What Year Was Jesus Crucified According To The Bible?

Year of the Crucifixion

Two British physicists, Colin J.Humphreys and W.G.Waddington, have demonstrated that the fourteenth of Nisan could have fallen on a Friday in only two of the years framed by AD 26 and AD 36 (the years spanning all Passovers when Pilate was governor of Judea): in AD 30 and 33.1We can therefore determine the correct year of the Crucifixion through a process of elimination.Using astronomical calculations, Colin J.

  1. Humph There are two reasons why the year 30 is impossible.

Reasons AD 30 Cannot Be the Year of the Crucifixion

First reason

Tiberius was in his fifteenth year, according to Luke, when John the Baptist began preaching (Luke 3:1–3).As evidenced, for example, by the histories of Tacitus, Suetonius, and Dio Cassius, Tiberius’ fifteenth year extended from January 1, AD 29 to January 1, AD 30 according to official Roman counting.2 It is conceivable that Luke is employing a type of Jewish counting in this passage.If such is the case, he is setting the beginning of John’s ministry no earlier than the month of Nisan in the year 28.3 Despite this, Luke’s Gospel is addressed to ″the very excellent Theophilus,″ who was almost certainly a Roman official at the time.

  1. It is likely that the writer utilizes standard Roman reckoning in his date of events for this and other reasons, as well as for other ones.
  2. 4 As a result, the prophetic voice of John was first heard in the year 29.
  3. In light of the Gospel records, which demonstrate that Jesus was active as a teacher and healer for more than three years, it is impossible to believe that Jesus began His ministry later in the same year and concluded it before Passover of 30 on the first day of the month of Abib.
  4. As a result, it is impossible that AD 30 was the year of the Crucifixion.
  5. Nonetheless, many historians and Bible instructors attributed the Crucifixion to the year AD 30 more than a century ago.

They assumed that when Luke calculated the reign of Tiberius, he included the period during which he held great power under Augustus before to the emperor’s death in AD 14 as part of the calculation.This perspective, however, has been undermined by a century of fresh findings.There is no evidence of counting from a previous beginning point in any of the papyri, coins, or inscriptions that have been discovered.5Throughout the empire, the same counting of the emperor’s years was employed, and according to that enumeration, the fifteenth year of Tiberius was AD 29.Due to the fact that Luke clearly wanted his date to be understood by readers all over the world, it is implausible that he employed some arcane technique of calculation.

Second reason

When Pilate was appointed to his office in Judaea in 26 CE, the emperor Tiberius placed a great deal of trust in a man named Sejanus to oversee the day-to-day business of administration.Seventh, it is quite likely that Sejanus chose Pilate as his successor.Because this Sejanus, according to the Jewish writer Philo, was vehemently anti-Jewish,8 it should come as no surprise that his appointment Pilate was, during his early years in office, brutally oppressive of the Jewish people.PILATE was known to intentionally disrespect Jewish religious beliefs on multiple occasions, and at least once was known to brutally punish individuals who raised their voices in protest.9 Pilate, on the other hand, is shown in a different light in the Gospels.

  1. Instead of standing firm in his determination to free Jesus, he submits meekly to the Jewish authorities’ push to have Him crucified.
  2. What is the source of his inconsistency in behavior?
  3. The most compelling theory takes into consideration the political atmosphere in Rome.
  4. Sejanus was put to death in late 31 when he was detected scheming against the emperor and sentenced to death.
  5. The upshot was that everyone affiliated with Sejanus would have been under suspicion and in danger of being fired or subjected to more severe punishments.

Pilate was particularly vulnerable since he had incited disturbance among the people under his command on several occasions, and because, following Sejanus’ death, the emperor adopted a new policy toward the Jews, one of conciliation rather than persecution.11In actuality, Pilate was only in office until the year 36.12If the Crucifixion occurred on the 30th day of the 30th month, Pilate’s behavior during the trial of Jesus seems out of character.If it fell in the number 33, his actions were an indication of his fragile financial circumstances.

Evidence external to Scripture

Humphreys and Waddington have proved that a lunar eclipse was seen in Jerusalem on April 3, AD 33, as previously reported.Approximately 6:20 p.m., the moon was rising above the Mount of Olives, and the darkened section was at the top of the moon’s horizon.The moon was a noticeably crimson tint, as though it had been smeared with blood.13 During the whole period of probable years for the Crucifixion, from AD 26 to AD 36, no other lunar eclipse was seen from Jerusalem at Passover time during that period.This finding offers substantial credence to the idea that the Crucifixion and the Resurrection took place on the same day, for two reasons.

  1. One of two possibilities exists: either a bloody moon rose on the scene where Jesus had just shed His blood for the sins of mankind, or it rose by happenstance on the date that experts have incorrectly attributed to the Crucifixion based upon other evidence. The former appears to be significantly more plausible
  2. on the day of Pentecost, just a few days after the Crucifixion, Peter repeated the words of Joel, an Old Testament prophet (Acts 2:17–21), which seems to indicate that he was speaking about Jesus. 28 And it shall come to pass after that, that I will pour out my spirit on all flesh, and your sons and daughters will prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, and your young men will see visions: 29 Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, and your young men will see visions. Furthermore, I will pour out my spirit on the slaves and handmaids throughout those days as well. 30 And I will perform miracles in the sky and on the earth, shedding blood and igniting fire, and raising pillars of smoke. 31 Before the great and awful day of the LORD arrives, the sun will be turned into darkness, and the moon will be transformed into blood. 32 Moreover, it shall come to pass that whomever calls on the name of the LORD will be delivered:.. 2:28–32 (Joel 2:18–32) Earlier in the day of Peter’s lecture, Jesus’ followers had emerged from a home in Jerusalem and courageously testified for their Lord by speaking to guests at the feast in all of their original languages, demonstrating their love for him. Following this clearly miraculous act performed by a small number of Galileans, thousands of people flocked to witness what had happened, and Peter rose to address them (Acts 2:1-16). He reminded them that God had promised in Joel’s prophesy that He would pour forth His Spirit on His slaves and handmaids, and he used Joel’s prophecy to support this claim. He further pointed out that, according to Joel, the Spirit’s descent would occur at the same historical moment as two spectacular heavenly indications, which he described as follows: ″The sun will be transformed into darkness, and the moon will be turned into blood,″ says the prophet. It is recorded in the Synoptic Gospels that when Jesus was hanging on the cross, darkness came upon the area from from midday to approximately 3 P.M. (Matt. 27:45
  3. Mark 15:33
  4. Luke 23:44). Despite the fact that they do not mention the moon turning blood, Peter’s citation from Joel leaves little doubt that this melancholy vision in the evening sky was also widely viewed on the day of Jesus’ death. The use of Joel’s vision to demonstrate that the disciples had been filled with the Holy Spirit was extremely effective since everyone in the audience was still in awe after witnessing both of these heavenly manifestations only a few days earlier
  5. and

