Which Herod Was Alive When Jesus Was Born?

Which herod was alive when jesus was born

How long after the birth of Jesus did Herod die?

When Jesus was speaking, he mentioned his age as ″approximately 30 years.″ Subtracting 30 years from Jesus’ age, it emerges that Jesus was born around the first or second century BC.However, if the word ″approximately 30″ is taken to signify 32 years old, this might indicate a birth date that falls within the reign of Herod, who died in 4 BC, and so be consistent with a date of birth during Herod’s reign.

Who was governor when Jesus was born?

At the time of Jesus’ birth, Sentius Saturninus, not Quirinius, was the governor of the Roman province of Syria. When Saturninus reigned from 9 to 6 BCE, it was most likely that Jesus was born during this time period.

Who was king when Jesus died?

Roman prefect (governor) of Judaea from 26 to 36 CE under the reign of Tiberius, Pontius Pilate (Latin: Marcus Pontius Pilatus) presided over the trial of Jesus and delivered the order for his death. Pilate died after the year 36 CE.

Why did Herod kill Jesus?

Herod had intended to force the Magi to reveal the whereabouts of the Christ child to him, and they had agreed to do so. Upon learning of the Magi’s reversal of fortune, he became enraged and attempted to assassinate the baby messiah by slaughtering all of the small children in the surrounding region, an incident known as the Massacre of the Innocent.

How long was Baby Jesus in Egypt?

After a 65-kilometer voyage, they arrived in Egypt, where they resided for three years until after Herod’s death in 4 B.C., when Joseph had a dream indicating that it was safe to return to their homeland of Israel.

Was there a census during Jesus birth?

The date of Jesus’ birth is linked to a census in the Gospel of Luke, chapter 2, according to the Bible.An imperial decree was issued by Emperor Augustus ordering that all of the world’s population should be recorded.When Quirinius was governor of Syria, this was the first time anybody had ever registered with the government.All of them traveled to their respective locations to be registered.

What was the city Jesus was born in?

Bethlehem is located 10 kilometers south of the city of Jerusalem in the lush limestone hill area of the Holy Land, 10 kilometers south of the city of Jerusalem. Historically, people have thought that Jesus was born at the location where the Church of the Nativity presently stands (Bethlehem) from at least the second century AD.

Who was the disciple that God gave boldness to speak during the Transfiguration?

And it had the end in mind when Elijah talked to Jesus at the Transfiguration about the objective.

What did Jesus say when he was on the cross?

″Father, pardon them, for they do not know what they are doing,″ says Luke. Then Jesus says to one of the two thieves crucified next to him, ″Truly, I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise.″ ″Father, into your hands I submit my spirit,″ he says to the other of the two thieves. (Finally, some words)

Why did Jesus have to die for us?

They believed that Jesus’ death was a necessary element of God’s plan to rescue humanity. The death and resurrection of this one man is at the very center of the Christian faith, and his story is told throughout the Bible. People’s shattered connection with God is repaired, according to Christians, as a result of Jesus’ death on the cross. The Atonement is the term used to describe this.

What happened to Herod after Jesus?

Upon Herod’s death, the Romans divided his kingdom among his three sons and his sister: Archelaus was made ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea; Herod Antipas was made tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea; Philip was made tetrarch of the territories north and east of the Jordan; and Salome I was given a toparchy including the territories north and east of the Jordan.

Did King Herod kill Jesus?

From 37 BC until 37 AD, Herod was the ruler of Judea. According to the Bible, he instigated the murder of all the newborns in Bethlehem in an attempt to get rid of the newborn baby Jesus.

Why did the 3 kings visit Jesus?

They traveled by horse, camel, and elephant (respectively) to the baby Jesus’ birthplace to present him with three symbolic gifts: gold, because Jesus was royalty as ″King of the Jews,″ frankincense, which represented the baby’s holy nature as the Son of God, and myrrh, which represented the baby’s mortality as the Son of God, respectively.

Who was the father of Jesus?

Life of Jesus in a nutshell He was born to Joseph and Mary somewhere between 6 bce and just before the death of Herod the Great (Matthew 2; Luke 1:5) in 4 bce, according to the earliest available evidence. However, according to Matthew and Luke, Joseph was solely his legal father in the eyes of the law.

When did King Herod die after Jesus was born?

Most historians think Herod died around 4 BC, however others have argued that he died in 5 BC or 1 BC. There have also been speculations that he died in 1 BC. According to the Gospel of Matthew, he attempted to assassinate baby Jesus and succeeded in killing all the other infants in Bethlehem in an episode that is commonly referred to as the ″massacre of the innocents.″

Which Herod ruled when Jesus was born?

The tetrarch of Galilee during Jesus of Nazareth’s career was Herod Antipas, who was born in 21 BC and died in AD 39. He was the son of Herod I the Great and became tetrarch of Galilee.

Was Herod the Great King when Jesus was born?

As mentioned above, Herod also appears as the ruler of Judea in the Christian Gospel of Matthew, where he is shown as ordering the massacre of the Innocents around the time of Jesus’ birth, despite the fact that the majority of Herod biographers do not think this event really place.

How did King Herod die according to the Bible?

An analysis of historical records has revealed that Herod the Great died from a combination of chronic kidney disease and a rare infection that caused gangrene in his genitalia, according to new research.Herod the Great was known for his bloodlust and was the most bloodthirsty ruler of ancient Judea.… Previously, it had been thought that Herod’s death in 4BC, at the age of 69, was caused by complications from gonorrhoea.

Did King Herod meet Jesus?

The phrase ″Jesus at Herod’s court″ refers to a passage in the New Testament that portrays Jesus being summoned to the court of Herod Antipas in Jerusalem, just before his crucifixion. The Gospel of Luke (23:7–15) has a detailed account of this incident.

Why did Herod kill Jesus?

Herod had intended to force the Magi to reveal the whereabouts of the Christ child to him, and they had agreed to do so. Upon learning of the Magi’s reversal of fortune, he became enraged and attempted to assassinate the baby messiah by slaughtering all of the small children in the surrounding region, an incident known as the Massacre of the Innocent.

Who was the Herod that tried to kill Jesus?

Herod Antipas
Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea
Coin of Herod Antipas
Reign 4 BCE – 39 CE
Predecessor Herod the Great

How long was Jesus in Egypt before Herod died?

The Road to Success After a 65-kilometer voyage, they arrived in Egypt, where they resided for three years until after Herod’s death in 4 B.C., when Joseph had a dream indicating that it was safe to return to their homeland of Israel.

Where was the birthplace of Jesus?

The Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, both in Bethlehem, mark the site of Jesus’ birth. Located 10 kilometers south of Jerusalem, on the spot that has been designated by Christian tradition as the birthplace of Jesus since the second century, this UNESCO World Heritage Site is worth a visit.

Who is Herod in Bible?

From 37 BC until 37 AD, Herod was the ruler of Judea. According to the Bible, he instigated the murder of all the newborns in Bethlehem in an attempt to get rid of the newborn baby Jesus.

What BC means?

Anno Domini

Who were the four Tetrarchs in Jesus time?

The title was initially used to refer to the governor of any of the four tetrarchies that Philip II of Macedon split Thessaly into in 342 BC—namely, the Thessaliotis, Hestiaeotis, Pelasgiotis, and Phthiotis—when Philip II of Macedon divided Thessaly into four tetrarchies.

How did God kill Herod?

Throughout the night, the crowds sang, ″It is the voice of a deity, not a mortal!″ 23 An angel of the Lord smote him down quickly, and he was devoured by worms before dying. This was because he had not given God the praise he deserved.

Did King Herod get eaten by worms?

It has taken more than 2,000 years for experts to determine what killed Herod the Great at the age of 69. They have determined that the king of ancient Judea died as a result of chronic renal illness worsened by an extremely unpleasant case of maggot-infested gangrene of his genitals.

Which herod was king when jesus was born

Which Herod did Jesus appear before?

The phrase ″Jesus at Herod’s court″ refers to a passage in the New Testament that portrays Jesus being summoned to the court of Herod Antipas in Jerusalem, just before his crucifixion. The Gospel of Luke (23: 7–15) has a detailed account of this incident.

Who told King Herod about the birth of Jesus?

They turned to the predictions of the Old Testament and informed Herod that the prophet Micah had prophesied concerning Bethlehem, ″Out of you will come a ruler who will be the shepherd of my people Israel,″ and that this was the king who would come. Accordingly, the conclusion was reached that the future monarch would be born at Bethlehem (or Israel).

Who was king when Jesus was crucified?

Roman prefect (governor) of Judaea from 26 to 36 CE under the reign of Tiberius, Pontius Pilate (Latin: Marcus Pontius Pilatus) presided over the trial of Jesus and delivered the order for his death. Pilate died after the year 36 CE.

Why was King Herod afraid of Jesus?

Due to his Edomite heritage, Herod was vulnerable to a challenge from someone who claimed to be the successor to King David, and the fundamental focus of Matthew 1 is Jesus’ Davidic position. Furthermore, Herod was well-known for his paranoia, as seen by his execution of numerous of his own sons who posed a threat to him.

Why did Herod kill Jesus?

Herod had intended to force the Magi to reveal the whereabouts of the Christ child to him, and they had agreed to do so. Upon learning of the Magi’s reversal of fortune, he became enraged and attempted to assassinate the baby messiah by slaughtering all of the small children in the surrounding region, an incident known as the Massacre of the Innocent.

Did King Herod kill Jesus?

From 37 BC until 37 AD, Herod was the ruler of Judea. According to the Bible, he instigated the murder of all the newborns in Bethlehem in an attempt to get rid of the newborn baby Jesus.

Why did the 3 kings visit Jesus?

They traveled by horse, camel, and elephant (respectively) to the baby Jesus’ birthplace to present him with three symbolic gifts: gold, because Jesus was royalty as ″King of the Jews,″ frankincense, which represented the baby’s holy nature as the Son of God, and myrrh, which represented the baby’s mortality as the Son of God, respectively.

What religion are magi?

Zoroastrianism and the ancient faiths of western Iran were both served by Magi (/meda/; singular magus /mes/; from Latin magus), who were priests in both religions. On the Behistun Inscription, which was written by Darius the Great in trilingual script and is known as the Behistun Inscription, the term magi is first recorded.

Who according to Christians was Jesus?

In Christianity, Jesus is referred to as the Son of God, and in many major Christian denominations, he is referred to as God the Son, the second Person in the Triune Godhead. As the Jewish messiah, he is considered to be the fulfillment of prophecy contained throughout the Hebrew Bible, which is known as the Old Testament in Christianity.

What did Jesus say when he was on the cross?

″Father, pardon them, for they do not know what they are doing,″ says Luke. Then Jesus says to one of the two thieves crucified next to him, ″Truly, I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise.″ ″Father, into your hands I submit my spirit,″ he says to the other of the two thieves. (Finally, some words)

What did baby Jesus sleep in?

The fact that Jesus was swaddled and put in a manger may be accurate. Swaddling was, in fact, widely used across the Roman Empire. Babies were swaddled after their first bath for around the first six weeks of their life, and then carefully unpacked, starting with the right hand to guarantee right-handedness and progressing to the left hand after that.

Who was the father of Jesus?

Life of Jesus in a nutshell He was born to Joseph and Mary somewhere between 6 bce and just before the death of Herod the Great (Matthew 2; Luke 1:5) in 4 bce, according to the earliest available evidence. However, according to Matthew and Luke, Joseph was solely his legal father in the eyes of the law.

What 3 gifts were given to Jesus?

The magi bowed down to the newborn Jesus and ″presented him with presents of gold, frankincense, and myrrh,″ according to the Bible. A possible parallel is made by their contributions to Isaiah’s prophecy of countries paying tribute to Jerusalem, which states: ″A multitude of camels shall cover you.″

Jesus’ Birth and When Herod the Great *Really* Died

You have arrived to the following page: Jimmy Akin’s sermon on Jesus’ birth and when Herod the Great *really* died may be found here: Sermon Resources.We learn about the birth of Jesus Christ through the Gospel of Matthew, which takes place during the latter years of Herod the Great’s reign.He informs us that after Jesus was born, Herod became alarmed and ordered the execution of all the infant boys in Bethlehem.Fortunately, the Holy Family was able to flee to Egypt, where they lived until Herod was killed.Fortunately, they didn’t have to remain for long.

Here is the precise day on which Herod the Great passed away…

Setting Aside a Common Mistake

For a little more than a century, the debate concerning the death of Herod the Great has been dominated by a hypothesis made by the German historian Emil Schurer.He proposed that Herod died around 4 B.C., and this idea gained widespread acceptance in scholarly circles.However, in recent decades, this viewpoint has been called into question, and as we showed in a previous piece, the reasons in support of this position are quite weak.So, when exactly did Herod pass away?

