomb on Easter Sunday, either alone herself (according to the Gospel of John) or in company with several women, and discovered that the tomb was vacant.
- The ladies are the ones who go to the disciples and inform them what has happened, as Cargill points out.
- That’s crucial since they were the ones who found that Jesus had resurrected from the dead.
- According to the Gospel of John, Jesus personally comes to Mary Magdalene after his Resurrection and urges her to inform his followers of his appearance (John 20:1-13).
READ MORE: What Did Jesus Look Like When He Was Alive?
Mary Magdalene as sinner
Because of Mary Magdalene’s obvious significance in the Bible—or maybe because of it—some early Western church leaders attempted to minimize her power by presenting her as a sinner, notably as a prostitute, according to the Bible.In Cargill’s words, ″There are many academics who think that because Jesus empowered women to such a great extent early in his career, it made some of the males who would govern the early church uncomfortable later on.″ In response to this, there were two different reactions.She was to be turned into a prostitute, for example.″ Early church leaders conflated Mary with other women mentioned in the Bible in order to portray her as the original repentant whore.These women included an unnamed woman, identified in the Gospel of Luke as a sinner, who bathes Jesus’ feet with her tears, dries them, and applies ointment to them (Luke 7:37-38), as well as another Mary, Mary of Bethany, who also appears in Luke.
- Pope Gregory the Great clarified this confusion in a sermon in 591 A.D., saying, ″We think that the Mary, whom Luke names the wicked woman and whom John calls Mary, is the Mary from whom seven demons were evicted according to Mark.″ ‘By becoming a prostitute, she has diminished in importance.’ It has a negative impact on her in some manner.
- Look at what she did for a job, and you can see why she couldn’t have been a leader,″ Cargill adds.
- ″Of course, the second option was to advance Mary to the next level.
- Some believe she was actually Jesus’ wife or friend, rather than his mother.
- ″She had a particular place in the world.″ READ MORE: The Bible Claims That Jesus Was a Real Person.
- Is there any further evidence?
Mary Magdalene as Jesus’s wife
While some early Christians wanted to downplay Mary’s influence, others sought to emphasize her as a source of inspiration.Several centuries after Jesus’ death, the Gospel of Mary, a document dating from the second century A.D.that was discovered in Egypt in 1896, ranked Mary Magdalene higher in wisdom and influence than Jesus’ male disciples.She was also extensively featured in the so-called Gnostic Gospels, a collection of books thought to have been authored by early Christians as far back as the second century A.D.
- but which were not discovered until 1945, near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi, and which were written in Greek.
- According to one of these manuscripts, referred to Mary Magdalene as Jesus’ friend and said that Jesus loved her more than the other disciples.
- This document is known as the Gospel of Philip.
- Possibly the most contentious statement in the scripture was that Jesus used to kiss Mary ″frequently on her.″ Damage to the writing rendered the final word illegible, while some scholars have substituted the word ″mouth″ for the unreadable term.
- In the years after its publication, Dan Brown’s enormously popular mystery The Da Vinci Code has been consumed by tens of millions of readers worldwide.
- The premise of the novel revolves around the long-held belief that Jesus and Mary Magdalene had children together.
This concept was also at the heart of The Last Temptation of Christ, a novel written by Greek writer Nikos Kazantzakis in 1955 that was subsequently made into a film directed by Martin Scorsese, as well as the cinematic adaptation of the novel.And then there was the discovery of a previously unknown papyrus fragment in 2012 that was considered to be a copy of a second-century narrative in which Jesus refers to Mary Magdalene as ″my wife,″ according to Karen King, a professor at Harvard Divinity School.She ultimately changed her mind after being bombarded with criticism and concluded that the so-called ″Gospel of Jesus’s Wife″ was most likely a fake after defending the document’s validity.
Mary Magdalene as trusted disciple
The Bible, on the other hand, provided no indication that Mary Magdalene was Jesus’ wife.One can’t get a sense of that type of connection from any of the four canonical gospels, despite the fact that they include the women who travel with Jesus and, in some cases, their husbands’ names as well.The depiction of Mary Magdalene as a prostitute endured for decades after Pope Gregory the Great declared it official in his sixth-century sermon, though neither Orthodoxy nor Protestantism embraced it once their respective religions separated from the Catholic Church later in the sixth century.At long last, in 1969, the Church acknowledged that the text of the Bible did not support such interpretation..
- Mary Magdalene is now venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, and her feast day is observed on July 22nd in all four of these denominations.