Julian Date of the Crucifixion

At long last, we are prepared to reach a critical decision.The Crucifixion took place in the year AD 33, which is the only year we can fairly ascribe to it.In recent years, there has been a growing consensus among New Testament experts that this was the correct year.14 Jack Finegan, long considered as the doyen of Biblical chronology, is among many who have backed it in recent months.15 Many experts have previously expressed skepticism about this date, stating that it is unlikely that Christianity could have spread throughout the world by the early 1950s if the church in Jerusalem was founded as recently as 33.

  1. Shifting the start date of Christianity back to 30 AD made the rapid spread of Christianity seem less amazing.
  2. Consequently, by acknowledging that the number 33 was the correct starting date, we realize just how amazing this growth was, and we may respond by giving full credit to the might of God for its accomplishment.
  3. The evidence presented in prior classes has proven beyond a reasonable question that Jesus died on Friday, the fourteenth day of the Jewish month of Nisan, as previously stated.
  4. Humphreys and Waddington have demonstrated that the Julian date of Nisan 14 was April 3 in the year AD 33.
  5. 16As a result, we infer that the Crucifixion occurred on April 3, AD 33, as previously stated.

Vatican: Bible Confirms Jesus Was Not Crucified

In a recent statement, the Vatican stated that a recently discovered 2,000 year old Bible uncovered in Turkey states that Jesus Christ was not crucified, as is popularly thought.The Gospel of Barnabas is contained inside the Bible, which is presently housed at the Ethnography Museum of Ankara.Barnabas is considered to be one of Christ’s forgotten followers.It is said in the Gospel that Jesus was not crucified, nor was he the literal son of God – but that he was rather a Prophet of God.

BYPASS THE CENSORS

Sign up to have uncensored news sent directly to your email every weekday.You have the option to unsubscribe at any time.By subscribing, you acknowledge and agree to our Terms of Service.According to Natives-today.com: The Apostle Paul is also referred to as ″The Impostor″ in the book.

Also said in the book is that Jesus went to heaven while still alive, and that Judas Iscariot was executed in Jesus’ place.According to a story published by The National Turk, the Bible was captured from a group of smugglers during an operation in the Mediterranean region.According to the article, the group was accused with smuggling antiquities, conducting illegal excavations, and having explosives in their hands.The books alone are worth up to 40 million Turkish Liras (about $40 million) (approx.28 mil.

Dollars).Man, where has the Thieves Guild been hiding when you’ve needed them the most?Authenticity academics and religious officials in Tehram, according to reports, are firm in their belief that the book is authentic.The book itself is written in Aramaic, the language of Jesus Christ, on loosely-tied leather with gold letters in the style of the Gospels.

  • The text preserves a worldview that is akin to Islam, which is in direct conflict with the teachings of the New Testament on Christianity.
  • Furthermore, Jesus predicts the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad, who would subsequently start the Islamic religion 700 years later.
  • It is thought that the Catholic Church hand-picked the gospels that would eventually become the Bible as we know it during the Council of Nicea, discarding the Gospel of Barnabas (among many other gospels) in favor of the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, among other things.

Many ancient writings, including those from the Dead Sea and Gnostic Gospels, have begun to surface throughout time; however, one book in particular appears to be causing concern within the Vatican.The Catholic Church is interested in joining.What does this entail for faiths descended from Christianity and its adherents?It’s a tight squeeze here.The Vatican has urged Turkish authorities to allow them to investigate the contents of the book within the Church, which they have agreed to do.Is it possible that they will come to accept the book and the facts it contains now that it has been discovered?

  • Will they categorically dispute the claim?
  • In 2000, the magazine ″Truth″ labeled it a ″Muslim falsehood.″ Is that accurate?
  • It is hoped that believers would quickly discover that the object of their worship is arbitrary, and that every literature, especially religious text, is susceptible to interpretation as a result of reading this book, which is a beacon of hope for many.
  • For atheists, agnostics, and secular philosophers, what does this entail is unclear.
  • There isn’t much…
  • Is the text authentic?
  • Fake?

Is it really that important?No, not at all…However, it is hoped that this news would encourage religious people to ask questions rather than pointing fingers or accepting things at face value.

Please refrain from making light of or throwing around the phrase ″I told you so!″ One of the greatest dangers of religion is when individuals believe what they want to believe, defending their beliefs against any and all evidence; this is especially true when that data fundamentally alters their beliefs from the very beginning.And the ego trap is the most dangerous of all dangers: rejecting or condemning others because they are different from you.Since the beginning of time, the ″defend″ of blind religion has propelled nations into war, discrimination, enslavement, and the development of a society of automatons that we are today; and for just as long, it has been justified with fabrications and lies.If you know better, then behave as if you do.

What Year was Jesus Crucified on the Cross? God Answered Me

When was Jesus crucified on the cross, and what year was it?I inquired, and He responded.When I was completing Bible prophecy calculations for the Second Coming of Jesus Christ, I came to a complete halt?Why?

As a result, we are unable to determine the precise year in which Jesus was crucified.When I was searching the internet, I came across a plethora of different years.Many were between the years 28 AD and 33 AD.The particular year in which Jesus was killed is critical in determining the precise season in which Jesus Christ will return in line with Bible prophecy.I wanted to work with precise time in order to determine the exact season in which Jesus Christ would arrive.

As a result, I returned to God in search of an explanation.’When were you crucified, Jesus Christ?’ I inquired of Jesus Christ.That night, He appeared and responded with a resounding ’32 AD’ in a booming voice.In the year 32 AD, Jesus was crucified at the Jewish festival of Passover.

  • End-Time prophecy brothers, when calculating the season Jesus will return in line with Bible prophecy, utilize the year 32 AD as the precise year Jesus was crucified on the cross in order to determine the exact season Jesus Christ will return.
  • Jesus is on his way.
  • Repent, repent, and repent again, for the kingdom of heaven is almost at hand.