See also:  Who Was The First Disciple Of Jesus Christ

The Length of Herod’s Reign

According to the Jewish historian Josephus, Herod’s death occurred at the following precise time: The result was that Herod, who had survived the death of his son by the Romans by five days, died.He had governed thirty-four years since he had forced Antigonus to be killed and acquired his kingdom, but only thirty-seven years since the Romans had appointed him as their king.Josephus establishes the date of Herod’s death at this location based on three events:

  1. Thirty-four years after he ″obtained his kingdom″ (i.e., invaded Jerusalem and slew Antigonus, the Hasmonean king)
  2. Thirty-seven years after ″he had been proclaimed king by the Romans.″
  3. Five days after the execution of his son Antipater.

The death of Antipater isn’t a particularly useful hint, but the two different approaches of calculating the length of his rule are useful. First and foremost, though, we must address a question.

How Is Josephus Counting Years?

Kings do not often take office on New Year’s Day, and as a result, they frequently serve just a portion of the calendar year before the next calendar year begins (regardless of which calendar is used).It’s also common for them not to pass away on December 31st, allowing them to complete a partial calendar-year at the conclusion of their reigns.Historically, this causes problems for historians because ancient authors frequently counted these additional part-years as a full year (particularly during the first year of the reign).Alternatively, they disregard the calendar year and take the day on which a king assumed office as a form of birthday, counting the length of his reign in years from that moment.What kind of strategy did Josephus employ?

Proponents of the theory that Herod died in 4 B.C.contend that he was formally crowned king in 40 B.C.As a result, in order to reconcile this with his 37-year rule that ended in 4 B.C., they must consider as years the part year that began his reign as well as the part year that ended it.That’s the only way the arithmetic will work out in this situation.

The difficulty is that this is not how Josephus would have counted the years in the first century AD!In the words of Andrew E.Steinmann, a biblical chronology scholar: ″There is no evidence for this – and every other reign in this era, even that of the Jewish high priests, are counted in Josephus’s non-inclusive manner.″ In other words, while dating reigns in this time, Josephus does not consider the first year of the first half of the year.

  1. What, in light of this, should we make of Josephus’s two different methods of determining the length of Herod’s reign?

Herod Appointed King

Following up on the last piece, we learned that Josephus assigned an impossible date for Herod’s coronation as king (a date that did not occur).During the 184th Olympiad, which finished in the middle of the year 40 B.C., and during the consulship of Calvinus and Pollio, which began in late 40 and continued into 39 B.C., he stated that the incident occurred.That cannot both be correct at the same time, but one of them may be.Which?There is more proof that the year 39 B.C.

is correct because we have another source on this: Appian and Dio Cassius were two of the greatest Roman historians of all time.Appian authored a chronicle of the Roman civil wars in which he covers Herod’s appointment as emperor in the middle of other events, including the death of the Emperor Trajan.By comparing this sequence of events to the dates given in Dio Cassius’s Roman History, it may be demonstrated that the events in question–including Herod’s appointment–took place in 39 B.C.Josephus’ chronology for this era indicates that he would not have included Herod’s incomplete first year in 39 BCE, but rather would have began his count with 38 BCE.

1 B.C.may be obtained by counting 37 years forward from that date.

Herod Conquers Jerusalem

As we saw in the last essay, Josephus provides conflicting dates for Herod’s capture of Jerusalem, which we will discuss further below.Some of the dating information he presents points to the year 37 B.C., while other information refers to the year 36 B.C.Herod died 34 years after the event, according to Josephus.Considering that Josephus did not record partial first years, this would place Herod’s death either in 2 B.C.(if he captured Jerusalem in 37) or in 1 B.C.

(if he conquered Jerusalem in 37).(if he conquered the city in 36).There are a variety of approaches that may be used to try to address this, some of which are rather sophisticated.At least one of them, on the other hand, is rather clear…

Herod’s Lunar Eclipse

As we saw in the last essay, Josephus said that Herod died between a lunar eclipse and the Jewish holiday of Passover.The year 4 B.C.had a partial lunar eclipse just before Passover; the year 1 B.C.saw a total lunar eclipse just before Passover, which is unusual.Furthermore, the lunar eclipse of 1 B.C.

is more consistent with the circumstances described by Josephus (see the previous post for details).Because the lunar eclipse of 4 B.C.falls outside of the range stated above, and because the lunar eclipse of 1 B.C.is more appropriate for the scenario, we may choose between 2 B.C.

and 1 B.C., with the latter being the more appropriate choice.There was no lunar eclipse in 2 B.C., which points us in the direction of 1 B.C.

Final Answer?

  • Putting all of the parts together, we have the following: Based on the length of time he reigned as king after being nominated by the Romans, there is reason to believe Herod died about 1 B.C.
  • Because of the length of time he served after conquering Jerusalem, there is reason to believe Herod died in either 2 or 1 B.C.
  • there is reason to believe Herod died in 1 B.C. because of the lunar eclipse that occurred before Passover
  • and there is reason to believe Herod died in either 2 or 1 B.C. because of the length of time he served after conquering Jerusalem

His death would have occurred between January 10, 1 BC (the date of the lunar eclipse) and April 11, 1 BC (the date of the solar eclipse) (the date of Passover).Since Josephus recalls a slew of activities that Herod engaged in after the eclipse and before his death, many of which necessitated extensive travel, it is most probable that the eclipse occurred later in the year.There is even another reason why we should reject the date of Herod’s death in 4 B.C.in favor of a date in 1 B.C…

We Know When Jesus Was Born

We are not need to limit our understanding of Herod’s death to the sources and events indicated above in order to be accurate.We can also put a date on his death based on the date of Christ’s birth.For some reason, moderns appear to believe that the date of Herod’s death should be used to determine when Jesus was born, yet the rationale is sound on both counts: It is possible to determine the date of Jesus’ birth by determining the date of Herod’s death.As for the year Jesus was born, we really have quite a bit of information about it.It happened after 4 B.C., thus that date was ruled out.

So, what year did Jesus come into the world?To read the next post, please visit this link.Source

Who Were the Herods?

Herod the Great, Herod Archelaus, and Herod Antipas are three members of Herod’s family that play significant roles in the life of Christ.Herod the Great is the most notable of these figures.1.Herodotus The Magnificent It is important to note that Herod the Great (r.73 BCE to r.

4 BCE) was not a Jew.His father was Idumean and his mother Arabian.In 40 B.C., the Roman senate elevated him to the position of king of Judea.He lost favor with the Jewish people despite the fact that he was a great builder (including the expansion of the temple) and had been occasionally helpful to them in the past.

His mixed ancestry, along with his Edomite blood, would have rendered him unpalatable to the majority of the population.This is what the Old Testament has to say about Edom.″Even though we have been crushed, we will reconstruct the wreckage,″ Edom would declare.

