What Did the Jewish Historian Josephus Really Say About Jesus?
You’ll get simple, concise, and biblical solutions to life’s most difficult problems. Listen to Jonathan Morrow’s Your Worldview MinutePodcast on the topic of worldviews. Subscribe through the following methods: iTunes|Android|Google Podcasts|RSS The two of you are having a wonderful talk about Christianity and how you know that Jesus lived without having to state “the Bible says so.” You even mentioned Josephus by name. And then something like this happens. “Yea, another Christian buddy of mine mentioned something about Josephus,” my friend remarked.
After that, I did some research and discovered that the Josephus section that names Jesus is still debated by experts today.” “I’d never heard that before,” you say (while sweating) My preacher has just stated that Josephus demonstrates that Jesus existed.” A friend said, “Perhaps you could check it up and see what it says for yourself.” “Yeah, it appears that I should go ahead and do it.” Gulp… That was a surprise you weren’t prepared for.
Who Was Josephus?
If you are aware of Josephus’s identity, congratulations! (A virtual high-five is headed your way!) If this is not the case, don’t be concerned! Learn all you need to know about Josephus and why he is important in the discussion of Jesus of Nazareth by reading the following articles.
- It is believed that Flavius Josephus lived in the first century AD (between 37 and 100 AD). He was a leader of the Jewish army in Galilee and subsequently became a citizen of Roman society
- The Flavian emperors Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian all engaged him as a historian. Jesus (as well as his brother James, according to Antiquities 20.200) is mentioned in his historical works.
The Disputed “ Testimonium Flavianum ” by Josephus (Jewish Antiquities18.63-64)
However, as we know from our previous talk, some of Josephus’s remarks are subject to debate. This section is so well-known that it has been given a fancy title: “The Testimonium Flavianum.” Here’s what it says: “Around this time lived Jesus, who was a smart man, if one can call him that at all. Due to the fact that he was known for astonishing actions and serving as a teacher to those who were willing to embrace the truth. He gained the support of many Jews as well as many Greeks. He was the promised Messiah.
He came to them on the third day, having been returned to life, as had been predicted by the prophets of God, along with a thousand other wonders around him.
Unfortunately, some of those things about Jesus wouldn’t be spoken by a Jew under any circumstances.
So the whole thing was a hoax created by Christians to deceive the world? No, that would be an overreaction to the data as it has really been presented. The statements made in this section will need to be toned down, but they will not be eliminated entirely.
What Josephus Most Likely Said About Jesus of Nazareth
The statements regarding Josephus, however, are subject to debate, as we know from our previous chat. There is even a fancy term for this passage: “The Testimonium Flavianum,” which means “The Flavian Testimony.” The passage reads: “At around this time lived Jesus, who was a smart man, if one can call him that at all.” In fact, he was a performer of unexpected feats and a teacher of those who were willing to embrace the truth. Many Jews, as well as many Greeks, were won over by his charisma and charm.
- The people who had originally fallen in love with him did not stop loving him after Pilate sentenced him to death on the basis of the accusations of the most powerful men in our community.
- And the Christian clan, which was named after him, has survived to this day.” (This is a translation from the Loeb Classical Library; the italics are my own) In this chapter, I have underlined and italicized the sections that are under debate.
- According to historian Paul Maier, “no Jew could have identified Jesus as the Messiah who rose from the grave unless he had converted to Christianity before making that claim.
- Did Christians invent the whole thing, or did they forge it themselves?
- While some of the statements in this section will need to be toned down, they will not be completely eliminated.
- In addition to having a large number of Jewish and non-Jewish disciples, Jesus was also a knowledgeable and virtuous individual. Under Pilate’s supervision, he was crucified. In the aftermath of his resurrection, there have been stories of him appearing to witnesses. Some claimed that he was the Messiah prophesied by the Jewish prophets
- Others said that he was not.
3 Things Every Christian Should Know About Josephus and Jesus
I purposely avoided getting into the nitty-gritty details since there is enough more to say and argue about the finer topics. However, in regular speech, you will seldom use more than this amount of vocabulary. My hope is that you will be able to put this to good use! The following are three significant findings concerning Josephus and Jesus: (1) Josephus was a Jewish historian who lived in the first century AD and wrote about Jesus (and his brother James cf.Antiquities 20.200). (2) This paragraph (Antiquities18:63-64) is controversial, and it is possible that some Christian interpolations have been inserted (fancy word for some Christian edits or embellishments).
- In addition, knowing this finer point of history will increase your credibility in the discussion.
- In referencing Josephus as an important source of extra-biblical evidence for the historical Jesus, we are still on good ground in our argumentation.