- According to Cargill’s conclusion, ″Mary appears to have been a disciple of Jesus.″ ″What’s noteworthy is that Jesus had both male and female disciples in his ministry, which was not often the case at the time,″ says the author.
- He notes that while the prostitute and wife hypotheses have been around for centuries, they are tales and customs that have developed long after the fact: ″Neither of them is anchored in the Bible itself.″ MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: The Evolution of Christian Thought
Marriage of the Virgin – Wikipedia
It is the theme of Christian art when it depicts the union of the Virgin Mary and Saint Joseph, which is called the Marriage of the Virgin.It is not stated in the canonical Gospels, but it is described in apocryphal sources and subsequent redactions, most notably in the 14th century compilation The Golden Legend, which describes the marriage.It is not a feast day in the church calendar, unlike many other moments from the Life of the Virgin cycles (such as the Nativity of Mary and the Presentation of Mary), despite the fact that it has been celebrated on occasion in the past.When it comes to Eastern Orthodox tradition, this is virtually the same scenario, with very similar iconography, that is supposed to depict a previous scene, the ″Entrusting of Mary to Joseph,″ in which Joseph is appointed as Mary’s guardian by the temple authorities.
- In art, the theme could be represented in a variety of ways, and the betrothal of Mary, complete with Joseph’s blooming rod, was frequently shown, despite the fact that it was based on an apocryphal story.
- Wedding processions are often shown, particularly during the Early Medieval period.
The betrothal legend in the Golden Legend
- Giotto’s Scrovegni Chapel was completed in 1303.
- The Rods Were Delivered to the Temple Luca Signorelli’s The Marriage of the Virgin, c.
- 1490–1491 (Luca Signorelli, The Marriage of the Virgin).
It is recounted in the Golden Legend, which gets its tale from the much older Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, that the High Priest assembled all male descendants of David of marriageable age, including Saint Joseph, while Mary was 14 and lived in the Temple.The High Priest instructed them to each bring a rod, and he who had the rod that would grow flowers was divinely appointed to be Mary’s husband, according to the story.Following the descent of the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove and the blossoming of Joseph’s rod, he and Mary were married according to Jewish tradition.The following is the full text of the account: When she had reached the age of womanhood, the high priest declared to everyone that the virgins who had been raised in the Temple and who had reached the age of womanhood should return to their homes and be given in lawful marriage.The others complied with the order, and Mary was the only one who stated that she was unable to do so since her parents had devoted her to the service of the Lord, as well as because she herself had promised her virginity to the Almighty.
Then, as the high priest was entering the oratory to seek God’s guidance, a voice rang out for all to hear, saying that each of the marriageable men of the house of David who had not yet taken a wife should bring a branch and lay it on the altar, that one of the branches would burst into flower and the Holy Ghost would come to rest upon it in the form of a dove, as prophesied by Isaias, and that he would be the Joseph was one of the gentlemen who arrived.It was revealed to everybody when the Virgin put a branch on the altar and it immediately burst into blossom, and a dove descended from Heaven and perched on its peak, making it clear that she was to be Joseph’s wife.It is true that none of the early apocryphal accounts, nor the Golden Legend, describe the actual ceremony, and they all differ as to its timing, other than to say that it occurred before the ″Journey to Bethlehem.″ According to the New Testament narrative, the Annunciation happened after their engagement but before their marriage, hence it is uncertain whether this story takes place before or after the Annunciation.
- It appears after the Annunciation in the Gospel of James, while it appears before the Annunciation in the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, which is the major source in the Western tradition.
- Sculptures by Giotto, the Scrovegni Chapel, and the Wedding Procession of Mary (1303) In bigger cycles of the Life of the Virgin, the scene, or scenes, were a common component, and as a result, they were very commonly encountered, particularly in the Middle Ages; nevertheless, it is not included in the usual cycle of hours.
- The marriage scene has been painted by a number of artists, including Giotto, Perugino, Raphael, Ventura Salimbeni (1613, his last painting), Domenico Ghirlandaio (1485-1490, at the Tornabuoni Chapel), Bernardo Daddi (now in the Royal Collection), Tiburzio Baldini, Alfonso Rivarola, Francesco Caccianiga, Niccol Berrettoni
- Thomas Aquinas was a philosopher and theologian who lived in the fifth century. ″Summa Theologica III, q29 (Summa Theologica III). When it comes to the Mother of God’s adulation, ″Andrea Sansonvino
- Sansonvino, Andrea The Wedding, a marble sculpture by Loretto in Italy (1526), depicts a couple being married.