  1. This is what the LORD Almighty has to say about it: ″They may construct, but I will demolish it.″ This people will be referred to as ″the evil country,″ and they will be forever under the anger of the LORD (Malachi 1:4).
  2. The Visit of the Three Wise Men to Jerusalem While Herod was in power, the Three Kings came to Jerusalem to pay homage to the infant Jesus.
  3. Afterward, following Jesus’ birth in Bethlehem of Judea during the reign of Herod the Great, magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, asking, ″Where is he who has been born King of the Jews?″ We have come to worship him because we have seen his star in the east and have followed it (Matthew 2:3).

The Magi paid a visit to Herod, who was the ruler at the time.He was the one who ordered the killing of innocent people in Bethlehem.He became enraged when he discovered that he had been outwitted by the Magi, and he sent orders to murder all the boys in Bethlehem and its environs who were two years old or younger, in line with the time he had learned from the Magi (Matthew 2:16).Towards the conclusion of his reign, Herod’s cruelty increased in intensity.

The fact that he believed his own family was plotting to overthrow him led to his murdering one of his wife (Mariamne), her mother, two of her boys, and his own eldest son.This prompted the Roman Emperor Augustus to remark that it would be better to be Herod’s pig (hus in Greek) than his son as a result of the events (huios).2.Herod Archelaus (also known as Herodotus) When Herod the Great died, Archelaus, his eldest son, was appointed as the ruler of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea (modern-day Israel).

  • He did not have authority over the Galilee.
  • However, when he learned that Archelaus had taken over as ruler of Judea in lieu of his father Herod, he became fearful of traveling there.
  • After receiving a warning in a dream, he withdrew to the Galilee region of Israel (Matthew 2:22).
  • Archelaus was a legitimate source of concern.
  • Augustus, on the other hand, postponed Augustus’ approval of his kingship until Archelaus had shown himself.

It never happened since Archelaus began his rule by assassinating 3,000 influential citizens, thereby preventing the confirmation.He was ousted from power by the Emperor two years later.The Emperor then removed the Herod family from their position as rulers of Judea.

Despite the fact that another son of Herod (Herod Antipas) reigned over the Galilee, he was a more lenient king.His hometown of Galilee became well-known during his lifetime as a hotbed of revolutionary enthusiasm.This is something his father would never have permitted in his son.Herod Antipas was the third ruler of the Roman Empire.When Jesus began His public ministry, Herod Antipas was in power in Galilee.

In the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar’s reign – when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, Herod the tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip the tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene were all in power – Jesus was crucified and buried (Luke 3:1).In Latin, he is known as the tetrarch, which means ″ruler over a fourth quarter.″ He was the ruler of Galilee and Perea.John the Baptist was assassinated by Herod.Herod assassinated John the Baptist, the precursor of Jesus, and ordered his execution.As a result, heim promptly dispatched an executioner with instructions to fetch John’s head.The guy went to the prison and beheaded John there (Mark 6:27).

Herod believed Jesus to be John the Baptist, who had risen from the dead.Herod, being a superstitious man, believed Jesus to be John the Baptist, who had been risen from the grave.The stories about Jesus reached Herod the tetrarch, who exclaimed to his attendants, ″This is John the Baptist, and he has risen from the grave!

  • ″ ″It is for this reason that he possesses supernatural powers″ (Matthew 14:1,2).
  • Herod wished to assassinate Jesus.
  • Herod wished to assassinate Jesus in the same way he assassinated John the Baptist.
  • At that point, a group of Pharisees approached Jesus and told him to ″leave this location and go somewhere else.″ ″Herod intends to put you to death.″ When I asked him what he’d say, he answered, ″Tell that fox that I’m going to drive out demons and heal people today and tomorrow, and on the third day I’ll fulfill my goal″ (Luke 13:31,32).
  • Herod was referred to as ″that fox″ by Jesus.
  • Jesus was brought before Herod so that he may be put on trial.

When Jesus was put on trial, he was taken before Herod.When Pilate learned of this, he inquired as to whether the guy was a Galilean.After learning that Jesus was subject to Herod’s authority, he dispatched him to Herod, who happened to be in Jerusalem at the time of the events.His delight when he first laid eyes on Christ stemmed from his want to see him for quite some time.According to what he had heard about him, he was hoping to witness him perform a miracle.He bombarded Jesus with a barrage of questions, but he received no response.

  • All of the top priests and professors of the law were standing there and angrily accusing him of the crime.
  • Then Herod and his troops insulted and mocked him in front of the entire city.
  • They returned him to Pilate after dressing him in a regal gown for the occasion.
  • Herod and Pilate became buddies on that day; they had previously been bitter adversaries (Luke 23:6-12).
  • Herod was dissatisfied with Jesus’ failure to perform any miracles or provide any answers to his concerns.

Summary During the lifetime of Jesus, three members of Herod’s family play significant roles.When Jesus was born, Herod the Great was the ruler of the land.When he passed away, Herod Archelaus took over as ruler.During the period of Jesus’ public ministry, Herod Antipas was the ruler of Galilee.He was the one who ordered the execution of John the Baptist.

Herod believed that Jesus was truly John the Baptist, who had been risen from the grave.Herod desired to assassinate Jesus, just as he had done to John the Baptist.Jesus was seen by Herod during His trial, and he expressed his disappointment because Jesus did not perform a miracle in his presence.

Jesus’ Birth – The Death of Herod

Note: The following post is adapted from the book Mysteries of Jesus’ Life Revealed—His Birth, Death, Resurrection, and Ascensions, written by Joseph Lenard and published by Harper & Row. For a summary of this intriguing study, as well as a detailed chapter listing, please see the link below.

The Death of Herod – Matthew 2:14–23

As a result, except from the stories in Matthew, which include the arrival of the Magi to worship the Christ infant and the family’s subsequent journey to Egypt, there is very little information available in the Bible about Herod’s death and the first years of Jesus’ life.The death of Herod is referenced in three passages of the Gospel of Matthew: ″So he got up and went to Egypt, where he stayed until Herod died.″ That is, the Lord’s words via the prophet were fulfilled: ‘Out of Egypt I called my son,’ the Lord had spoken.He became enraged when he discovered that he had been outwitted by the Magi, and he sent orders to murder all the boys in Bethlehem and its environs who were two years old or younger, in line with the time he had learned from the Magi…An angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream after Herod died, telling him to get up and take the kid and his mother to the land of Israel, for those who were attempting to take the infant’s life were no longer alive.As a result, he rose from his bed, grabbed the infant and his mother, and journeyed to the country of Israel.