- The Bottom Line: Our faith has its roots in historical events.
- And that’s quite encouraging news.
- In this free guide, you’ll find some of my favorite resources for teens (and the parents of teenagers) including: Who knew a Jewish historian by the name of Josephus could be of such assistance?
Van Voorstand’s Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence is a book on Jesus outside the New Testament. Darrell Bock and Gregory Herrick’s Jesus in Context: Background Readings for Gospel Study is a collection of background readings for gospel study.
Josephus and Jesus
Paul L. Maier, Emeritus Professor Russell H. Seibert is an American businessman and philanthropist. Distinguished Professor of Ancient History at Western Michigan University Jesus of Nazareth was crucified in Jerusalem in A.D. 37, and Flavius Josephus was born in Jerusalem four years after the crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth in the same city. The fact that he was geographically and temporally close to Jesus means that his writings have a near-eyewitness aspect to the events of the New Testament period, as they relate to the complete cultural context of the time period.
- One of his two most important works isJewish Antiquities, which details Hebrew history from the beginning of time to the beginning of the great war with Rome in A.D.
- Josephus was able to preserve tremendous amounts of information in his records because of imperial support from the Flavian emperors in Rome, Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian.
- Because the first Christians were not affluent, it appears that they were limited to only one scroll per person.
- As a result of this context, we should have expected him to make reference to Jesus of Nazareth, and he does so twice, to be precise.
- 26-36), which is the longest secular reference to Jesus in any first-century source.
- 62-64) and the death of Jesus’ half-sister, Mary Magdalene.
For this reason, the above-mentioned Jesus allusions have been challenged for ages, particularly the two Josephus occurrences, which have sparked a large amount of academic work on the subject of the historical Jesus.
Let’s take them one by one and look at them.
Because he was the accomplisher of amazing feats and a teacher to those who are willing to accept the truth, he deserves to be remembered.
He was the promised Messiah.
(With the exception of the following, all Josephus quotes are taken from P.
Maier, ed./trans., Josephus –The Essential Works) (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1994).
According to the Antiquities18:63, Professor Schlomo Pines of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem reported his discovery of a variant manuscript version of Josephus’s works in the tenth-century Melkite historian Agapius in 1972.
Among the Jews and people of various nationalities, a large number of people became his disciples.
Those who had become his disciples, on the other hand, did not lose their commitment to him.
As a result, he may have been the Messiah, about whom the prophets had predicted miracles would occur.
It is apparent that this is language that may have been penned by a Jew prior to his conversion to Christianity.
An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and Its Implications (Schlomo Pines, An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and Its Implications) Antiquities18:63: There are three primary factions of scholars when it comes to antiquities.
- Professor Emeritus Paul L. Maier Russell H. Seibert is an American businessman who lives in the United States. Western Michigan University’s Professor of Classical History In A.D. 37, a Jewish historian named Flavius Josephus was born in Jerusalem, four years after the crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth took place in the same city. The fact that he was geographically and temporally close to Jesus means that his writings have a near-eyewitness character to the events of the New Testament period, as well as to the full cultural background of that time period. They have a considerably greater reach than this, as they also include the Old Testament world as part of their scope. One of his two most important works isJewish Antiquities, which details Hebrew history from the beginning of time to the beginning of the great war with Rome in A.D. 66, and the other isJewish War, which was written first but which covers the period from the destruction of Jerusalem to the fall of Masada in A.D. 73. As a primary source on Jewish history, Josephus is the most complete book that has survived from antiquity, and it has done so almost intact despite its massive size (the equivalent of 12 volumes). Josephus was able to record tremendous amounts of information in his records because of imperial support from the Flavian emperors in Rome, Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. This was a luxury that the Gospel authors were unable to enjoy. Because the first Christians were not affluent, it appears that they were only allowed to own one scroll. In this regard, Josephus has always been regarded as a crucial extrabiblical resource, because his writings not only correlate well with the Old and New Testaments, but they also frequently provide additional evidence on such personalities as Herod the Great and his dynasty, John the Baptist, Jesus’ half-brother James, the high priests Annas and Caiaphas and their clan, Pontius Pilate, and many other historical figures. We should have expected him to make reference to Jesus of Nazareth given the circumstances, and he does so twice, to be precise. Josephus gives the longest secular reference to Jesus in any first-century source in Antiquities18:63, which is in the middle of material on Pontius Pilate (A.D. 26-36). A few years later, in Antiquities20:200, he mentions Jesus once again in connection with