Saint Joseph was the earthly father of Jesus Christ and the spouse of the Virgin Mary, according to the gospels of Matthew and Luke, who first mentioned him in the book of Matthew.
Who Was Saint Joseph?
- Saint Joseph is a biblical person who is revered as the bodily father of Jesus Christ in various Christian denominations.
- He is venerated as a saint in many Christian denominations.
- It is in the gospels of Matthew and Luke that Joseph first appears in the Bible; in Matthew, Joseph’s ancestry can be traced all the way back to King David.
According to the Bible, Joseph was born in 100 B.C.E.and subsequently married the Virgin Mary, who was to become the mother of Jesus.He died in Israel about the year 1 A.D.
Fact and Fiction
- Almost all we know about Saint Joseph, Mary’s husband and the foster father of Jesus, comes from the Bible, and the few times he is mentioned, it isn’t particularly impressive.
- The 13 New Testament books authored by Paul (the epistles) contain no mention of him at all, and the Gospel of Mark, the earliest of the four Gospels, makes no mention of him at all.
- Joseph’s genealogy is traced back to King David in the gospels of Matthew and Luke, with one of them (Matthew) tracing Joseph’s pedigree all the way back to King David.
Additionally, some apocryphal writings — such as the second-century Protevangelium of James and the fourth-century History of Joseph the Carpenter — muddy the historical waters even further by portraying Joseph as a widower with children when he met Mary, and by claiming that he lived to the ripe old age of 111 years.But these assertions are false, and the church does not recognize them as such.
Marriage to Mary
- As soon as Joseph discovered that Mary was already pregnant, he chose to divorce her privately, knowing that if he did so openly, she would be stoned to death (Matt.
- Because he was ″a kind man and hesitant to put her to disgrace,″ he did not want to ″bring her to shame.″ An angel, on the other hand, appeared to Joseph and informed him that the child Mary was carrying was the son of God and had been conceived by the Holy Spirit, and as a result, Joseph decided to keep Mary as his wife.
Joseph was visited by an angel again after Jesus’ birth in Bethlehem, this time to warn him and Mary of the impending bloodshed brought on by King Herod of Judaea against the infant.Once again the angel arrived, telling Joseph that Herod had died and commanding him to return to the Holy Land.Joseph again fled to Egypt with Mary and Jesus.Joseph, Mary, and Jesus relocated to Nazareth, in Galilee, in order to avoid Bethlehem and probable acts by Herod’s successor, Herod Antipas.Because Joseph is described as a ″tekton,″ which historically meant ″carpenter,″ it is likely that he taught Jesus his trade when he was in Nazareth, according to the Gospels.
The Bible does not mention Joseph’s name again beyond this point, despite the fact that his parents are named twice in the tale of Jesus in the temple: ″both his parents.″
Death and Sainthood
- Joseph’s death is not known, however it is likely that he died before Jesus’ career began, and it is inferred that he died before Jesus was crucified (John 19:26-27).
- Joseph was already the patron saint of Mexico, Canada, and Belgium when Pope Pius IX named him the patron saint of the worldwide church in 1870.
- Pope Pius XII declared May 1 as ″Feast of Saint Joseph the Worker″ in 1955, in response to the Communists’ May Day celebrations in the United States.
We aim for accuracy and fairness in all we do. If you see something that doesn’t appear to be quite right, please let us know!
Tomb of the Virgin Mary – Wikipedia
- A façade from the twelfth century of Mary’s Tomb; a plan and vertical cross-section of the location Located in Jerusalem’s Kidron Valley at the foot of the Mount of Olives, the Church of The Holy Sepulchre of Saint Mary, also known as the Tomb of the Virgin Mary (Hebrew: ; Greek: v; Armenian: ), is considered by Eastern Christians to be the burial site of Mary, Jesus’ mother.
- It is dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
- A 250-year-old arrangement between religious communities applies to the location, which is known as ″the Status Quo.″
- According to the Sacred Tradition of Eastern Christianity, Mary died a natural death (the Dormition of the Theotokos, or the falling asleep), just like any other human being; that her soul was received by Christ upon death; and that her body was resurrected on the third day after her repose, at which time she was taken up into heaven in anticipation of the general resurrection.
- According to one tradition, her grave was discovered to be empty on the third day.