However, when he learned that Archelaus had taken over as ruler of Judea in lieu of his father Herod, he became fearful of traveling there.After receiving a warning in a dream, Jesus retired to the province of Galilee, where he settled in a place known as Nazareth to begin his ministry.As a result, the prophets’ prophecy that ‘He shall be called a Nazarene’ was fulfilled.(Matthew 2:14–16, 19–23, New International Version) Therefore, we may conclude from Matthew that Herod’s death most likely occurred after the birth of Jesus, after the arrival of the Magi, and after the family’s exile in Egypt, all of which occurred after the birth of Jesus.

What is the significance of determining the exact date of Herod’s death?For the simple reason that the birth of Jesus and the visit of the Magi both had to take place before Herod’s death.After September 11, 3 BC (my argued date for Jesus’ birth) and after December 25, 2 BC (my argued date for the arrival of the Magi), the legitimacy of my argued dates would be considerably increased.

  1. The death of Herod is the seventh and last piece of our puzzle.
See also:  Why Jesus Wept

Secular History of Herod’s Death

The ″Dark Decade″ of history (6 BC to AD 4) is characterized by a scarcity of credible secular documents, as I discussed in length in my earlier post, Jesus’ Birth – Roman History.However, even if secular records from the era around Herod’s death are scant, astronomy (see my earlier Post on Jesus’ Birth – Astronomical/Zodiacal References in Scripture) once again provides us with an approximation of the date of Jesus’ birth.However, rather than the Star of Bethlehem, the planet Jupiter, or numerous constellations in the skies, a specific lunar eclipse will be crucial in determining the exact date of the celebration.If we start with an event that is verifiable in the Roman history of Judea – in this example, the Roman census/oath of allegiance/registration covered in the post-Jesus’ birth – Roman history section – we may estimate Herod’s death within a few months.In the words of Ernest Martin: ″Josephus reported that an oath of fealty was sought by Augustus around twelve or fifteen months (12 to 15 months) before Herod’s death.

This occurrence would be consistent with an edict issued by Augustus in 3 B.C…″ I already proved that this is the identical census that Luke refers to in his writings (Luke 2:1-5a).Because of this, adding 12 to 15 months to the date of Jesus’ birth (September 11, 3 BC) results in a period between September and December of 2 BC as the estimated date of Herod’s death.

Specific Lunar Eclipse After the Death of Herod (Josephus)

Also, it has come to light that a certain lunar eclipse may be used to determine the exact date of Herod’s death.

Several Lunar Eclipses Occurred in 7 BC – 1 BC

Although historical and astronomical evidence to the contrary has been presented, a majority of theologians maintain that Jesus was born before the spring of 4 BC.A well-known remark by Josephus claims that King Herod died shortly after a lunar eclipse and before the Passover Feast in the spring, which is the basis for their emphasis on this date.Problem with this is that there were multiple lunar eclipses throughout the broad time of Herod’s death, making it difficult to determine when he died.There were really four complete lunar eclipses visible in Judea during this time, according to Ernest Martin.They occurred on March 23, 5 BC, on September 15, 5 BC, on March 13, 4BC, and on January 10, 1 BC.

The good news is that just one of these lunar eclipse dates stands up to examination when it comes to the confirmation of our established dates for the birth of Jesus (September 11, 3 BC) and the appearance of the Magi 15 months later (December 25, 2 BC).As detailed in further detail in the following sections, the lunar eclipse of January 10, 1 BC is the most likely possibility.

Time Frame of Herod’s Death and Funeral

Part of the difficulty in determining which lunar eclipse should be associated with Herod’s death stemmed from the fact that the amount of time between the lunar eclipse (prior to Herod’s death) and his funeral had to be sufficient to allow for the planning and activities associated with his funeral to be carried out.The lunar eclipse and Herod’s death, on the other hand, could not have occurred too far apart from Passover, as Josephus clearly stated that Herod’s death occurred ″before a Passover″ in his writings.Although Josephus does not provide a precise number of days between the lunar eclipse and the next Passover, this period can be estimated fairly easily; similarly, it is fairly easy to estimate the amount of time required for each of the activities associated with Herod’s death and funeral, which can be estimated fairly easily.Depending on the circumstances, Ernest Martin believes that the activities surrounding the death and funeral will take a total of 10-12 weeks.Therefore, from the time of the lunar eclipse until the next Passover, over three months would be necessary to perform all of the funeral-related tasks.

Because of this, Ernest Martin came to the conclusion that the most likely date for Herod’s death was January 28, 1 BC (Schebat 2 on the Jewish calendar).According to Josephus’ account, he died shortly after a lunar eclipse (on January 10, 1 BC) and before the Jewish festival of Passover, and this meets all of the chronological constraints.According to the Megillath Taanit (also known as the ″Scroll of Fasting,″ a Jewish text), this day is one of the undesignated feast days observed by the Jews.One of the dates stated in the Megillath Taan – which dates back to the fall of Jerusalem in AD 70 – is Schebat 2, which provides further evidence of the projected date of Herod’s death (which we noted previously corresponds to January 28, 1 BC).

This day is believed to have been chosen by the Jews to commemorate Herod’s death, as Herod was reviled by the Jews.Josephus records that immediately before Herod died, he said: ″I know that the Jews would commemorate my death with a feast,″ which was later confirmed.It turns out that he was correct.

The Correct Lunar Eclipse

Let us examine each of the four potential lunar eclipses in order to validate our prior conclusion that the lunar eclipse that happened on January 10, 1 BC was the most probable to have occurred following Herod’s death.Ernest Martin gave the following insight into the situation: What about the solar eclipse that occurred on March 23, 5 BC?In spite of the fact that this is a spring eclipse and thus coincidentally coincides with an approaching Passover, there are just 29 days between this eclipse and the following Passover.This is not enough time to make the elaborate burial arrangements that would be fitting for a King of Judea.Remember that we projected that a three-month time span would be required.

An eclipse occurring in early 5 BC also poses issues with the chronological markers found in both Josephus’ and Roman’s accounts of Herod’s life and death, particularly with reference to the time period around Herod’s death.What about the solar eclipse that occurred on September 15, 5 BC?Approximately seven months have transpired between the eclipse and the holiday of Passover.Josephus would not have made reference to a Passover that had taken place so long after Herod’s death.

What about the solar eclipse that occurred on March 13, 4 BC?This is the eclipse that most historians choose erroneously because they do not take into consideration all of the events that would have had to be performed in a short 29-day timeframe.After all, this was only a partial eclipse, after all.