the death of Jesus’ half-brother, James the Just of Jerusalem, which occurred under the rule of Roman governor Albinus (A.D. 62-64) These passages, together with other non-biblical, non-Christian references to Jesus in secular first-century sources—including Tacitus (Annals 15:44), Suetonius (Claudius25), and Pliny the Younger (Letter to Trajan)—prove conclusively that any denial of Jesus’ historicity is a slew of sensationalist claims made by the uninformed and/or dishonest. Because the above-mentioned references to Jesus are humiliating to those who believe in him, they have been challenged for ages, particularly the two Josephus instances, which have prompted a large amount of scholarly writing. As a result, they constitute the largest block of first-century evidence for Jesus outside of biblical or Christian sources, and they may well be responsible for the vast works of Josephus having survived manuscript transmission across the centuries almost intact, whereas other great works from antiquity have been lost completely. Let’s take them one at a time and evaluate them. Artifacts from the past 18:63 The following is the usual translation of Josephus: At around this time, Jesus existed, and he was an extremely smart man, if one can call him that at all. In fact, he was a performer of incredible feats and a mentor to those who are willing to embrace the truth. Many Jews, as well as many Greeks, were won over by his charisma and charm. Messiah, he was the one. Even after he was indicted by the most powerful men among us and condemned to death by Pilate, those who had come to love him initially did not cease to do so
- For he appeared to them on the third day, restored to life, as the prophets of the Deity had foretold these and countless other miraculous things about him, and the tribe of Christians, which was named after him, has not vanished to this day. Josephus –The Essential Works (P. L. Maier) is the source for all of the Josephus quotations, with the exception of the following (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1994). Because Josephus could hardly have believed Jesus was the Messiah or in his resurrection, and because he remained a non-Christian Jew for the rest of his life, scholars have long suspected a Christian interpolation into the text of Josephus’s writings, which dates back to the third-century church historian Eusebius. According to the Antiquities18:63, Professor Schlomo Pines of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem reported his discovery of a distinct manuscript version of Josephus’s writings in the tenth-century Melkite historian Agapius in 1972. The manuscript tradition reads as follows: A wise man named Jesus lived at this time, and he was well-known for his upright behavior and moral character. His disciples included many Jews as well as individuals from other cultures. To be crucified and to die, Pilate sentenced him. His disciples, on the other hand, remained committed to him and his teachings. Three days after his execution, they said that he came to them and confirmed that he was still alive. Thus, he may have been the Messiah, about whom the prophets had spoken of miracles and wonders. And the Christian tribe, which was called after him, has survived to the present day without extinction. Clearly, this is language that may have been penned by a Jew who had not yet become Christian. According to Schlemo Pines’ An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and Its Consequences, an Arabic version of the Testimonium Flavianum was written in the first century AD. Antiquities18:63: Scholars can be divided into three fundamental groups.
Josephus must have referenced Jesus in legitimate core material at 18:63, because this text is extant in all Greek versions of Josephus, and the Agapian version is consistent with Josephus’ syntax and terminology elsewhere in the book of Revelation. More to the point, Jesus is shown as a “wise man,” a term that is not commonly used by Christians but is used by Josephus to describe characters such as David and Solomon from the Hebrew Bible. Furthermore, his assertion that Jesus won over “many of the Greeks” is not supported by the New Testament, and so is not a Christian interpolation but rather something that Josephus would have noticed in his own time.
- In the event that Jesus appeared for the first time later in Josephus’s account, he would very certainly have included a term such as “.brother of a certainJesus, who was dubbed the Christ.” Antiquities are scheduled for 20:200.
- It narrates the story of the killing of Jesus’ half-brother, James the Just of Jerusalem, under the leadership of the high priest Ananus, who was the son of the former high priest Annas and the brother-in-law of Caiaphas, both of whom are well-known to readers of the Gospels.
- When he summoned the Sanhedrin together, he brought before them the brother of Jesus who was known as the Christ, whose name was James, as well as a number of other individuals.
- Those city citizens, on the other hand, who were considered to be the most fair-minded and rigid in their adherence to the law, were upset by this.
- Others traveled to see Albinus, who was passing through on his route to Alexandria, and warned him that Ananus lacked the right to summon the Sanhedrin without his authorization.
- And as a result, King Agrippa ousted him from the high priesthood, which he had held for three months at the time of the deposition.
- If there had been Christian interpolation here, additional information about James and Jesus would almost certainly have been supplied rather than this brief, passing mention of the two men.
- The fact that Josephus went on to further identify Jesus as the one “who was called theChristos” was both believable and even necessary in light of the twenty other Jesuses he mentions throughout his works.