What year did Jesus die in the Bible?

Based on these approaches, the majority of experts believe that Jesus was born between 6 and 4 BC, and that his teaching began about AD 27–29 and lasted between one and three years. They estimate that Jesus’ death took place between AD 30 and AD 36, depending on the source.

See also:  What Jesus Favorite Color

Where is the crucifixion story in the Bible?

Most academics agree that Jesus’ birth occurred between 6 and 4 BC, and that his preaching began about AD 27–29 and lasted one to three years, based on these techniques of dating. Between the years AD 30 and AD 36, according to their calculations, Jesus’ death occurred.

When did crucifixion begin and end?

Between around 600 BCE and 400 CE, crucifixion was a common means of capital punishment, notably among the Persians, Seleucids, Carthaginians, and Romans, and was particularly popular in Greece and Rome.

Did Jesus die on Good Friday?

On Good Friday, Christians commemorate Jesus’ execution and death on the cross at Calvary, which took place on the day before Easter. Traditionally, it is held on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday, as part of the Paschal Triduum, and it may overlap with the Jewish celebration of Passover.

When was God born What year?

On Good Friday, Christians commemorate Jesus’ crucifixion and death on the cross at Calvary, as well as his resurrection from the dead. Traditionally, it is held on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday, as part of the Paschal Triduum, and it may overlap with the Jewish celebration of Passover.

Is the place where Jesus was crucified still there?

JERUSALEM Continuing their inquiry into the spot where the corpse of Jesus Christ is commonly thought to have been buried, researchers have discovered that elements of the tomb are still in existence today, despite centuries of damage, destruction, and restoration.

What was the name of the mountain that Jesus was crucified on?

Golgotha (Aramaic for ″Skull″), also known as Calvary (from the Latin calva, meaning ″bald head″ or ″skull″), is a skull-shaped hill in ancient Jerusalem that served as the location of Jesus’ crucifixion and burial. It is mentioned in all four of the Gospels (Matthew 27:33, Mark 15:22, Luke 23:33, and John 19:17). 4 days have passed since the beginning of the year.

Why did Jesus die for our sins?

But why did Jesus suffer and die? They believed that Jesus’ death was a necessary element of God’s plan to rescue humanity. The death and resurrection of this one man is at the very center of the Christian faith, and his story is told throughout the Bible. People’s shattered connection with God is repaired, according to Christians, as a result of Jesus’ death on the cross.

Who was Jesus crucified next to?

In apocryphal literature, the impenitent thief is given the name Gestas, which first comes in the Gospel of Nicodemus, and his accomplice is given the name Dismas, which first appears in the Gospel of Nicodemus. It is believed by Christian tradition that Gestas was crucified to the left of Jesus and that Dismas was crucified to the right of Jesus on the cross.

Is crucifixion still used today?

In Saudi Arabia, judges have the authority to impose a punishment known as ″crucifixion″ even in the modern day. ″Crucifixions take place immediately following the beheading,″ according to Amnesty International, which works against all kinds of death punishment worldwide.

How long did it take to die on the cross?

Someone who is nailed to a cross with their arms extended out on each side should expect to survive no more than 24 hours if they do not die. It was planned to drive seven-inch nails through the wrists in order for the bones there to be able to sustain the body’s weight.

What does the Bible say about Good Friday?

″It is possible to say that on the first Good Friday afternoon, the magnificent deed by which light defeated darkness and kindness defeated sin was finished. ″This is the marvel of our Lord’s crucifixion,″ says the author. ″We, too, are crucified with Christ, yet we are alive in Christ because of the cross.″

Why do we not eat meat on Good Friday?

Also commemorated as a holy day is the last Friday of Lent, the 40-day Catholic observance during which Catholics refrain from eating meat on Fridays. As Christians commemorate their savior, Jesus Christ, dying on the cross on Good Friday, refraining from meat is a gesture of gratitude for his selfless act on our behalf.

What Year In The Jewish Calendar Was Jesus Crucified?

According to Matthew 8:26, Jesus died on the 14th of Nisan, 3793 annomundi, on Friday, April 3, AD 33, at around 3:35 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. We began celebrating Passover day approximately an hour before the start of the Sabbath and the beginning of Passover.

What Year Was Jesus Crucifixion?

According to the New Testament, Jesus was most likely crucified on Friday, April 3, at around 3:33 a.m.

What Is Nisan 14 In The Bible?

In light of this, consider the theme of John (for example, 19:9-14, 19/19:46, and 19:42), which assumes that Nisan 14 commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus; whereas 19:13-14, 1931, and 19:46) depicts John in light of the Feast of Unleavened Bread (the Synoptic Gospels depict a corpse on St. Mark’s Day).

What Year In The Hebrew Calendar Was Jesus Crucified?

According to the evidence, the crucifixion took place on Friday, April 3, AD 33, according to the New Testament. According to the official Jewish calendar, the period for the Passover lamb sacrifices was Nisan 14, which was the 14th of Nisan. As a result, Christ was crucified and killed on this same date.

What Calendar Year Did Jesus Die?

According to the evidence, the crucifixion took place on Friday, April 3, AD 33, and was witnessed by hundreds of witnesses. On the official Jewish calendar, Nisan 14 was the day on which the Passover lamb sacrifices would take place. As a result, Christ was crucified on this same date.

When Did The Crucifixion Of Jesus Begin?

According to an earlier estimate, Nisan 7 April would have been the fourteenth day of the year A. In the meantime, some scholars believe he lived between 30 and 33 AD, depending on the source. According to the majority of contemporary scholars, the year 30 is the most likely year for Jesus’ death to have occurred.

What Does Nisan Mean In The Bible?

Nisan. Niosan is a noun that is referred to as the plural form (nasan). The first month of each year is computed according to the Jewish calendar by subtracting the last month of the civil year from the total number of days in the year, which is 31.

Is Nisan 14 A Sabbath Day?

Every week in the Bible is marked with a Sabbath, known as the Feast of Weeks.A large number of individuals observe Nisan 15 following the first day of Passover week (Unleavened Bread), and also during miqra and rest time (Nashan).In other systems, this divergence happened in the event of Nisan 13 or 14, respectively.Alternatively, certain Sabbaths may be celebrated on a weekly basis or perhaps only once a year, depending on the culture.