  1. Furthermore, as was the case with the eclipse of March 23, 5 BC, the span of time between the eclipse and Passover would have been inadequate to complete all of the necessary funeral preparations.
  2. What about the solar eclipse that occurred on January 10, 1 BC?
  3. Bingo!

This lunar eclipse fits all historical and chronological conditions, including a time span of only 12 weeks from the eclipse to the start of the Passover holiday.According to Ernest Martin, there are a number of modern historians who agree with the selection of the January 10, 1 BC eclipse, including E.Filmer, Ormund Edwards, and, most notably, Dr.Paul Keresztes, who supported the date in his two-volume work Imperial Rome and the Christians (Imperial Rome and the Christians: A History of the Christians in Rome) (1989).

In addition, some renowned historians from the past, like French academic Joseph Justus Scaliger (who lived in the 16th century) and German historian Sethus Calvisius (who lived in the 19th century), backed the pick (who recorded nearly 300 eclipses as benchmarks for reckoning historical events of the past).In the last century, English scholars William Galloway, H.Bosanquet, and C.R.

  • Conder, as well as German professors Caspari and Reiss, all affirmed the date as being accurate.
The “Missing” War – The War of Varus

Who hasn’t heard of The War of Varus, a historic struggle that took place between 6 BC and 4 AD during the ″Dark Decade″ of history?The vast majority of individuals have not.Because it was not recorded in ancient Roman documents, historians were baffled for a long time about what happened during the battle.It was impossible for them to locate this conflict – which took place between Jews and Romans in Judea – since they attempted to locate it three years before it actually occurred.They made a mistake because they misunderstood the circumstances surrounding Herod’s death (as well as other events).

They made the mistake of supposing that the conflict took place in 4 BC rather than in the early years of AD 1.Following Ernest Martin’s research, it is now possible to corroborate various Roman documents that mention not only this war, but also other historical events, by having a proper understanding of the actual dates of Jesus’ birth (September 11, 3 BC), the visit of the Magi (December 25, 2 BC), and Herod’s death (January 28, 1 BC).In contrast to Jewish sources, which clearly suggest that this conflict had place, Roman records (literature, coinage, and inscriptions) indicate that no such war took place in 4 BC.Actually, Rome did not fight any battles between 7 BC and 2 BC, as evidenced by Roman soldier records, which show that troops were being released throughout that time period, which was certainly not indicative of a significant combat being in progress during that time period.

Fortunately, a number of Roman allusions to the conflict can be found in the first century BC.In the words of Ernest Martin, the War of Varus was no minor skirmish in the ancient world.Approximately 20,000 soldiers from Syria, as well as support staff, were transported into Rome.

  1. Between the time of Pompey (63 BC) and the Roman/Jewish War of AD 66/73, it has been regarded as one of the most severe military operations to take place in Palestine.
  2. In accordance with Ernest Martin’s research, the conflict took place in Galilee, Judea, and Idumea and began a little more than two months after Herod’s death in January of the first century BC.
  3. The conflict took place throughout the spring and summer of the year after Herod’s death.

According to Josephus, Quintilius Varus, the Roman governor of Syria and the conflict’s namesake, waged the War of Varus against the Jews in order to retaliate against them.Gaius Caesar, the grandson of Augustus, was sent to Idumaea – the southernmost part of Herod’s kingdom – to help Varus with the war effort, and it was there that the final mopping-up of the war took place.This occurred in the fall of the year 1 BC.Several particular circumstances precipitated the war: Herod’s death, the execution of two important rabbis by Herod shortly before his death, and a Jewish uprising and ensuing Passover slaughter by government forces during the Passover season.

A number of young men were encouraged to destroy a golden eagle that Herod had placed over the eastern gate of the Temple, according to Josephus.The conflict began on December 5, 2 BC (Kislev 7), when two influential rabbis falsely believed that Herod had died.The eagle’s positioning was in direct violation of the Law of Moses, according to the Bible.Herod brought the young men and the two rabbis before him at Jericho, where they were tried and punished.

  • Both rabbis were sentenced to death on January 9, 1 BC, to coincide with the lunar eclipse that was predicted to occur on the night of January 10, 1 BC.
  • The young men were given lighter sentences; however, they were ordered to be burned alive on January 9, 1 BC, in order to coincide with the lunar eclipse.
  • Herod had been advised to postpone the executions for a few nights in order to coincide with a pending lunar eclipse, so that he could present the eclipse to the people as astronomical evidence that even God disapproved of the actions of the two rabbis.
  • According to Ernest Martin, Herod accepted the advice and delayed the executions for a few nights to coincide with the pending lunar eclipse.
  • Following the murders of the revered rabbis, a riot occurred among the Jewish community on the holiday of Passover.

According to Josephus’ work Antiquities, Archelaus (the successor to Herod) ordered the massacre of 3,000 Jewish pilgrims in the temple precincts, which was carried out in the temple itself.The violence and ensuing killing resulted in the cancellation of Passover ceremonies (Numbers 9:6-14), which was unprecedented in Jewish history and was the first time it had ever happened.When the devotees in the Temple were slaughtered, it triggered the War of Varus, which took place between the summer and fall of 1 BC.

According to Ernest Martin, in addition to those murdered during the conflict, 2,000 Jews were afterwards crucified and 30,000 Jews were sold into slavery as a result of the war’s conclusion.For centuries, the Jewish people remembered the eclipse of January 10, 1 BC not only because of Herod’s death (which occurred shortly after the eclipse), but also because of the execution of the two rabbis, the massacre of 3,000 Jews, and the ensuing War of Varus that occurred shortly after the eclipse.All of these events took place in the year 1 BC.The eclipse records, Roman historical records from the time period, and Josephus’ written recollections of the events all agree on the events and dates in question.We have finally completed the placement of puzzle component 7.

The angel would have delivered the news of Herod’s death to Joseph in Egypt on or after January 28, 1 BC, and Joseph, Mary, and Jesus would have returned to Israel at some point after that date, according to historical evidence.It is important to note that in my next post, I will talk about how the Sabbatical and Jubilee Years affected the timing of Jesus’ birth.

See also:  Will The Dead Rise When Jesus Returns?