- The Assumption, according to Roman Catholic belief, is the process by which Mary was ″assumed″ into heaven in bodily form; nonetheless, the question of whether or not Mary truly died physically remains open in the Catholic perspective.
In a statement issued on June 25, 1997, Pope John Paul II stated that Mary had died naturally before being taken up into Heaven.When the Emperor Marcian and his wife, Pulcheria, went to Jerusalem to attend the Council of Chalcedon in the 5th century, they requested the relics of the Virgin Mary from Juvenal, the Patriarch of Jerusalem.According to a narrative known as the Euthymiaca Historia (written most likely by Cyril of Scythopolis in the 5th century), they were refused (451).In response, Juvenal stated that on the third day following Mary’s burial, her tomb was discovered to be empty, with just her shroud remaining in the church of Gethsemane as a reminder of what had happened.As early as 452, the shroud was transferred to Constantinople, where it was housed in the Church of the Virgin of Blachernae (Panagia Blacherniotissa).
Others believe that the Cincture of the Virgin Mary was left behind in the tomb, or that she dropped it herself during the Assumption ceremony.
- In 1972, Bellarmino Bagatti, a Franciscan friar and archaeologist, excavated the site and found evidence of an ancient cemetery dating to the 1st century; his findings have not yet been subject to peer review by the wider archaeological community, and the validity of his dating has not been fully assessed.
- Bagatti interpreted the remains to indicate that the cemetery’s initial structure consisted of three chambers (the actual tomb being the inner chamber of the whole complex), was adjudged in accordance with the customs of that period.
- Later, the tomb interpreted by the local Christians to be that of Mary’s was isolated from the rest of the necropolis, by cutting the surrounding rock face away from it.
An edicule was built on the tomb.A small upper church on an octagonal footing was built by Patriarch Juvenal (during Marcian’s rule) over the location in the 5th century; this was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 614.During the following centuries the church was destroyed and rebuilt many times, but the crypt was left untouched, as for Muslims it is the burial place of the mother of prophet Isa (Jesus) (Jesus).It was rebuilt then in 1130 by the Crusaders, who installed a walled Benedictine monastery, the Abbey of St.Mary of the Valley of Jehoshaphat; the church is sometimes mentioned as the Shrine of Our Lady of Josaphat.
The monastic complex included early Gothic columns, red-on-green frescoes, and three towers for protection.The staircase and entrance were also part of the Crusaders’ church.This church was destroyed by Saladin in 1187, but the crypt was still respected; all that was left was the south entrance and staircase, the masonry of the upper church being used to build the walls of Jerusalem.
- In the second half of the 14th century Franciscan friars rebuilt the church once more.
- The Greek Orthodox clergy launched a Palm Sunday takeover of various Holy Land sites, including this one, in 1757 and expelled the Franciscans.
- The Ottomans supported this ″status quo″ in the courts.
- Since then, the tomb has been owned by the Greek Orthodox Church and the Armenian Apostolic Church of Jerusalem, while the grotto of Gethsemane remained in the possession of the Franciscans.
- The rock-cut was created by The Tomb of Mary and its entrance, which is decorated with icons on its front side; the eastern apse of the crypt.
- There is now a glass encasement over the stone bench where the Virgin’s corpse was laid down.
- The cruciform chapel that protects the tomb has been dug in a rock-cut cave that was reached by a large descending stairway that dates back to the 12th century.
It is preceded by a walled courtyard to the south.The chapel of Mary’s parents, Joachim and Anne, is located on the right side of the staircase (facing east).The chapel was originally constructed to house the tomb of Queen Melisende of Jerusalem, the daughter of Baldwin II, but the sarcophagus has since been removed by the Greek Orthodox Church from its original location.There is a chapel dedicated to Saint Joseph, Mary’s husband, which was originally constructed as a mausoleum for two additional female relations of Baldwin II, and is located on the left (towards the west).The chapel dedicated to Mary’s tomb may be found on the eastern side of the church.
The east apse is also home to the altars of the Greeks and Armenians.The mihrab, which points in the direction of Mecca, is located in a niche south of the tomb and was placed when Muslims had joint ownership of the church.At the moment, the Muslims no longer have ownership rights to this property.
- A Syriac altar may be seen on the western side of the building.
- The shrine is in the property of the Armenian Patriarchate, the Armenian Apostolic Church of Jerusalem, and the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, respectively.
- Minor privileges are granted to the Syriacs, the Copts, and the Ethiopians.