- Feldman’s remark in the Loeb Classical Library edition of Josephus that “.few have questioned the authenticity of this section on James” (Louis H.
- As a result, the majority of evidence clearly implies that Josephus did, in fact, mention Jesus in both portions of his writings.
- Furthermore, his second citation, which contrasts the views of the high priest and the Sanhedrin with those of the Roman ruler, closely parallels the Gospel versions of the two opposing factions during the Good Friday event in the temple court.
For a more in-depth study of Josephus and his relevance for biblical studies, see Paul L. Maier, ed./trans., Josephus – The Essential Works (Paul L. Maier, ed./trans., Josephus – The Essential Works) (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1994). Originally published on March 30, 2016.
Why is Josephus important for proving that Jesus existed?
What is the significance of Josephus in establishing the historical existence of Jesus?
Flavius Josephus was a Jewish historian who was born in Jerusalem in 37 CE and lived for the rest of his life there. Having been taken during a conflict against the Romans, Josephus would later go on to become a Roman citizen and would spend the most of his life in the capital city of Rome.
Answer and Explanation:
Josephus was significant in establishing the historical existence of Jesus since he was one of the first non-Christians to write about Jesus from a historical (as opposed to religious) perspective. See the complete response below for more information.
Learn more about this topic:
fromChapter 5/ Lesson 10: The Bible as a Historical Document People frequently believe that the Bible is either a perfectly historical document or an ahistorical one, but it is actually somewhere in the between of the two extremes. In this course, you will discover more about the historical accuracy of the Bible, as well as the motives that led to its composition and compilation.
Explore our homework questions and answers library
Even though billions of people think thatJesus of Nazareth was one of the most important persons in global history, many others do not believe that he really lived. According to a study performed by the Church of England in 2015, 22 percent of individuals in the United Kingdom did not think that Jesus was a genuine person. Scholars of the New Testament of the Christian Bible, on the other hand, are virtually unanimous in their belief that he truly existed. A 2015 article in the Biblical Archaeology Review on the extra-biblical evidence for Jesus, written by Lawrence Mykytiuk, an associate professor of library science at Purdue University and the author of a 2015 article on the extra-biblical evidence for Jesus, points out that there was no debate about the issue in ancient times as well.
Archaeological evidence of Jesus does not exist.
There is no conclusive physical or archaeological evidence of Jesus’ existence, and there will never be. ‘There isn’t anything conclusive, and I wouldn’t expect there to be,’ Mykytiuk said of the findings. “Peasants aren’t known for leaving archaeological evidence,” says the author. “The fact is that we don’t have archaeological records for nearly everyone who lived during Jesus’s time and location,” says Bart D. Ehrman, a religious studies professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and author of the book Did Jesus Exist?
The Shroud of Turin, a linen burial cloth purportedly bearing the image of his face, is one such example.
The sacred crown of thorns, which may be found at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
While some have questioned the reality of ancient Nazareth, Jesus’ biblical boyhood home town, archaeologists have discovered a rock-hewn courtyard structure, as well as graves and a cistern, which they believe to be his home.
Furthermore, tangible proof of Roman crucifixions, such as that of Jesus, as related in the New Testament, has been discovered. MORE INFORMATION:Did You Die Like Jesus? Man Was Crucified 2,000 Years Ago, According to Remains Discovered in a Cave
Documentary evidence outside of the New Testament is limited.
The four Gospels, as well as other New Testament literature, provide the most thorough account of Jesus’ life and death. As Ehrman notes, “These are all Christian organizations that are plainly and naturally prejudiced in their reporting. They must be assessed very seriously indeed in order to establish any historically trustworthy information.” Later sources with a whole different set of biases, however, corroborate its basic assertions about Jesus as a historical figure—that he was a Jew with followers who was murdered on orders from Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea, during the reign of the Emperor Tiberius.” The historical Jesus was referenced by both Jewish and Roman historians within a few decades of his death, in passages that corroborated elements of the New Testament that detail the life and death of the Messiah.
WATCH THIS VIDEO: What Did Jesus Look Like?
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Historian Flavius Josephus wrote one of the earliest non-biblical accounts of Jesus.
During the first century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus’ massive 20-volume history of the Jewish people, which was written around 93 A.D. and is considered by Ehrman to be “far and away our best source of information about first-century Palestine,” Jesus is mentioned twice by him in Jewish Antiquities, according to Ehrman. Aristocrat and military leader in Palestine, Josephus is said to have been born a few years after Jesus’ death around 37 A.D. He served as a commander in Galilee during the first Jewish Revolt against Rome, which occurred between 66 and 70 A.D.