Herod Antipas

Herod Antipas, (born 21 bce—died after 39 ce), son of Herod I the Great, who rose to the position of tetrarch (ruler of a minor principality in the Roman Empire) of Galilee, in northern Palestine, and Peraea, east of the Jordan River and the Dead Sea, and ruled throughout Jesus of Nazareth’s ministry.Herod Antipas was the son of Herod I the Great, who rose to the position of t According to the Gospel According to Luke (13:32), Jesus is supposed to have referred to him as ″that fox,″ a term of derision for the man.Herod Antipas acquired a portion of his father’s kingdom around the year 4 BCE after the Roman emperor Augustus modified his father’s last will and testament.He repaired the damage done during the years between his father’s death and the acceptance of the will, repairing two cities, one of which he renamed in honor of the Roman imperial family, and establishing a third town in honor of the Roman imperial family.After divorcing his Nabataean wife, Herodias, who had been married to Aretas IV, the king of the neighboring desert country, he went on to marry Herodias, who had been the wife of his half brother.

His former father-in-law was insulted, and his Jewish subjects were alienated as a result of the marriage.As recorded in Mark 6, as well as the related narratives in Matthew 14 and Luke 3, when John the Baptist, one of Herod’s subjects, publicly rebuked Herod for this marriage, Herodias provoked her husband into imprisoning John the Baptist.While she was still unmolested, she persuaded her daughter, Salome, to beg for the head of John the Baptist in exchange for dancing at her stepfather’s birthday feast.Despite his reluctance, Antipas murdered John the Baptist.

Years later, when Jesus’ miracles were reported to him, Antipas came to believe that John the Baptist had been resurrected.According to Luke 23, after Jesus was caught in Jerusalem, Pilate, the Roman procurator of Judaea, first sent him to Antipas, who was in the city for Passover since Jesus was from Antipas’s realm.Antipas then handed Jesus over to Pilate.

  1. However, since he did not want to cast judgment on Jesus, he quickly returned him to Pilate, who was also hesitant to pass judgment on him.
  2. Antipas had created the city of Tiberias on the western side of the Sea of Galilee, partly in the style of a Greek city, at some point in the past.
  3. However, despite the fact that he erected sculptures in the style of a Greek city in his palace, his coins did not depict any pictures.

He also enlisted the aid of the Herodians, a wealthy Jewish community that backed him and was tolerant of Roman power.Since Herod was intimately associated with Emperor Augustus, he was chosen to serve in the role of mediator during the Roman-Parthian negotiations in the year 36.Although the conference was a success, Antipas’s hurry in reporting the news to Rome enraged Aulus Vitellius, the Syrian legate who would eventually become emperor, who resented Antipas’s haste.Around the year 37, the Nabataean king Aretas IV, whose daughter Antipas had been rejected by Herod, launched an attack on Herod’s territory, inflicting significant damage.

When the tetrarch appealed to Rome, the emperor dispatched Vitellius, who, still resentful of the tetrarch’s actions, took advantage of every opportunity to prolong the process.After Caligula was crowned emperor in 37, Herodias, resentful of her brother Agrippa I’s prosperity, urged her husband to accuse him before the emperor.However, the intended victim, Antipas, foresaw the deposition and leveled allegations against him that were only partially genuine.Having exiled Antipas to Gaul and Herodias accompanying him, Caligula expanded his territories by incorporating the tetrarchy into his dominion.

  • Following his banishment, nothing is known about Antipas’s personal life.
  • Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Melissa Petruzzello was the person who most recently improved and updated this article.

Jesus at Herod’s court – Wikipedia

Jesus in Herod’s Court, painted by Duccio in the 13th century. The phrase ″Jesus at Herod’s court″ refers to a passage in the New Testament that portrays Jesus being summoned to the court of Herod Antipas in Jerusalem, just before his crucifixion. The Gospel of Luke (23:7–15) has a detailed account of this incident.

Biblical narrative

According to the Gospel of Luke, following Jesus’ trial by the Sanhedrin, the Court elders petition Pontius Pilate to judge and sentence Jesus in 23:2, accusing Jesus of making false claims to be the King of the Jews.While interrogating Jesus about his claim to be the King of the Jews, Pilate comes to the realization that Jesus is a Galilean and so falls under Herod’s authority.Due to the fact that Herod was already in Jerusalem at the time of Jesus’ arrest, Pilate determines that Jesus should be brought before him for trial.His predecessor, Herod Antipas (who, according to some Pharisees, had orchestrated the assassination of John the Baptist and had previously ordered the execution of John the Baptist), had wished to meet Jesus for a long time, expecting to see one of the miracles that Jesus performed.Despite Herod’s queries and the furious allegations leveled against him by the chief priests and scribes, Jesus says nothing in response to them.

Herod and his troops insult Jesus, dress him in a beautiful gown and crown him as the King of the Jews before returning him to Pilate.Herod and Pilate, who had previously been adversaries, have become friends as a result of this event.According to the Gospel of Luke, Herod did not condemn Jesus; instead, Pilate comes up with this conclusion and tells the Court elders, ″I have examined him before you and found no fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him: nor yet Herod: for he sent him back unto us, and behold, nothing worthy of death hath been done by him.″ Following more discussions between Pilate and the Court elders, Jesus is sentenced to death on the cross at Calvary.

Christology

As the second of three assertions by Pilate concerning Jesus’ innocence in Luke’s Gospel (the first being in 23:4 and the third in 23:22), it builds on the ″Christology of innocence″ that is prevalent in the Gospel of Luke.In the tale that follows this scene, other individuals, in addition to Pilate and Herod, see nothing wrong with Jesus’ character.In 23:41, one of the two thieves hanged next to Jesus declares Jesus’ innocence, while in 23:47, a Roman centurion declares, ″Certainly he was a righteous man.″ In other words, Jesus was not guilty.The centurion’s portrayal exemplifies the Christological emphasis of Luke on innocence (which began in the courts of Pilate and Herod), as opposed to Matthew 27:54 and Mark 15:39, in which the centurion declares: ″Truly this man was the Son of God,″ emphasizing Jesus’ divine nature.Among the elements of the ″agent Christology″ of the crucifixion, according to John Calvin, were Jesus’ lack of reaction to Herod’s queries, his silence in the face of the allegations presented by the Jewish elders, and his little interaction with Pilate following his return from Herod’s courtship.

Calvin asserted that Jesus could have argued for his innocence, but instead chose to remain mostly silent and willingly submit to his crucifixion in obedience to the will of the Father, knowing his role as the ″willing Lamb of God.″ He also stated that Jesus knew his role as the ″willing Lamb of God.″ The ″agent Christology″ that was reinforced in Herod’s court is based on Jesus’ prediction in Luke 18:32 that he will be ″given up unto the Gentiles, and will be ridiculed, and cruelly abused,″ as well as other passages in the Bible.While in Herod’s presence, Luke continues to underline that Jesus’ position was not that of a ″unwilling sacrifice,″ but rather that of a willing ″agent and servant″ of God who surrendered to the will of the Father.