What Happened In The Month Of Nisan In The Bible?

In addition to the Passover holiday of relieving one’s thirst, the Egyptian Slavery was ultimately abolished at this time. On the Hebrew and Babylonian calendars, the month of Nisan (or Nissan – Hebrew 2: /1, Standard N*san, Tiberian N*s *n,) begins with the maturity of barley in the eighth month of the year, which corresponds to the beginning of the harvest season.

Is Passover On The 14Th Or 15Th?

When Passover does not fall in the months of March or April on the Gregorian calendar, the holiday traditionally begins 15 days before Nisan, which is the first day of the month of Nisan. The seder dinner is eaten during the evening of the 15th day, which occurs after the 14th day on the Jewish calendar.

When Was Jesus Christ Crucified and Resurrected?

As recorded in Matthew 12:38, a group of scribes and Pharisees approached Jesus and requested for a sign to show He was the Messiah.However, Jesus informed them that the only sign He would provide would be similar to that of the prophet Jonah: ″For just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the big fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth″ (Matthew 12:38).(Matthew 12:40).The question is, how can we accommodate ″three days and three nights″ between a Friday afternoon crucifixion and a Sunday morning resurrection?

According to this conventional perspective, Jesus was only entombed for about a day and a half after his death.A number of people feel that Christ’s ″three days and three nights″ remark does not necessitate a precise period of 72 hours, believing that a portion of one day can be counted as a whole day.As a result, because Jesus died in the afternoon, they believe that the remainder of Friday constituted the first day, Saturday the second, and a portion of Sunday the third day.It is overlooked by these critics, however, because this theory only accounts for two nights: Friday evening and Saturday evening.Something is clearly wrong with the traditional perspective of when Christ was buried, and it is not difficult to see why.

Specifically, the passage from Jonah 1:17, to which Christ alluded, reads that ″Jonah remained in [the belly of] the fish three days and three nights.″ We have no reason to believe that Jesus intended simply two nights and one day, plus portions of two further days.In the event that Jesus remained in the tomb just from late Friday afternoon until early Sunday morning, the sign He delivered indicating that He was the predicted Messiah would not have been fulfilled, as previously stated.Please take a moment to thoroughly consider each of the Gospel accounts.When we do this, we unearth the true tale of how Jesus’ words were perfectly fulfilled, a story that was previously unknown.

  • Take note of the events described in Luke 23.
  • Luke 23:46-53 tells the story of Jesus’ death and burial, which took place in a hurry because of the approaching Sabbath, which began at sundown that evening.
  • Following that, Luke 23:54 explains, ″That day was the Preparation, and the Sabbath was drawing nigh.″ Many have thought that the weekly Sabbath is being referenced here, and that Jesus was killed on a Friday as a result of this assumption.

However, according to John 19:31, the impending Sabbath ″was a high day″—not the weekly Sabbath (which runs from Friday sunset to Saturday sunset), but the first day of Unleavened Bread, which is one of God’s yearly high, or Sabbath, days (as opposed to the weekly Sabbath) (Exodus 12:16-17; Leviticus 23:6-7).It was possible, and in most cases, that these yearly Holy Days would fall on days of the week other than the traditional weekly Sabbath day.After witnessing Christ’s corpse being deposited in the tomb just before sunset on Wednesday evening, the women ″returned and prepared spices and aromatic oils″ for the final preparation of the body on Thursday morning, thereby marking the beginning of the high-day Sabbath on Wednesday and Thursday.Due to the fact that it was a breach of the Sabbath, such labor would not have been done on a Saturday.As recorded in Mark’s account, ″Now when the Sabbath had passed, Mary Magdalene and her sister Mary the mother of James, and Salome went out and bought spices, so that they may come and anoint Him″ (Matthew 26:35).(Mark 16:1).

  • The ladies had to wait until the end of this yearly ″high day″ Sabbath before they could go out and purchase and prepare the spices that would be used for anointing Jesus’ body.
  • They then ″rested on the Sabbath in accordance with the law″ on Saturday, after acquiring and preparing the spices and oils the previous day (Luke 23:56).
  • This second Sabbath stated in the Gospel reports corresponds to the ordinary weekly Sabbath, which is celebrated from Friday sunset to Saturday sunset every week.
  • Through careful examination of specifics found in both Gospels—where Mark informs us that the women purchased spices after the Sabbath, while Luke informs us that they prepared the spices before resting on the Sabbath—we can plainly discern that two separate Sabbaths are referenced.
  • The first, according to John 19:31, was a ″high day″—the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which happened on a Thursday in the year A.D.
  • 31.
  • The second was a ″low day″—the first day of the Feast of Weeks.

The second was the weekly Sabbath on the seventh day of the week.″While it was still dark,″ according to John 20:1, after the ladies had had their normal weekly Sabbath rest, they went to Jesus’ tomb on the first day of the week, Sunday, and discovered that He had already been raised (Matthew 28:1-6; Mark 16:2-6; Luke 24:1-3).It becomes evident when we look at the specifics in all four Gospel texts that the picture is painted in black and white.

Jesus was killed and entombed late on Wednesday afternoon, shortly before the Jewish Sabbath began at sunset the same evening.That particular Sabbath, however, was a high-day Sabbath, lasting from Wednesday sunset to Thursday sunset that week, rather than the ordinary weekly Sabbath, which lasts from Friday sunset to Saturday sunset every week.The Lord Jesus Christ was buried in the tomb from the evening of Wednesday until the evening of Saturday, when He rose from the dead.While no one was present at His resurrection (which took place within a sealed tomb), it had to have occurred about sundown on Saturday, three days and three nights after His body was entombed, according to the biblical timeline.It couldn’t have happened on Sunday morning since when Mary Magdalene arrived at the tomb that morning before daylight, ″when it was still dark,″ she saw the stone had been moved away and the tomb had been left vacant.

We may be confident that the period of Jesus’ entombment, which He used as proof that He was the Messiah, was exactly the length of time He had predicted.Exactly three days and three nights after He was laid in the tomb, Jesus resurrected from the dead.Because the majority of people are unfamiliar with the biblical high days that Jesus Christ and His followers observed, they are unable to comprehend the historical elements that have been meticulously preserved for us in the Gospels.

(For additional information, please see our free booklet Holidays or Holy Days: Does It Make a Difference Which Days We Observe?, which you can download or request here.)