When Josephus narrates an unlawful execution in Jewish Antiquities, he refers to the victim as “James, brother of Jesus-who-is called-Messiah,” according to one source.
While Mykytiuk believes that Christian scribes edited bits of the chapter rather than inserting it entirely into the text, the majority of researchers disagree.
Tacitus connects Jesus to his execution by Pontius Pilate.
In theAnnals of Imperial Rome, a first-century history of the Roman Empire published about 116 A.D. by the Roman senator and historian Tacitus, there is yet another narrative of Jesus. Tacitus states that Emperor Nero unjustly accused “the folks widely known as Christians, who were despised for their enormities” for the burning of Rome in 64 A.D. as he chronicles the event. The name Christus was given to him by Pontius Pilate, the procurator of Judea during the reign of Tiberius, who executed him.” According to Ehrman, Tacitus did not have any Christian prejudices in his depiction of Nero’s persecution of Christians since he was writing as a Roman historian.
“When Tacitus wrote history, if he deemed the information not fully accurate, he typically included some indication of that for his readers,” he adds in vouching for the text’s historical significance.
When it comes to the verse that references Christus, there is no such evidence of a probable mistake. More information may be found at: Why Did Pontius Pilate Order Jesus’ Execution?
Additional Roman texts reference Jesus.
Early Christians would “sing songs to Christ as if he were a divinity,” said Roman governor Pliny the Younger in a letter to Emperor Trajan, just a few months before Tacitus published his chronicle of Jesus’ life. Some academics argue that the Roman historian Suetonius, in writing that Emperor Claudius had banished Jews from Rome because they “were causing continual disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus,” is referring to Jesus as well. According to Ehrman, while this collection of snippets from non-Christian sources may not provide much information about Jesus’ life, “it is useful for realizing that Jesus was known by historians who had reason to look into the matter.” No one suspected he was a fabricated character.” A SLIDE SHOW: A Tour of the Treasures at the Museum of the Bible in Washington, D.C.
Follow Jesus in Redding
We want to be “A community committed to the person and purposes of Jesus,” which is our mission statement at Vineyard City Church of Redding. In my previous blog post, I talked about the importance of belonging to a community. The definition of community, how we acquire it, and how we maintain it are all important questions to consider. This site is dedicated to the person of Jesus Christ, since, at the end of the day, he is the one we are following! Our church in Redding exists as a result of the existence of Jesus.
- One of the most fascinating aspects of Jesus’ life is that he truly existed.
- He is regarded as a historical figure.
- Given that he is the focal point of the greatest religion on the planet, you may expect there to be several, but Jesus died as a criminal in Rome, among whom there were many others.
- Josephus, a distinguished Jewish historian from that time period, is one source on which practically all historians (believers and non-believers) can agree on.
- So, what is it that makes it so crucial for us to follow Jesus in his person?
- Despite the fact that it has become trite at this point in time, it remains true in a number of ways.
- Following that, he chose to dwell among us for an extended amount of time.
Because he wanted to demonstrate to us what it means to live.
The only thing Jesus did while walking the world was what he observed his Father doing.
He just spoke about what he observed the Father doing.
How frequently do we ponder what Jesus would do if he were in our position and then act on that consideration?
We, on the other hand, wish to follow Him.
The last time Jesus walked the world, he wasn’t seeking for Christians; instead, he was looking for followers.
Rabbis were and are still referred to as the religious leaders of Judaism.
When we read the Great Commission, Jesus uses this word because he wants us to be his pupils, which is exactly what he is asking of us.
In a nutshell, no.
We are following in the footsteps of Jesus.
In Jesus, we have a teacher, and we are students in his classroom.
Its three points reflect the most important connections in the Kingdom of Heaven.
It is our Up connection that we are referring to when we talk of being completely committed to the person of Christ.
How’s it going for us thus far?
As a result, as a church, we strive to emulate the humanity of Jesus. The more we learn about him and about ourselves, the more we come to grasp what church is and how our lives fit into his larger plan, whether it is here in Redding or somewhere else around the world.
Did Jesus Actually Exist?
An overview of the extra-biblical evidence for the purported existence of Jesus Christ is presented in this brief critical review. Before the second century CE, there is no non-Christian evidence of Jesus’ existence. It is estimated that around forty well-known pagan and Jewish historians were writing during the time of Jesus’ alleged existence, or within a century of that time period. With the exception of two paragraphs in Josephus that have been proven to be forgeries and two passages in the writings of two Roman historians that have been hotly debated, none of those historians made any mention of Jesus at all.