See also

  • The life of Jesus
  • Pilate’s court
  • the Passion (in Christian tradition)

Who Was the Real King Herod?

  1. Home
  2. References

This photograph depicts the Western (or ″Wailing″) Wall of the Second Temple, which was erected by Herod and is still standing today.Although no photos of Herod survive today, remnants of his numerous construction projects do.(Photo courtesy of Shutterstock.) King Herod, sometimes known as ″Herod the Great,″ reigned in Judea from about 74 to 4 B.C.and was recognized by the Romans as the legitimate ruler of the area.While Judea was an autonomous kingdom, it was heavily influenced by the Romans, and Herod rose to power with the assistance of the Romans.

Herod is depicted in the Bible as a monstrous figure who attempted to kill baby Jesus and, when he failed to locate him, slaughtered every newborn in Bethlehem.In the modern period, historians largely feel that the narrative is made up.Even though Herod was responsible for the deaths of his wife and three of his children, he was also a prolific builder who repaired and extended the Temple in Jerusalem, which was the holiest place in Judaism at the time of his death.During a financial crisis, he also played a role in saving the old Olympic Games.

Rise to power

  • While it is unknown exactly where Herod was born, it is known that his father, Antipater (who died in 43 B.C.
  • ), was from Idumea (also known as Edom), a location on the southern bank of the Dead Sea near the northern border of Israel.
  • In the kingdom of Nabataea in Jordan, Cypros’ mother was from, and the city of Petra was a part of, a prosperous monarchy.
  • Pompey was in command of a Roman army that launched an offensive in the eastern Mediterranean in 63 B.C., forcing a Jewish dynasty that held what is now Israel to submit to Roman power.
  • Pompey was killed during the operation.
  • Herod and his father sided with the Romans, and they were rewarded with more authority as a result of their actions.

The Hasmonean High Priest Hyrcanus II, who reigned only in name, agreed to Antipater, Herod, and Herod’s elder brother Phaesael’s ″exercise of quasi-royal powers throughout the kingdom″ by 43 B.C., according to historians.Geza Vermes, who was professor emeritus of Jewish Studies at Oxford University until his death in 2013, said in his posthumously released book, ″The True Herod,″ that he was inspired by the life of the historical figure Herod the Great (Bloomsbury, 2014).The three men’s ability to exert authority, on the other hand, was shaky.

Antipater was poisoned to death in 43 B.C., according to legend.Later, in 40 B.C., the Parthians, backed by a revolt, captured Jerusalem, assassinated the king, imposed a loyal dictatorship, and drove Herod to escape to the city of Rome (see below).As soon as he arrived in Rome, Herod sought the assistance of Octavian and Mark Antony, who were at the moment allies of the Roman government.The two of them came to an agreement that he should be made king of Judea.

Herodias re-entered Judea, and with the assistance of the Roman legions, he was able to retake Jerusalem and other areas around the region by 37 B.C.Herod’s position, on the other hand, remained precarious.Family members of the Hasmonean Dynasty, who had been in power prior to the arrival of the Romans, were enraged by the fact that the Romans had installed Herod as the ruler of Judea.He married Mariamme, the granddaughter of former high priest Hyrcanus II, in an attempt to bring members of the Hasmonean Dynasty into the fold, as well as members of his own family.

Her three boys, Alexander and Aristobulus, as well as a third son who died young in Rome, and two daughters were born to him, according to Vermes’s account.Mariamme was murdered by Herod in 29 B.C.on the grounds that she had committed adultery and attempted to assassinate him, according to Herod.Herod had at least ten wives and felt that polygamy was permitted under Jewish law.The king also executed his sons Alexander and Aristobulus in 7 B.C., and Antipater II, Herod’s oldest son (whom he had with another wife) in 4 B.C.

  1. The monarch also executed his sons Alexander and Aristobulus in 7 B.C.
  2. Herod accused his three sons of attempting to assassinate him.
  3. Herod seized the property of people who he felt were opposed to his reign and sold it to the highest bidder.
  1. Herod became extremely wealthy as a result of the confiscation of the riches of the hostile Jewish upper classes, which supplied him with sufficient means to pay for the continuous goodwill of his Roman ruler, Mark Antony, according to Vermes.
  2. In addition, Herod found himself in dispute with Cleopatra VII, the queen of Egypt and Antony’s lover, who was a rival for his affections.
  3. Cleopatra VII craved Herod’s domain, and she used her influence with Antony to persuade him to grant her a portion of Herod’s territory in exchange for her assistance.
  1. As a result of the dissolution of the alliance between Octavian and Antony in 32 B.C., the two men engaged in a civil war, with Antony ruling the eastern sections of the Roman Empire and Octavian commanding the western parts.
  2. When Antony was beaten in the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C., Herod sided with him, but he ultimately came out on the losing end, as Antony committed himself in 30 B.C.
  3. Herod set ship towards Rhodes, where he would meet with Octavian, unsure of what would happen to him.
  4. During his meeting with Octavian, Herod removed his crown and informed the emperor that he had stood with Antony until the bitter end, according to the ancient historian Josephus (A.D.
  5. 37-100).
  1. ″I have been vanquished by Antony, and with his demise, I have relinquished my throne.
  2. I have come to you with the expectation that you will be interested in knowing not only who my friend has been, but also what kind of friend I have been, and I have placed my hope of safety in your hands ″Josephus penned a letter (translation by English classicist G.A.
  3. Williamson).
  4. Octavian was so taken aback by Herod’s performance that he not only permitted him to continue as king, but also returned to him land that Antony had granted to Cleopatra VII.

Herod the builder

  • According to Vermes, ″Without a question, he was the greatest builder in the Holy Land, designing and directing the execution of palaces, fortifications, theatres, amphitheatres, harbors, and the whole city of Caesarea, and to cap it all, he coordinated the rebuilding the Temple of Jerusalem.″ When the Babylonians conquered Jerusalem in 587 B.C., they demolished the First Temple, which had been erected by King Solomon and dedicated to his memory.
  • While a Jewish temple had been constructed on the site in the late 6th century B.C., Herod constructed a second temple that was far greater in scale..
  • It is referred described as the ″Second Temple″ by historians today.
  • Despite the fact that the Romans destroyed much of the Second Temple in A.D.
  • 70, a portion of it still stands today.
  • ″The renowned Western (or Wailing) Wall in Jerusalem, a lovely testament to the past for some and the holiest place of Jewish dev

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