- An ancient tradition, originally reported by Epiphanius of Salamis in the 4th century AD, claimed that Mary spent her final years at Ephesus, Turkey, and that this was where she met her husband John the Baptist.
- This belief was inferred by the Ephesians from John’s presence in the city, as well as Jesus’ orders to John to look for Mary after his death.
- Epiphanius, on the other hand, pointed out that, while the Bible describes John departing for Asia, it makes no reference of Mary accompanying him on his journey.
Tradition in the Eastern Orthodox Church holds that the Virgin Mary lived in the vicinity of Ephesus, at Selçuk, where there is a place currently known as the House of the Virgin Mary, which is venerated by Catholics and Muslims alike.However, the Eastern Orthodox Church claims that she only lived there for a few years, despite accounts of her spending nine years there from the time of her birth until her death.However, despite the fact that no information regarding Mary’s death or burial is supplied in the New Testament stories, and many Christians think that no such information exists in early apocrypha, some apocryphon are cited as evidence for Mary’s death and burial (or other final fate).The Book of John, which was written in the first, third, fourth, or seventh centuries, and which describes the Dormition of Mary, both situate her tomb in Gethsemene, as does the Treatise on the Death of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which was published in the fourth century and which describes her death.In his travelogues from 560-570 AD, the traveler Antoninus of Piacenza states that the valley had ″the basilica of the Blessed Mary, which they say was her dwelling; in which is exhibited a sepulchre, from which they say that the Blessed Mary was brought up into heaven.″ In later centuries, the saints Epiphanius of Salamis, Gregory of Tours, Isidore of Seville, Modest, Sophronius of Jerusalem, German of Constantinople, Andrew of Crete, and John of Damascene mention Jesus’ burial place as being in Jerusalem, and they bear witness to the fact that this tradition was accepted by all of the churches of the East and the West.
- Following a Nestorian tradition, the Turkmen Keraites believe that a second tomb of the Virgin Mary might be found at Mary, Turkmenistan, a town that was once known by the name of Mari. Various other theories assert that, after escaping the crucifixion, Jesus, together with the Virgin Mary, traveled to India, where they resided until the end of their lives. The Ahmadiyya organization believes that Mary was buried in the town of Murree, Pakistan, and that her tomb is currently housed in the shrine Mai Mari da Ashtan, which is located in the town of Murree. The legitimacy of these assertions has not yet been confirmed academically, and there has been no scholastic or academic inquiry into them, nor has the Holy See or anybody else given their canonical confirmation. Another legend among the Christians of Nineveh in northern Iraq is that the tomb of Mary is located in Erbil, and that the location of the tomb is linked to the direction of tilt of the former Great Mosque of al-Nuri minaret in Mosul, according to the tradition. The crypt holding the tomb is reached through a staircase with 47 steps leading from the entryway.
- The lowest section of the entry stairwell
- Saints Joachim and Anne Chapel, with icons of the two saints
- A front decorated with symbols, as well as an entry door
- the Tomb of Mary
- A front decorated with symbols, as well as an entry door
- the Tomb of Mary
- The stone bench on which the Virgin’s corpse was laid down
- the marble sarcophagus
- and the marble sarcophagus.
- The western apse of the crypt has an image of Mary and Christ.
- The Abbey of Saint Mary in the Valley of Jehosaphat is located in the valley of Jehosaphat.