Josephus :- (Josephus the historian) Flavius Josephus (Joseph ben Matthias) (c37-100 CE) was a highly regarded and frequently referenced Jewish historian who lived during the first century CE.
Several early Christians were ardent readers of his writings.
He served as governor of Galilee for a period of time (before to the war of 70 CE), which was the area in which Jesus is said to have performed his miracles.
During the first 70 years of the Christian period, Josephus lists and describes every notable figure from Palestine, as well as every significant event that occurred there during that time: ‘Now, at this time there was Jesus, a wise man, if it is permissible to call him a man, for he was a doer of wondrous things and a teacher of those who are eager to learn the truth.
He was the Christ, and when Pilate, on the advice of the most prominent men among us, condemned him to death on the cross, those who had loved him from the beginning did not abandon him, for he appeared to them alive again on the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him; and the tribe of Christians, so named after him, has survived to this day.’ Antiquities 18:3:3 (Antiquities 18:3:3) The facts are as follows: Fact 1.
- Even if Josephus’ story of Jesus originated from his own mouth, the material, having been recorded in 93 CE (far after the earliest gospels were written), can only be considered hearsay at this point in time.
- Truth number three: The paragraph did not occur in Origen’s 3rd century edition of Josephus, which is referred to in his Contra Celsum (Contra Celsum).
- Fact 5.
- Fact 6.
- During Josephus’ day, there was no such thing as a “tribe of Christians.” Christianity did not fully get off the ground until the second century CE, according to historical records.
- In addition, the sentence is completely out of context, and the bombastic, even combative, language is wholly atypical of Josephus’ writing style.
When it comes to defending Christianity against paganism, why is it that no writer before the fourth century – not Justin Martyr, Irenaeus of Alexandria, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Cyprian, Arnobius, or any of the other early church fathers – makes a single reference to Josephus’ supposed words about Jesus?
- Regardless, why would Josephus, an observant Jew, assert that Jesus was ‘the Christ,’ remains a mystery.
- Conclusion: The paragraph is an interpolation of Christian terminology.
- It does, however, imply the existence of the preceding evident interpolation, and as a result, it must be eliminated along with it.
- Tacitus (Ancient Rome): – Tacitus (also known as Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus) lived from 56 to 117 CE and was considered one of the finest historians of antiquity.
- The Emperor Nero’s decision to blame the Christians for the fire that devastated Rome in 64 CE is described in detail by him.
- on a class of people despised for their abominations and referred to as Christians by the multitude.” A particularly pernicious superstition that had been suppressed for a while during the reign of Tiberius was resurrected under the leadership of.
15:44 in the Annals.
Fact 2: Tacitus does not provide a source for any of his content.
Tacitus wrote this at a period when Christians had already come to believe that Jesus had suffered under Pilate, which is the fourth fact.
Fact #5: Because ‘Christos’ was the only word that could be used to refer to Messiah, neither the Greeks nor the Romans could refer to Messianic Jews.
Tacitus’ Annals, written during the establishment of Christianity, can only supply us with hearsay reports because he was born after the claimed Jesus and wrote them during this period of Christian construction.
Pliny the Younger (also known as Pliny the Elder): – Pliny the Younger (Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus) was a Roman jurist, author, and scientist who lived from 62 to c113 CE.
His Epistles were written around the year 112 CE.
He explains that he felt compelled to consult the emperor on this matter because a large number of people of every age, social class, and sexual orientation had been accused of being Christians.
10:96 in the Epistles.
The authenticity of this text, in which the author is just stating, for the second time, what others claimed to think, has been called into question.
The chapter gives no proof for the actual existence of Jesus, which is a third point to consider.
Suetonius, number four:- Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (75-160 CE) was a Roman author who lived between 75 and 160 CE.
Prior to being fired by the emperor Hadrian, he was an official who served as a secretary to the emperor.
Chrestus is mentioned in his Life of Claudius:’Because the Jews were causing continual disturbances at the behest of Chrestus, he ordered their expulsion from Rome.’ Claudius’s Life, Chapter 25.4 The facts are as follows: Fact 1.
It is also the name of the god Serapis, who lives in ancient Greece.
This assumption is incorrect.
Suetonius was born five years after the purported birth of Jesus.
It is, at the very least, hearsay.
If he was talking about a Jewish agitator in Rome by that name who had no connection to Christianity, he may have been referring to some sort of semi-Zealot responding to Caligula’s intentions to erect a monument of Zeus in the Jewish Temple, or perhaps to some sort of messianic impostor in Rome.
- It fails to provide any evidence for the historical existence of Jesus once more.