Quake Reveals Day of Jesus’ Crucifixion

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  • According to the New Testament, Jesus was most likely crucified on Friday, April 3, 33 A.D., according to the historical record. The most recent analysis, which was published in the journal International Geology Review, was focused on earthquake activity near the Dead Sea, which is located 13 miles from the Israeli capital of Jerusalem. The earthquake that occurred at the crucifixion is mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 27: ″And after Jesus had cried out again in a loud voice, he gave up his spirit.″ The temple’s curtain was split in half from top to bottom at that same time. ″The earth trembled, the rocks cracked, and the graves burst open,″ he says. To better understand earthquake activity in the region, geologists Jefferson Williams of Supersonic Geophysical and Markus Schwab and Achim Brauer of the German Research Center for Geosciences examined three cores taken from the beach of the Ein Gedi Spa, which is located adjacent to the Dead Sea. The results were published in the journal Nature Geoscience. In the sediments, varves, which are annual layers of deposition, reveal that the core was affected by at least two major earthquakes: a widespread earthquake that occurred in 31 B.C. and a seismic event that occurred between 26 and 36 AD in the early first century, both of which occurred in the core. Specifically, Williams noted that the latter time happened during ″the years when Pontius Pilate was procurator of Judea and during the era when the earthquake in the Gospel of Matthew is factually restricted.″ It is known with a good degree of clarity when the crucifixion (also known as Good Friday) took place, according to him. However, the year has been a source of contention. In terms of textual indications concerning the date of the crucifixion, Williams cited a Nature research written by Colin Humphreys and Graeme Waddington that was published in 2011. In his summary of their investigation, Williams stated that: ″All four gospels, as well as Tacitus in the Annals (XV,44), concur that the crucifixion happened within the time period of 26-36 AD when Pontius Pilate was procurator of Judea.″
  • Every one of the four gospels claims that Jesus was crucified on a Friday.
  • Each of the four gospels agrees that Jesus died a few hours before sunset on Friday, marking the beginning of the Jewish Sabbath.
  • It appears that Jesus died before nightfall on the 14th day of Nisan
  • this would have been just in time to begin serving the Passover meal. John’s gospel, however, differs from the synoptic accounts, apparently indicating that Jesus died before nightfall on the 15th day of Nisan
  • this would have been just in time to begin serving the Passover meal.

Taking into account information from the Jewish calendar and astronomical calculations, the researchers were able to come up with a number of plausible dates, with Friday, April 3, 33 AD, being the most accurate match, according to the researchers.For the sake of simplicity, Williams and his team acknowledge that the seismic activity associated with the crucifixion could refer to ″an earthquake that occurred sometime before or after the crucifixion and was in effect ‘borrowed’ by the author of the Gospel of Matthew, and a local earthquake between 26 and 36 A.D.that was sufficiently energetic to deform the sediments of Ein Gedi but not sufficiently energetic to produce a still extant and extra-biblical histor″ (history of It is possible that the earthquake reported in Matthew’s Gospel is an allegory, according to the authors, if the last scenario is confirmed.Williams is looking at another another natural occurrence that might be connected with the crucifixion – the occurrence of darkness.

According to three of the four canonical gospels, there was complete darkness from midday to 3 PM following the crucifixion.Such darkness, according to him, may have been brought on by a dust storm.Williams is looking at whether or not there are dust storm deposits in the sediments associated with the earthquake that struck the Jerusalem region in the early first century.Discovery News contributed the information for this story.

See also:  Who Did Jesus Resurrect?

BC and AD, BCE and CE: What’s the Difference?

The Gregorian calendar is the universally recognized system for determining dates across the world.Despite the fact that it has its roots in the Western Christian tradition, its use has expanded around the world and has now transcended religious, cultural, and language barriers.Gregorian calendar is based on the alleged birth date of Jesus Christ, as is well known to the majority of the population.Year numbers after this event are counted up from it and are accompanied by either AD or CE, whilst year numbers before it are counted down from it and are accompanied by either BCE or BC.

What is the difference between AD and CE, or BC and BCE, you might wonder.Do they both signify the same thing, and if they do, which one should we choose to use?This article gives an overview of the systems that are in competition with one another.

BC and AD

Dionysius Exiguus, a Christian monk who lived in the year 525, was the first to propose the concept of counting years from the birth of Jesus Christ.Standardized under the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the system extended throughout Europe and the Christian world over the course of several hundred years following its establishment.AD is an abbreviation for Anno Domini, which is Latin for ″in the year of the Lord,″ while BC is an abbreviation for ″before Christ.″

BCE and CE

CE is an abbreviation for ″common (or current) era,″ whereas BCE is an abbreviation for ″before the common (or current) era.″ These abbreviations have a shorter history than BC and AD, however they have been in use since at least the early 1700s at the latest.These abbreviations have been used by Jewish scholars regularly for more than a century, but gained wider acceptance in the latter half of the twentieth century, replacing BC/AD in a variety of sectors, most notably science and higher education.

Why Have Some People Adopted BCE/CE?

The religious neutrality of BCE/CE is a crucial consideration in its adoption.Non-Christian organizations may protest to the overtly Christian roots of the BC and AD dates, as the Gregorian calendar has surpassed all other calendars and established itself as the international norm for timekeeping.AD (″in the year of the Lord″) is particularly difficult because of the inevitable suggestion that the Lord in issue is none other than Jesus Christ.Religious neutrality was the primary motivation for Jewish scholars’ acceptance of BCE/CE more than a century ago, and it continues to be the most often claimed explanation for the system today.

Others, on the other hand, are opposed to the BC/AD system on the grounds that it is objectively wrong.Some contend that directly tying years to an erroneous birthday for Jesus is arbitrary or even deceptive, given that it is commonly agreed that the true birth of Jesus happened at least two years before AD 1.It avoids this error by not directly referencing the birth of Jesus, so alleviating some of the baggage connected with our date system while simultaneously accepting that the beginning point for the year 1 CE is essentially arbitrary.

Pushback

Despite the fact that BCE/CE has been in the mainstream since the 1980s, the shift towards it has not been fully embraced, and BC/AD is still more often used than BCE/CE.There have been protests against the implementation of the new system in defense of BC/AD, most notably in 2002 when the United Kingdom National Curriculum made the switch to the new system.During a similar scandal sparked by media allegations in Australia in 2011, education authorities were compelled to deny that a similar alteration to national school textbooks was being considered.Arousal is often higher among people who believe that the acceptance of a new system is an attempt to erase Jesus Christ from the pages of history.