- The Feast of the Dormition of the Theotokos (according to Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic theologies)
- The Feast of the Annunciation (according to Eastern Catholic theologies)
- The Assumption of Mary (which is the same event, but interpreted differently by Roman Catholic theology)
- House of the Virgin Mary, a Catholic shrine atop the Turkish mountain of Koressos
- What Should a Mother Do? may be found at AmericanCatholic.org
- and the United Nations Conciliation Commission can be found at United Nations Conciliation Commission (1949). Cust, 1929, The Status Quo in the Holy Places
- United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine Working Paper on the Holy Places
- United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine Working Paper on the Holy Places Pope John Paul II’s general audience on Wednesday, June 25, 1997
- Catholic Encyclopedia, Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary
- Serfes, Father Demetrios (1 March 1999), Belt of the Holy Theotokos, archived from the original on 31 January 2010, retrieved 16 October 2010
- Serfes, Father Demetrios (1 March 1999), Belt of the Holy Theotokos, archived from the original on 31 January 2010, retrieved 16 October 2010
- Serfe In Alviero Niccacci’s article ″Archaeology, New Testament, and Early Christianity″ Archived 2012-10-23 at the Wayback Machine, Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Faculty of Biblical Sciences and Archaeology of the Pontifical University Antonianum in Rome, the author discusses archaeology, the New Testament, and early Christianity in the ancient world. Work is still being done on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (A Work in Progress)
- a b c d e f g h I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I On September 27, 2006, the original version of this article was archived. The document was retrieved on the first of August, 2014. The following is a CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Geary, 1878, p. 88
- Adomnán is a slang term for ″Adomnán’s brother″ (1895). A pilgrimage to the Holy Land on Arculfus’s behalf (about the year A.D. 670). Arculf is mentioned on page 17 of the Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society’s publication on Arculf (1890). The Holy Places visited by Antoninus Martyr about the year 570 A.D are listed below. Clermont-Ganneau, C.S., Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, London, Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, London, Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, London, Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, London, Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, London, Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, London, Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, London, Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, London, Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, London, Palestine (1899). J. McFarlane’s translation of Archaeological Researches in Palestine, 1873-1874, from the French is available online. Vol. 1, London: Palestine Exploration Fund (pp. 20-21)
- Cust, L.G.A. Vol. 1, London: Palestine Exploration Fund (pp. 20-21)
- Cust, L.G.A. (1929). The current state of affairs in the Holy Places. High Commissioner of the Government of Palestine
- Suzanne Olsson, H.M.S.O. for the High Commissioner of the Government of Palestine In Kashmir, Jesus was crucified. Mary’s claimed ultimate resting site in Mari Ashtan, Pakistan, is documented in the book The Lost Tomb (2019), which includes photographs and more resource links
- Fabri, F. (1896). Felix Fabri (approximately 1480–1483 A.D.) vol. I, part II, a collection of poems. Paleo-Pilgrims’ Text Society (pages. 464-469)
- Geary and Grattan (pp. 464-469)
- (1878). From Bombay to the Bosphorus, a voyage across Asiatic Turkey is recounted in this book. Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington
- Herbermann, C.G., eds., Vol. 2. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington
- Herbermann, C.G., ed., Vol. 2. (1901). Encyclopedia of the Catholic Church, Encyclopedia Press
- Le Strange, G. (1890). Between the years 650 and 1500, Palestine was ruled by Muslims, and the region was known as Syria and the Holy Land. The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund is based in London. OCLC 1004386 (pages 210 and 219)
- Maundrell, H. (pages 210 and 219)
- Maundrell, H. (pages 210 and 219)
- Maundrell, H. (1703). A journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem during the Easter season in the year 1697. The Theatre Press in Oxford printed this edition. On page 102, Moudjir ed-dyn is mentioned (1876). Sauvaire is a French word that means ″saved″ (ed.). Histoire de Jérusalem et d’Hébron depuis Abraham jusqu’à la fin du XVe siècle de J.-C. : fragments de la Chronique de Moudjir-ed-dyn. (pp. 27, 33, 193)
- Murphy-O’Connor, J. Histoire de Jérusalem et d’Hébron depuis Abraham jusqu’à la fin du XVe siècle de J.-C (2008). The Holy Land: An Oxford Archaeological Guide from the Earliest Times to the Year 1700 is a book on archaeology in the Holy Land. Oxford Archaeological Guides are published by Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press, p. 149. ISBN 978-0-19-923666-4. Oxford University Press, p. 149. Obtainable on the 16th of September, 2016.
- J. Phokas, Phokas & Associates, Inc. (1889). Journey to the Holy Land on the Pilgrimage of Johannes Phocas. Denys Pringle, Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society (pp. 20-21)
- Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society (pp. 20-21). (2007). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: The city of Jerusalem, Vol. III. The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: The city of Jerusalem, Vol. III. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-39038-5 (pp. 287-306)
- Roberts, A. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-39038-5 (pp. 287-306)
- Roberts, A. (1886). The Twelve Patriarchs, Excerpts and epistles from the Clementina, the Apocrypha, the Decretals, the Memoirs of Edessa and Syriac records, the Remains of the First Ages: Volume 8 of The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers (Volume 8 of The Ante-Nicene Fathers) All the way back to A.D. 325. Publishers: C. Scribner’s Sons
- Vogüé, de
- M. Vogüé (1860). Les églises de la Terre Sainte. (pp. 305 – 313)
- Warren, C.
- Conder, C.R. Les églises de la Terre Sainte (1884). The Survey of Western Palestine: Jerusalem, London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund (pages. 40 and 4