- A rabbinic discussion on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, traditions, legends, and anecdotes is recorded in the Talmud, which is considered the definitive record of that topic.
- The Mishnah is divided into three parts: (though the terms Talmud and Gemara are generally used interchangeably).
- Only a single sentence about Jesus can be found in the Talmud, which informs us that Jesus was stoned to death and that his body was later displayed on a tree.
- The facts are as follows: Fact 1.
- Fact 2: Christian apologists make the presumption that the name ‘Yehu’ refers to Jesus, which is incorrect.
- Fact 4: The Palestinian Talmud was composed between the 3rd and 5th centuries CE, according to certain sources.
- The writers’ compositions were based on their reactions to the dozens of Christian gospels that were in circulation at the time of their writing.
- It is impossible for it to be used as proof for the existence of a historical Jesus.
In the Toldoth Jeshu, a Hebrew work written in the 4th or 5th century but based on much older material, which is widely considered to be quite authentic by Biblical scholars, it is stated that Jesus was not entombed at all, but was simply buried in an earthen grave, and that his body was later dug up and dragged through the streets of Jerusalem.
- The Holy Qur’an: Islamic scripture known as the Noble Qur’an, also known as the Koran, is the religion’s holy book.
- The facts are as follows: Fact1.
- Fail #2.
- In light of their lateness, the verses provide no proof for the historical existence of Jesus.
- It is impossible for it to be used as proof for the existence of a historical Jesus.
- CONCLUSIONS IN GENERAL In non-Christian literature, there is a limited amount of evidence to suggest that there was a man named Jesus who was murdered and who was adored as a deity, but there is no evidence to suggest that he was alive.
- (ii) When does the absence of evidence constitute proof of the absence of evidence?
- Also required is a demonstration of the following:1.
- This tenable proof has been thoroughly searched for, and none (or none that can be considered reliably authenticated) has been discovered.
- True, we cannot show that Jesus never lived, just as we cannot prove that Santa Claus never existed, for in theory it is, according to the principles of logic, impossible to verify a universal assertion, and a statement such as “Jesus never existed” is a universal statement.
That Jesus is a fiction would appear to be the case. This post is a significantly revised version of one that was previously published online on SlideShare. Please keep this in mind when reading.
What is the historical evidence that Jesus Christ lived and died?
The historical evidence supporting Jesus of Nazareth has been around for a long time and is widely available. His name appears in the records of Jewish and Roman historians, as well as in a slew of Christian texts, all within a few decades of his alleged lifespan. For example, King Arthur, who is said to have lived about the year 500 AD, is a more recent figure. When it comes to events in that time period, the most important historical source does not even name Arthur, and he is only mentioned for the first time 300 or 400 years after he is believed to have lived.
What do Christian writings tell us?
The importance of this evidence lies in the fact that it is both timely and thorough. The epistles of St Paul are the first Christian writings to mention Jesus, and scholars generally agree that the earliest of these letters was written within 25 years of Jesus’s death at the very latest, whereas the detailed biographical accounts of Jesus in the New Testament gospels were written around 40 years after he died, according to the most recent estimates. The majority of these emerged during the lifetimes of several eyewitnesses, and they all give descriptions that are consistent with the culture and geography of first-century Israel.
What did non-Christian authors say about Jesus?
The importance of this evidence lies in the fact that it was obtained early and is comprehensive. The epistles of St Paul are the first Christian writings to mention Jesus, and scholars generally agree that the earliest of these letters was written within 25 years of Jesus’s death at the very latest, whereas the detailed biographical accounts of Jesus in the New Testament gospels were written around 40 years after he died, according to the most recent scholarship. The majority of these emerged during the lifetimes of several eyewitnesses, and they all give descriptions that are consistent with the culture and geography of first-century Jerusalem.
Did ancient writers discuss the existence of Jesus?
The fact that there was never any controversy regarding whether or not Jesus of Nazareth was a historical character in the ancient world is remarkable. Jesus was vilified as an illegitimate child of Mary and as a sorcerer in the earliest Jewish Rabbinic literature, dating back to the first century CE. No one in the ancient world doubted Jesus’ existence, even the comedian Lucian and philosopher Celsus, but no one in the ancient world doubted Jesus’ existence among the Jews and Christians.
How controversial is the existence of Jesus now?