They say that the entire Gregorian Calendar is Christian in nature, and that there is no reason to try to conceal this reality.Those who oppose the replacement of a system that has been in place for decades and has shown to be effective argue that the existence of two competing abbreviations is likely to generate confusion.In addition, it has been asserted that the BCE/CE period is in reality less religiously inclusive than the BC/AD period.Some believe that BCE/CE amplifies the significance of Christ’s birth to the point that it marks the beginning of an altogether new ″common era,″ whereas BC/AD is only a reference to the event.

Current Status and Recommendations

  • Most style guides do not state a preference for one system over another, yet BC/AD continues to be the system of choice in the majority of journalistic circumstances. Academic and scientific literature, on the other hand, are more likely to use BCE/CE. We do not endorse one system over the other since there are convincing justifications for each system and because both systems are in widespread usage. When given the option, authors are allowed to adopt their own preference or the preference of their target audience
  • nevertheless, they should use their chosen system consistently, which means that BC and CE should not be used together, or vice versa, unless otherwise specified. There are also other typographic norms to keep in mind, including: The letter BC should appear after the number year, while the letter AD should occur before the numerical year. In the years 1100 BC and 1066 AD, the letters BCE and CE should also appear after the numerical year. 1066 CE
  • As is the case with most initialisms, periods may be used after each letter, as in 1100 BCE and 1066 CE. It is customary to write the years 1100 BCE, 1066 AD, and 1066 CE in small capitals, while other style guidelines advocate writing the years 1100 BCE and 1066 CE in large caps. The year 2017

Of fact, authors are frequently exempt from having to make a decision at all.Outside of historical settings, the distinction between BCE and CE (or BC and AD) is normally superfluous, and it is commonly recognized that when the year in issue is not indicated, the year in question is CE (or AD).Accordingly, CE is rarely used to indicate dates that occurred within the previous few hundred years of human history (or AD).The linguists at Antidote came up with the idea for this essay.

Antidote’s language guidelines provide a comprehensive discussion of the norms and practices of the English language.More information may be found here.

Jesus’ 33 Years

We’ve all had tough weeks at some point in our lives, and it’s normal.I am not aware of anyone who is impervious to difficult and/or trying circumstances.It has been my privilege to witness people suffer and die prematurely at various stages of their life.At this time of year, parents have reported missing children.

During this time of year, many children have lost their parents.They have something special: they are sharing a loss with God at this time of year, which is unusual.Death is difficult at any time of year, but I believe it is even more difficult when it strikes around Christmas or Easter, or around a birthday or anniversary.Jesus died when he was 33 years old.That appears to be very early in many people’s lives, and they are in the prime of their lives.

Have you ever questioned why the number 33?In the Bible, numbers are generally associated with important meaning.So, what is the significance of Jesus’ death at the age of 33, when He was in the prime of His life?One of my favorite lecturers would often respond to numerous unanswerable theological topics with the phrase, ″We just don’t know,″ as if he were speaking for everyone.

  • What we do know is that at the age of 33, a number of key events occurred in His life, including the following: His betrayal came from one of His own followers, Judas; Peter, another disciple, publicly rejected Jesus; others spit on Him; some hit Him, wounding him physically and causing Him much anguish; He was insulted; He was executed; and He died a horrific death on the cross.
  • Final words from the young man of 33 were simple: ″Father, pardon them, for they have no idea what they are doing.″ he said.
  • This week, are you 33 years old?

Do you ever wonder about what it would be like to be 33 years old in your life?Every time a someone tells me they are 33 years old, I always answer by reminding them that this is the age at which Jesus was crucified and died on the cross for you and me.What was I doing when I was 33 years old?I was at seminary, gaining a better understanding of my Lord and Savior.That was a wonderful way to spend my thirty-third year of life, learning about my Savior and your Savior at the same time.According to research, many people report that they were at most happiest when they were about the age of 33.

  • This is something I might agree with.
  • I was learning more about my Lord and Savior at the time, and I was in a relatively good health for my age and stage of life.
  • Jesus was only 33 years old when he died, and I have not come close to doing as much as He accomplished in that short period of time.
  • I’m sorry to be the bearer of bad news, but neither have I.
  • In comparison to what Jesus did for each and every one of us during His 33rd year of life, there is nothing we can do to measure up.
  • By His grace, He decided to give up His life for us, allowing us to be cleansed of our sins and to one day enjoy an everlasting life in paradise, as He did for us.
  • Would you be willing to drink a glass of water that included a teaspoon of sewage?

Would you be willing to drink a glass of water that was half-filled with raw sewage?Would you be willing to drink a whole glass of nothing but sewage?The answer is a resounding nay.

The fact is that we all have sin in our lives, regardless of how much we have or how little we have.Christ is the only solution for eradicating sin from our lives.This Easter, express gratitude to God for the gift of Christ and eternal life.It is our responsibility as sinners to be grateful that Christ loved us enough to provide us with forgiveness and numerous opportunities to become members of His heavenly and eternal kingdoms.

What was the real date of Jesus’ birth?

Since the early twentieth century, many Mormons have believed that they had discovered the precise date of the first Christmas celebration.An apostle of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints named James E.Talmage declared in a book titled ″Jesus the Christ″ (1915) that ″We believe that Jesus Christ was born in Bethlehem of Judea on April 6, B.C.1,″ and that ″Jesus Christ was crucified in Bethlehem of Judea.″ Elder Talmage did not come up with this date on the spur of the moment.

His inspiration for the phrase came from Section 20 of the Doctrine and Covenants, which is a series of revelations received primarily through the Mormon founding prophet, Joseph Smith Jr.As a result of his book, many Mormons, from church officials to members of the congregation, now acknowledge April 6 as the true date of Jesus’ birth.Although Elder Talmage’s reading of Doctrine and Covenants 20 was widely accepted, not every member of the LDS Church did.Jeffrey R.Chadwick, an associate professor of church history and doctrine at Brigham Young University, published an article in the latest issue of BYU Studies on ″Dating the Birth of Jesus Christ″ in which he challenges the popular but not universal Mormon dating of Jesus’ birth to April 6, which is contested by many Christians.

And he’s in good company to boot.President J.Reuben Clark Jr., a counselor in the First Presidency of the LDS Church, wrote in 1954 that Christ was born in December of 5 B.C.or early 4 B.C., according to the LDS Church.

  • Elder Bruce R.
  • McConkie, who was also an apostle at the time, preferred the date of December 5, B.C., as well as several dates in 4 B.C.
  • The date of April 6 is derived from the day on which the LDS Church was first formed in 1830, which is April 6.
See also:  Who Sang Personal Jesus?

″The rise of The Church of Christ in these last days, being one thousand eight hundred and thirty years since the coming of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ in the flesh, it (the church) being regularly organized and established in accordance with the laws of our country, by the will and commandments of God, in the fourth month, and on the sixth day of the month which is called April,″ says the first verse of D&C 20.Some people, including Elder Talmage, have read this verse as if it is the Lord speaking and revealing precisely that Christ was born on April 6, 1830, and that the revelation was given on that day.Steven C.Harper, an assistant professor of church history at Brigham Young University and a volume editor of the Joseph Smith Papers, said in a phone interview that this is a common interpretation of the verse.The discovery of a previously unknown D&C 20 manuscript, however, revealed that the verse was actually an introductory head note written by early church historian and scribe John Whitmer — something Whitmer did for many of the revelations, according to Harper — rather than a verse in the book of Mormon.″As a result, they are distinct from the scriptures that Joseph generates by revelation.″ Another interesting point to note about the paper, which was disclosed as part of the Joseph Smith Papers, is that the revelation was delivered on April 10 – not April 6.

  • Accordingly, despite the fact that it refers to the organization of the church just a few days earlier, the revelation — which, according to Harper, has nothing to do with the birth date of Christ — and its introductory verses ″shouldn’t be read as if it is a revelation of the birth date of Jesus Christ,″ he added.
  • ″It is a revelation of the birth date of Jesus Christ.″ This is all I’m going to say about it: ″The interpretation that has been the most accepted throughout time is very much up to criticism.″ And this wasn’t the first time that John Whitmer used a phrase like this to refer to a particular day in history.
  • ″It is now June the twelfth, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one years after the arrival of our Lord and Savior in the flesh,″ he wrote at another point in his writing career.
  • This style of terminology, in other words, was simply a sophisticated 19th-century means of expressing the date.
  • If one adopts the interpretation of the verse in D&C 20 given by Chadwick, Harper, Elder McConkie, and President Clark, when did Jesus Christ come into the world?
  • When it comes to the date of Jesus’ birth, Chadwick’s article goes into great length about the different indicators that the Bible and the Book of Mormon provide.
  • The death of King Herod the Great appears to be the single most important piece of evidence.

According to the Bible, Jesus was born before Herod’s death.According to Chadwick, Herod’s death was recorded as occurring around the end of March or the beginning of April in 4 B.C.In addition to the reference of a lunar eclipse occurring before Herod’s death, the date on which his son was ousted by Caesar Augustus both validate this date.

Both of those predetermined occurrences came together to confirm Herod’s demise in a seamless manner.It goes without saying that if Herod was killed in 4 B.C., a Christ birthdate in 1 B.C.seems implausible.So, since Jesus had to be born before April 4, B.C., is it possible to reduce the time frame even further?For pages and pages, Chadwick’s work in BYU Studies uses set dates to estimate other dates, and it is a fascinating read.

As an example, he examined the time of Jesus’ death in detail, comparing it to the length of Jesus’ life as recorded in the Book of Mormon, and factoring in events such as Jesus’ circumcision, which took place eight days after his birth, Mary’s 40-day ritual purification, the visit of wise men from the east, and a two-week journey to Egypt into the equation.As a result of all of these occurrences, ″at the very least, Jesus would have had to be born eight weeks before Herod’s death, which occurred at the beginning of April (4 B.C.).″ Chadwick then considers the Annunciation to Mary, in which she is informed that she will bear a son called Jesus.Luke 1:26 places this incident within the sixth month, which corresponded to the period between mid-to-late February and mid-to-late March at the time.

What month was it in 5 B.C.?Add nine months to the end.The evidence from the New Testament, the Book of Mormon, and Josephus’ history, together with input from archaeological and astronomical studies, all lead to a day in December of 5 B.C.(late in the Jewish month of Kislev) as the date of Jesus’ birth, according to Chadwick.As a result, it is possible that the true date of Christmas was on December 25, as previously believed.

As Chadwick stated, ″it is just as likely that Jesus was born on the calendar day we call Dec.25 as it is that he was born on any other date in the few weeks preceding or after that date.″ In those December weeks that we now call to as the Christmas season, ″his birth took place.″ [email protected] is the e-mail address.

Why does the world reckon years from the birth of Jesus Christ?

“Why does the world reckon years from the birth of Jesus Christ?” Ensign, Apr.1993, 55 John P.Pratt, research scientist and member of the Orem Fifth Ward, Orem Utah Stake.The Gregorian calendar, which is now used worldwide, began as the Roman Catholic calendar.

It reckons years as A.D.(anno Domini, “in the year of the Lord”) or B.C.(“before Christ”).Many non-Christian religions retain their own calendars for religious purposes.For example, the Hebrews reckon years from the Creation, Zoroastrians reckon from the birth of Zoroaster, and Muslims reckon from the flight of Mohammed from Mecca (similar to the Nephites reckoning from the flight of Lehi from Jerusalem) (similar to the Nephites reckoning from the flight of Lehi from Jerusalem).

How, then, has this Christian calendar become almost universally accepted as the legal calendar in a predominantly non-Christian world?The answer is apparently twofold: first, the calendar spread around the world with Christian colonization; second, as international trade increased, it became convenient for everyone to use the same calendar.In A.D.325 the Council of Nicaea adopted the Roman calendar as the official calendar of the Roman Catholic Church.

  • Nearly identical to our calendar today, this calendar is called the Julian calendar in honor of Julius Caesar, who introduced it.
  • It was not until two centuries later that our current system of reckoning years from the birth of Christ was devised.
  • At that time a Catholic monk, Dionysius Exiguus, calculated the year of Christ’s birth from the available records and proposed that the Christian Era begin in the year now called A.D.

1.This method of reckoning time from Christ was not widely used until Charlemagne made it official for the Holy Roman Empire in the ninth century A.D.By the twelfth century, England had also begun using the system, which spread around the world with the European colonization that followed.In 1582 Pope Gregory XIII made minor changes to the Julian (or “Old Style”) calendar to make it astronomically more accurate so that Easter would be celebrated at the right time.Thus the calendar became known as the Gregorian (or “New Style”) calendar, and the A.D.reckoning became firmly established as the calendar was adopted by Roman Catholic countries such as Spain and France.

  • Later the Gregorian calendar became less associated with Catholicism and gained popularity because it was accurate and convenient for international trade.
  • It was adopted by several Protestant countries such as those in Scandinavia in 1700, Great Britain in 1752, and countries arising from Great Britain’s worldwide colonies, such as America in 1752 and India in 1757.
  • China adopted the same calendar in 1911, Russia in 1918, and some Eastern Orthodox countries as late as 1940.
  • Today virtually the entire world uses the Gregorian calendar for commercial purposes.
  • In order to remove the Christian implications from the calendar, the designations C.E.
  • (“of the common era”) and B.C.E.
  • (“before the common era”) are sometimes used to replace A.D.

and B.C.It is interesting to note that the Nephites were probably the first nation to reckon years from the birth of Jesus Christ, doing so as early as nine years after the sign of his birth.(See 3 Ne.

2:8.) Thus both world hemispheres independently began reckoning time from Christ’s birth.There have been various attempts to replace the Gregorian calendar so as to not use Christ’s birth as the beginning point.In 1793 France began counting years from the French Revolution the previous year, abandoning the seven-day week and dividing each thirty-day month into three periods of ten days each.This system was discontinued on 1 January 1806 after Napoleon Bonaparte, in order to be recognized by the Pope as the emperor of France, agreed to return to the Gregorian calendar.A more recent example is Sri Lanka.

When that country gained independence in 1966, it opted to revert to the Buddhist calendar, but in 1971 it returned to the Gregorian calendar because of difficulties in international commerce.In sum, the spread of Christian colonization established the calendar we use today, and international commerce continues to motivate its use.

Finding in the Temple – Wikipedia

The Finding in the Temple, also known as Christ among the Doctors or the Disputation (the common titles in art), was an occurrence in Jesus’ early life that is portrayed in chapter 2 of the Gospel of Luke. It was a pivotal moment in Jesus’ life that was reproduced in art. It is the only occurrence from Jesus’ later boyhood that has been recorded in the gospels.

Gospel account

Luke 2:41–52 provides a detailed account of the incident.As a child of twelve years old, Jesus travels to Jerusalem with his mother and father, as well as a large number of their relatives and friends, on a trip ″according to the custom″ – that is, for Passover.Although Jesus ″lingered″ / remained in the Temple on their return day, Mary and Joseph were under the impression that he was with them when he wasn’t in fact with them.As Mary and Joseph went home, they realized that Jesus had gone missing after a day of travel, so they returned to Jerusalem, where they discovered Jesus three days later.

He was discovered in the Temple, where he was having a debate with the elders.They were astounded by his ability to study, especially considering his early age.When Jesus was scolded by Mary, he responded as follows: ″What brought you to me, and how can I help you?Did you not realize that I was required to be at my Father’s residence?″ Later literature, such as the apocryphal 2nd-century Infancy Gospel of Thomas (19:1–12), added a few details to the original account to make it more complete.The loosing of Jesus is the third of Mary’s Seven Sorrows, and the finding of Jesus in the Temple is the fifth Joyful Mystery of the Rosary, which takes place on the Feast of the Annunciation.

In art

Throughout art history, this incident has been shown several times, and it was a typical component of cycles depicting the lives of both the Virgin Mary and Jesus Christ.Early Christian images typically place Jesus in the middle, seated on a high dais surrounded by the elders, who are commonly shown on stepped benches.If Jesus is generally shown pointing to his upraised thumb (as shown in the figure), it is possible that he is using a customary rhetorical gesture to symbolize his act of expounding the text.These representations are derived from ancient works depicting professors of philosophy or rhetoric with their pupils, and they are similar to medieval representations of modern university lectures in a variety of disciplines.

This composition may be seen in the works of Ingres (Montauban, Musée Ingres) and other artists far into the nineteenth century.In paintings from the Early Medieval era onward, the moment shown is frequently equated to the discovery itself, with the presence of Mary at first, and then Joseph as well, who is usually located to the left of the tableau.Typically, Jesus and the physicians are preoccupied with their conversations and are not aware of their presence.Since the 12th century, Jesus has frequently been depicted sitting on a big throne-like chair, perhaps carrying a book or scroll.In late-medieval depictions, the Doctors, who are often seen carrying or consulting large volumes, may be given specifically Jewish features or clothing, and they may even be overtly anti-Semitic caricatures, as in some of the figures in Albrecht Dürer’s version on display at the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum in Madrid, which is a good example of this.

From the High Renaissance forward, numerous artists depicted the scenario in ″close-up,″ with Jesus surrounded by gesticulating intellectuals, as in Albrecht Dürer’s depiction of the incident.At addition to three etchings of the subject (Bartsch 64–66) and one of the considerably more uncommon scenario of ″Jesus returning from the Temple with his parents,″ Rembrandt painted a number of other compositions that included Jewish elders in the Temple (B 60).A version of this scene by the Pre-Raphaelite painter William Holman Hunt, now in the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, was one of a number of subjects from Jesus’ life for which he traveled to the Holy Land to study local details.The painting, The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple, is now on display there.

  • Since the 19th century, the topic has attracted just a few painters, and one of the most prominent recent renderings may be the one painted by Han van Meegeren in front of the Dutch police in order to establish that the paintings he had sold to Hermann Göring were likewise forgeries of a Vermeer.

Gallery

  • This page from a Book of Hours from the 15th century demonstrates the usual medieval construction of treatments on the theme.
  • Duccio di Buoninsegna painted a tempera on wood panel depicting a dispute with the doctors between 1308 and 1311.

See also

  • Seven Sorrows of Mary

References

General sources

In G. Schiller’s Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I, 1971 (English translation from the German), Lund Humphries Ltd., London, pages 124–5 with illustrations (ISBN: 0-85331-270-2), ISBN 0-85331-270-2.

External links

At Wikimedia Commons, you may find images of Jesus Christ that are relevant to physicians.

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