A new book by the French philosopher Michel Onfray describes Jesus as a hypothesis, rather than a historical character, and his existence as an idea rather than a real figure. The Jesus Project was established in the United States around ten years ago, with one of the primary topics of discussion being whether or not Jesus existed. It has been suggested that Jesus of Nazareth was double non-existent, with some authors claiming that both Jesus and Nazareth were Christian creations. Notably, the two mainstream historians who have written the most in opposition to these hypersceptical arguments are both atheists: Maurice Casey (previously of Nottingham University) and Bart Ehrman (formerly of the University of Chicago) (University of North Carolina).
This technique, which they label pseudo-scholarship, has been met with scathing condemnation from the Christian community. According to a recent poll, 40 percent of persons in England do not think that Jesus was a historical character who lived thousands of years ago.
Is there any archaeological evidence for Jesus?
Strange archaeological arguments presented in connection with Jesus may be a contributing factor to the widespread misunderstanding of his historical significance. According to recent claims, Jesus was the great-grandson of Cleopatra, and ancient coins purportedly depicting Jesus wearing his crown of thorns have been found to support this claim. In certain groups, the Shroud of Turin, which is believed to be the burial shroud of Jesus, continues to pique curiosity. According to Pope Benedict XVI, it was something that “no human craftsmanship was capable of making” and that it was a “icon of the Feast of Holy Saturday.” However, it is difficult to find historians who consider this material to be significant archaeological evidence.
Because of the abundance of historical evidence, we have little reason to question that Jesus was alive and died on the cross.
This is a more fascinating subject that goes beyond history and objective reality.
- Simon Gathercole is a Reader in New Testament Studies at the University of Cambridge
- He is married with two children.
Did historical Jesus really exist? The evidence just doesn’t add up.
Is it true that a guy named Jesus of Nazareth walked the earth? The debate over whether or not the figure known as the “Historical Jesus” genuinely existed is mostly a reflection of opinions among atheists about the nature of the figure. Individuals who adhere to an unrealistic and more readily rejected “Christ of Faith” (the heavenly Jesus who walked on water) should refrain from participating in the controversy. According to biblical scholar J.D. Crossan, several secular scholars have put out their own interpretations of what is known as the “Historical Jesus.” However, most of these interpretations are seen to be “an intellectual disgrace.” From John Dominic Crossan’s portrayal of Jesus as a wise sage to Robert Eisenman’s portrayal of Jesus as a revolutionary to Bart Ehrman’s portrayal of Jesus as an apocalyptic prophet, the only thing New Testament academics appear to agree on is that Jesus existed historically.
- But can’t even that be called into question?
- The first is a scarcity of early sources.
- They are all written by Christian authors who are keen to promote Christianity, which gives us cause to doubt the veracity of these early sources, which were assembled decades after the supposed occurrences.
- The Gospels, which are replete with legendary and non-historical content and have been substantially modified over time, are unlikely to persuade skeptical readers to believe even the most banal assertions contained in them.
- The criteria of embarrassment states that if a portion would cause the author humiliation, it is more likely to be a genuine piece.
- The criteria of Aramaic context is also useless in this situation.
- Moreover, considering that the sources are plainly not impartial, the criteria of multiple independent testimony would have a difficult time being applied appropriately here.
- Paul avoids mentioning Jesus’ earthly experiences and teachings, even when the latter may have used to support his own assertions.
- In fact, Paul explicitly excludes the possibility of human origins (see Galatians 1:11-12).
- There are no eyewitness or contemporaneous reports of Jesus that have survived.
- There is little that can be learned from the limited non-Biblical and non-Christian sources available, with only the Roman scholar Josephus and the historian Tacitus claiming to have written about Jesus within 100 years of his death, respectively.
Independent historian Richard Carrier’s recent defense of another theory — namely, that the belief in Jesus began as a belief in a purely celestial being (who was killed by demons in an upper realm), and that the belief in Jesus evolved into a belief in a historical figure over time — lends support to this viewpoint.
Nevertheless, the Pauline Epistles are largely in favor of a “celestial Jesus” viewpoint, notably in the verse showing that demons killed Jesus and would not have done so if they had known who he was (see: 1 Corinthians 2:6-10).
So, what do mainstream (as well as non-Christian) academics have to say about all of this, exactly?
To date, only Bart Ehrman and Maurice Casey have made a comprehensive effort to establish the historical existence of Jesus Christ.
Because of the imaginary (i.e.
Who was responsible for the creation of these hypothetical sources?
What did they have to say?
The stories were written with the intent of being accurate historical depictions, edifying allegories, or amusing fiction.
Given the poor status of the surviving materials, as well as the heinous tactics employed by conventional Biblical historians, it seems probable that the issue will never be answered completely.
In conclusion, there are compelling arguments for doubting the historical reality of Jesus – if not dismissing it as completely implausible. PostEverything has more to say: