How Many Times Was Jesus Beaten

How many lashes did Christ receive, and what was the reason for t.

I realize this question is rather ancient, but the issue itself is also quite old, thus it is timeless. In an effort not to repeat what has already been said, there are just a number of distinguishing factors to examine in order to determine the correct response. First and foremost, the Mosaic Law, which was established via Moses, stipulated that 40 lashes were the maximum punishment, provided the crime merited such a punishment at all. Less was almost probably possible, but only at the judge’s discretion and only on the basis of the seriousness of the offence.

This legislation was in existence from around 1400 B.C.

The Romans, on the other hand, had something very different.

With this whip, ball bearings were employed in conjunction with shards to contact the surface first with the ball, generating an immediate swell, followed by the barb/shard, which shredded the flesh.

  1. It was intended to be horribly nasty and demeaning in every way.
  2. They created the 40-1 merely because they believed it was implausible that anyone would live to be 40 or older – period.
  3. Two completely distinct approaches and objectives.
  4. Furthermore, the Romans used the crucifixion as yet another extremely terrible tool in their arsenal.
  5. The fact that Jesus was under Roman control, having been turned up by the Jews, meant that the Mosaic Law was not enforced.
  6. As far as we know, no one has ever been sentenced to both verberatio and crucifixion at the same time.
  7. He didn’t think Jesus was guilty of anything, and he was right.
  8. Since a result, it is likely that he did not even receive 39, or at the very least only if the lictor believed it would not kill Him, as that was not the intention.
  9. The Jews, on the other hand, erupted when Pilate brought Jesus out after the scourging, but humiliated him as the centurions would frequently do (in this case, by dressing him up like a king).

I hope this has been of assistance. The Bible is one of the sources (Deuteronomy 25:1-3, John 18-19, Mark 15, Matthew 27) There are reams of history about the laws and administration of the Romans. MrNobody97’s response was last updated on February 20, 2017.

Did the Romans give Jesus 39 lashes?

QuestionAnswer The Romans scourged Jesus just before He was crucified, just before His death (John 19:1). The number of lashes that Jesus got is not specified in the Bible explicitly. According to Deuteronomy 25:3, an offender should not be subjected to more than forty lashes in one session. In order to prevent accidently breaching this mandate, the Jews would only inflict a criminal 39 lashes in order to avoid breaking it on purpose. According to 2 Corinthians 11:24, the Apostle Paul got “five times from the Jews the forty lashes minus one,” a procedure that is still in effect today.

  • There is no reason to suppose that the Romans would adhere to a Jewish tradition in this instance.
  • After being scourged, he was to be executed by crucifixion, according to the plan.
  • Despite this, the Jewish authorities and Pilate acted in this manner, despite the fact that Jesus was innocent.
  • We hear and allude to the account of Jesus’ death so frequently that we forget to take a step back and consider how cruelly He was treated by people who were supposed to be saving us.
  • The “stripes” that are mentioned in this prophesy are a clear allusion to the lashes that Jesus was subjected to.
  • The death of Christ, in a very genuine sense, resulted in spiritual healing for those who were willing to trust in him.
  • “However, the Lord has thrown on him the iniquity of us all,” the Bible says (Isaiah 53:6).

The flawlessShepherdmade the decision to endure an unfair and painful death in order to save His sheep from certain death.

“I am the good shepherd,” He declared just before being arrested.

I am the good shepherd, and I am here to help you.

To demonstrate his love for me, the Father has allowed me to lay down my life so that I may pick it up again.

I have the authority to put it down and I also have the authority to pick it up and put it down again.

The Father made the decision to nail Jesus on the cross.

They worked together to save everyone who would believe and to demonstrate through Jesus’ awful wounds both the seriousness of our sin and the depth of His love for us. Questions regarding Jesus Christ (return to top of page) Is it true that the Romans whipped Jesus 39 times?

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How many times was Jesus whipped?

This post is also accessible in the following languages: (Hindi) The Bible really mentions two separate instances in which Jesus was beaten before being sentenced to death. Different translations interpret the term whipped (CSB) in Luke 23:16 as chastise (KJV), punish (NIV), flogged (NET), or scourged (as in John 19:1), depending on whose version you are reading (KJV).

The first scourge

In the Bible, the flogging of Jesus occurs when Pilate says, “I will therefore punish Him and release Him”; “Pilate, intending to releaseJesus, shouted out to them a second time”; “Then he said to them the third time, “Why, what wrong has He done?” I haven’t come up with a good cause to distrust Him. As a result, I shall reprimand him and then release him” (Luke 23:16, 20, 22). “As a result, Pilate seized Jesus and scourged Him” (John 19:1). The goal of the first scourge was to evoke, if at all possible, sympathy from the violent mob, and this was accomplished by the use of torture.

The second scourge

“Then he freed Barabbas to them, and after scourging Jesus, he handed Him to be crucified,” according to the Bible (Matthew 27:26; Mark 15:15). The mocking of verses 27–31 really came before the scourging and release for crucifixion of verses 26, 31, which took place after the mockery of verses 27–31. The goal of the second scourge was to deliver the punishment that was to be administered before to the crucifixion in accordance with Roman legal precedent (Matthew 27:26; Mark 15:15). In War II, Chapter 14, Chapter 9, Josephus the Jewish historian claims that Florus, a later Roman ruler of Judea, flogged several Jerusalem residents before to their execution.

Number of lashes

Whippings inflicted in ancient times frequently resulted in death (Matthew 10:17). As a result, Moses directed that the amount of lashes should not exceedfortylashes per person. If there is a disagreement between men and they come to court so that the judges may judge them, and they justify the righteous and condemn the wicked, then it shall be, if the wicked man is deserving of punishment, that he shall be forced to lie down and be beaten in his presence, according to the severity of his guilt, with a certain number of blows.” No more than forty strikes are permitted to be delivered to him in order to avoid exceeding the number of strokes permitted and humiliating your brother in your presence” (Deuteronomy 25:1-3).

Later, the Jews reduced the amount of lashes to 39 in order to avoid accidentally administering more than 40 lashes and killing a man.

Prophecy fulfilled

“But He was wounded for our trespasses, He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement for our peace was laid on Him, and by His stripes we are healed,” declared the prophet Isaiah regarding the stripes of the Messiah that would bring healing to mankind (Isaiah 53:5; 1 Peter 2:24). In the person of Jesus Christ, who suffered in order to “heal the brokenhearted” (Luke 4:18) and everyone “that had need of healing” (Chapter 9:11), both physically and spiritually, this prophecy was brought to fulfillment (Mark 2:5, 10).

  • Christ paid the punishment for man’s sins on the cross by carrying their burden (Hebrews 9:26).
  • “He is the propitiation.
  • Christ had no sin of His own, yet He took on the sin of the world in order to save us all (Matthew 1:21; John 1:29; 1 Corinthians 15:3; Galatians 1:4).
  • We might be “named the sons of God” as a result of the Father’s gift of His own Son, which is considered to be the ultimate manifestation of divine love (1 John 3:1).

While God’s love surrounds all of humanity, it is only those who accept it that directly benefit from it (John 1:12). In His service,BibleAskTeamThis post is also accessible in the following languages: (Hindi)

How Many Lashes Did Christ Received, And What Was The Reason For That Specific Number?

  1. Many websites do not provide the actual amount of lashes that Jesus received at his crucifixion. Some people feel that the exact amount is unknown. However, according to the majority of texts, Jesus was scourged 39 times. In 2 Corinthians 11:24, St. Paul speaks of receiving “forty lashes less one” as punishment. Back in those days, whipping someone 39 times was considered regular procedure. It is believed that under Roman law, it was against the law to condemn someone to greater severe punishment(s) than he or she had already been sentenced to. As a result, the individual generally received fewer lashes than the person who was sentenced in order to make up for any possible undercounting of the number of lashes received. There are, however, a variety of different explanations as to why Christ was whipped 39 times. We’ll find out in this case
  2. Moses was the one who introduced it. The Mosaic Law itself refers to 39 lashes, or forty lashes less one, according to the Hebrew calendar. It is a phrase that relates to flogging, and it was originally intended to be biblical in nature. According to the Old Testament, 40 lashes were considered sufficient punishment for murdering a man. As a result, 39 lashes was the maximum amount of lashes a guy could receive before the death penalty was announced. Pilate slapped Christ on the back with the same amount of lashes. As a result, flogging someone for a longer period of time was considered un-Christian. But in actuality, 39 lashes were readily plenty for killing someone and more than sufficient for making someone pass out. Depending on the severity of the offence, the crew or a captain would frequently administer fewer lashes than usual. In most cases, the rule was applied only to the most serious or horrific offenses that did not carry a death punishment
  3. You will be amused to learn that there is no Biblical Law that refers to 40 lashes as the death penalty. In reality, it was an ancient Roman tradition/law that viewed forty lashes as a death sentence under certain circumstances. During the Roman era, it was believed that a flogger should kill a person with forty lashes in order to give a punishment in a proper manner. In the event that he was unable to kill him after forty lashings, the flogger would be forced to commit suicide. This twisted, distorted logic was employed in order to ensure that the flogger did not hold back in administering the punishment. The Romans used the same strange justification to determine that 39 lashes should not be sufficient punishment for murder. As a result, the most severe type of punishment available without the death penalty would be 39 lashes. Some speculate that the flogger was afraid of the death punishment if Christ survived his fortieth lash because he was frightened of the death penalty. According to historians who have done extensive research on flogging, it is widely thought that 39 lashes were first used to bring an ordinary person near to death without really killing him. As an example, the Romans employed a flagellum whip to punish those who were lashed. The punishment was referred to as verberatio, and the whip used was akin to the cat-o’-nine-tails used in the United Kingdom. It was made up of shards and a ball-bearing, which at first was used to strike the skin with the ball. Instantaneous swelling of the skin would occur as a result of the shard/barb following it and shredding the skin. It happened on a number of instances that whipping caused the skin to hang and the arteries to be exposed. This punishment was designed in such a demeaning and harsh manner that it was mad. For further information, see (What is the distinction between grace and mercy in Christianity?) A “cat of nine tails” was used to carry out the penalty of flogging/scourging in ancient Rome, which is still in use today. Each of its tails had a bit of bone or metal implanted at the end of it, which gave it its distinctive appearance. At times, the pounding would cause the inmates to be disemboweled. The goal was to bring someone to the brink of death but without really murdering him in the process. Nevertheless, because there were no precise quantities of lashes, the severe suffering would almost certainly prove deadly in many cases. The concept of 40-1 was created since it was determined that someone could not withstand more than 40 lashes. There have been instances where they have utilized it as an outright practice of murdering someone. The Romans did not even exist at the time of the establishment of the Mosaic Law, which occurred thousands of years later. In the Roman era, crucifixion was yet another method of tormenting and severely executing those who were considered to be criminals. It was illegal to subject any Roman citizen to either of these punishment modalities because they were so brutal. It was a civilization populated by gladiators, people who battled to the death in the Coliseum for the sake of entertainment. In later years, members of the same society transformed into voracious monsters that preyed on Christians within the Coliseum. Flogging became a spectator sport thanks to the cold-hearted and brutal warriors. The primary goal was to cause significant harm to someone without killing them
  4. Christ was subjected to Roman punishment after being given over to the Romans by the Jews. As a result, the Mosaic Law was not applied in his situation. The unfortunate fact is that his sentence consisted of a mixture of two separate penalties. To the best of our knowledge, no one has ever been sentenced to both verberatio and crucifixion at the same time. Pilate flogged Christ only for the purpose of soothing the Jews who were planning to assassinate Christ. He did not believe Christ was guilty of any wrongdoing in his opinion. As a result, he had him flogged in an attempt to appease the Jews and subsequently free Christ. He only received enough damage to be seriously injured but not killed. As far as we can tell, Pilate had no intention of killing him. It’s important to remember that he never believed that Christ deserved any sort of punishment. After hitting Jesus Christ with the lash, the soldier dragged the lash across Christ’s torso in a whipping motion. As the lash swept over Christ’s torso, the flesh of his body was ripped by a piece of bone or metal that was affixed to the lash. Because 40 lashes were thought sufficient to kill someone, the legal maximum was 39 lashes. The fact that a “cat of nine tails” was used meant that Christ was beaten 351 times, which equaled 39 times nine. Pilate, on the other hand, recognized that the Jews were enraged when Christ was scourged. As a result, in order to avert a riot, he grudgingly agreed to crucifying Christ as well. He went on to suggest that the unjustified blood of Christ will be shed on the skulls of the Jews themselves.
See also:  What Does Jesus Say About Women

Did Jesus receive thirty-nine (39) lashes from the Romans?

During the weeks leading up to His crucifixion, the Romans whipped and beat Jesus (Matthew 27:24–31; John 19:1), and He died as a result. However, because it is not written expressly in the Bible, we are unable to determine how many lashes He got with certainty. It is really Jewish, not Roman, in origin, that the notion of giving someone no more than thirty-nine lashes is used. The Israelites were instructed in Deuteronomy 25:3 that a criminal should receive a maximum of forty lashes as punishment, and “not more,” lest “if one should go on to beat him with more stripes than these, your brother be degraded in your sight,” if they went on to beat him with more stripes than these.

  • We know that delivering thirty-nine lashes was still a prevalent practice among the Jews at the period of the New Testament because the apostle Paul describes being given thirty-nine lashes by the Jews on many occasions during his ministry.
  • As a result, when Jesus was executed by the Romans, there is no reason to suppose that the Romans would adhere to Jewish disciplinary traditions just because Jesus was Jewish.
  • Pontius Pilate ordered that Jesus be flogged, although he did not specify the amount of lashes to be administered.
  • As a result, the scourging served as a prelude to the crucifixion.
  • Jesus came to the planet with a specific goal in mind: to bring redemption to the entire world.
  • “Jesus is the propitiation for our sins,” according to First John 2:2, and “not only for our sins but also for the sins of the whole world,” according to Second John 2:2.
  • The sacrifice of Jesus on the cross atones for our sins, and we give thanks to God for His kindness and mercy.
  • (John 3:16).
  • What was the point of Jesus having to suffer so much?

Who has responsibility for the killing of Jesus Christ? Is it more necessary to remember Jesus’ death than to remember His resurrection? What is the best way for me to embrace Jesus as my personal savior? Return to the page: The Truth About Jesus Christ.

The soldiers beat Jesus on the way to the cross

The Life of Jesus Christ – Chapter 10 – Jesus’ arrest and appearance in court – Part 11 of the Gospel of John Previous article |Life of Jesus Christ Index|*Word List|Next article |Life of Jesus Christ Index Barrie Wetherill’s online Bible Study course on the life of Jesus is available for free. Level B of EasyEnglish is used to write this book. Please see the links below for more online Bible Study books and commentaries that may be of use. Alternatively, you can consult the Word List, which provides explanations for terms marked with a *star.

  1. The Jews were only permitted to beat men a total of 39 times, according to Jewish law.
  2. When the Romans’ prisoners fell to the ground, they lifted them up.
  3. This was a method they used to murder their hostages on occasion.
  4. Several pieces of skin were dangling from their backs.
  5. They have now beaten him in accordance with Roman law.
  6. They fashioned a crown for him out of shards of jagged branches.
  7. It would have been impossible for the Roman officer to accept it.)

What did Jesus look like?

What must Jesus’ appearance have been like by this point? They had pummeled him with their fists and whips, and he was unconscious. They’d shaved off his beard, he said. They had pressed the pointed crown on his skull with force. *Crucified Christ has been depicted in paintings by several artists. None of them can give us a clear picture of what Jesus was truly like at that point in time. Isaiah’s depiction is more accurate: Isaiah 52:14 (KJV) Everyone was frightened of how he seemed. He didn’t even appear to be human.

Simon of Cyrene carries Christ’s *cross

Normally, the prisoner was responsible for transporting his own *cross. There were two big pieces of wood that the troops fastened together to form a *cross’]. Soon after, the soldiers realized that Jesus was unable to bear his own *cross on his own. Simon of Cyrene was enlisted to transport it for him. Jesus mustered up the courage to talk to a group of ladies. Meanwhile, his prayers to God were being answered by the soldiers as they attached him to the *cross with nails. ‘Father, please forgive them,’ he pleaded.

To *crucify a guy is a dreadful thing to do.

He was scorched by the sun, and insects swarmed all over him.

The roaring of the crowd could be heard throughout the performance. David composed Psalm 22 more than 1000 years before Jesus died on the *cross. However, Psalm 22 is a pretty accurate description of Jesus’ experiences. MissionAssist was in operation from 2002 until 2005.

How true is it that Jesus received 39 lashes, representing the 39 diseases known in His time?

If this is correct, would this imply that healing has been made available to New Testament Christians at this time? Ashlea Redden asked on July 22nd, 2014, “ClarifyShareReport.” The responses from the community are arranged according to how many people voted for them. The greater the number of votes, the higher the position of an answer on the list. The Bible does not record that Jesus was scourged or that he physically suffered as a result of our sins, but it does record that he was scourged and that he physically suffered as a result of our sins.

  1. After that, thorns were placed on his head, nails were hammered into his wrists and legs, and he was speared in the side, among other things.
  2. However, while some interpreters assert that a convicted person was generally subjected to a certain number of lashes, Scripture makes no reference of the number of lashes or scourgings administered to Jesus at his crucifixion.
  3. The goals of Jesus’ sufferings are clearly outlined by a number of messianic prophesies that were fulfilled.
  4. If anything, Jesus died as a result of the most devastating human sickness that mankind has ever known.
  5. This is the primary reason why Jesus gave his life on the cross.
  6. The redemption of the human soul is the most profound form of healing that exists.
  7. The Hebrew term “raw-faw” (rapha) for “healed” is a compound word that, in general, refers to the state of being healthy and wholesome.

Even if we believers suffer from or die as a result of an earthly sickness or from any other reason, as occurs frequently, we may be confident that our connection with God will not be harmed in any way by our experiences.

0 replies on July 23, 2014 Vote for it, share it, and report it.

When Pilate condemned Jesus, I don’t suppose he was considering the number of illnesses that were known at the time.

The number of stripes that Jesus got is not specified in the Bible.

There were 40 lashes plus one since it was considered that 40 or more lashes would be fatal to the recipient of the punishment.

According to an ancient Roman rule or legend, forty lashes constituted a death sentence.

If the flogger failed to kill a man in forty lashes, he may be sentenced to death, depending on the circumstances of the case.

Using the same twisted logic, the Romans reasoned that 39 lashes would not kill a person, and hence that was the maximum amount of lashes that could be administered without a person being sentenced to death by flogging.

The greatest number of strokes that may be provided in a single instance is 40.

25:3).

0 replies on July 23, 2014 Vote for it, share it, and report it.

From what I’m aware with in biblical literature, this does not appear to be the case.

The following is an excerpt from the netbible.org commentary on the subject: “Flogging is denoted by the Greek word fragellow (flogging stick).

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So, in the example of Jesus before to his crucifixion, we may say.

“A Roman flogging (traditionally known as “scourging”) was a torturous form of punishment.

Armed guards, who stood on either side of the victim, would beat him mercilessly with a whip (flagellum), which was made of leather and had chunks of lead and bone put into its ends.

See, for example, C.

“So, as you can see, it was the Romans who flogged Jesus, not the Jews.

Paul himself states in 2 Corinthians 11:24 that he endured “40 lashes minus one” from the Jews, stressing his sufferings for Christ and how near he was to death as a result of his association with the cross. 0 replies on July 23, 2014 Vote for it, share it, and report it.

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The physical abuse Jesus endured

Is there anyone you can think of who has been treated more brutally than Jesus Christ? Take, for example, the physical assault Jesus endured on our behalf. When he was apprehended, the troops tied him up. Those who have been handcuffed attest that having one’s hands bound behind one’s back for an extended period of time is very uncomfortable. Jesus had to spend the entire night on trial before a Jewish tribunal that had been convened in error. Not only was he the target of slander and contempt, but he was also spit on, blinded, slugged, and slapped by members of the Sanhedrin during his trial.

  1. At the conclusion of this series of trials, Jesus was once more insulted and derided as an impostor.
  2. (Matthew 15:17) The briar’s long thorns penetrated his brow, causing it to bleed profusely.
  3. (Matthew 15:19) Because of the abusive Roman soldiers who were eager to punish an insurrectionist, it is likely that Jesus’ face was swollen, his eyes were blackened, and his nose had been bloodied.
  4. According to early historians, scourging was a particularly hated kind of punishment.
  5. Jesus was herded into the slaughterhouse like a sheep.
  6. When he tripped and fell on the rough streets, he grazed his elbows and knees and sustained minor injuries.

“Only slaves, the most despicable criminals, and those who were not Roman citizens were executed in this manner.” Our sensibilities are incapable of comprehending the horror of one’s hands and feet being nailed to a cross and one’s body being suspended naked above the adoring gaze of onlookers and gloating onlookers.

  • Every movement was accompanied by excruciating discomfort.
  • According to an ancient letter, when Mary, Jesus’ mother, was being escorted to the crucifixion, she looked up at the three crosses and asked, “Which one is he?” (which one is he?) It’s possible that Jesus was beaten beyond recognition.
  • “His appearance was so disfigured that it could not be mistaken for that of a man, and his form was so marred that it could not be mistaken for that of a human.” (See Isaiah 52:14 for more information.) All of this and more was endured by Jesus in our place.
  • “Jesus bore our sins in his body on the tree,” Peter wrote, and this is what he meant.

(1 Peter 2:24) When you think about Jesus’ physical suffering, how does it affect the way you think about your own personal suffering? Lindsay Christian Church is led by Paul Leavens, who serves as its minister. For more information, go to the church’s website.

How many times was Jesus scourged at the pillar?

Some claim that the exact amount is unknown. According to this website, Jesus was probably scourged 39 times. 2 Corinthians 11:24 describes St. Paul getting “forty lashes less one” as a result of his actions. Whipping a person 39 times was customary procedure at the time of the NT. The Flagellation of Christ, also known as Christ at the Column or the Scourging at the Pillar, is a scene from the Passion of Christ that appears frequently in Christian art, either as part of a cycle depicting the Passion or as part of a wider theme depicting the Life of Christ.

Four score and ten stripes What is the distinction between flogging and scourging, in this context?

What was the reason for Pilate’s scourging of Jesus?

He was later released.

How many lashes did Jesus receive while being scourged?

1 John 19:1 New King James Version – 1 As a result, Pilate arrested Jesus and scourged Him. ClarifyShareReport On July 16, 2014, I received a question. marc waller is a musician and songwriter from the United Kingdom who is best known for his work on the soundtrack of the film The Greatest Showman. The responses from the community are arranged according to how many people voted for them. The greater the number of votes, the higher the position of an answer on the list. The sole time Jesus is mentioned being flogged, there is no indication of a number.

See Matthew 27:26 and Mark 15:15 for further information.

According to BDAG 1064 s.v., “flog, scourge, a punishment inflicted on slaves and provincials after a death sentence had been issued on them” is an appropriate term.

As recorded in Matthew 27:26 and Mark 15:15, a Roman flogging (traditionally, “scourging”) was an agonizing form of punishment.” The victim was stripped of his clothes and tied to a pole with his hands secured above his head with his hands knotted above him (or sometimes he was thrown to the ground).

While the Jews were only given 39 lashes, the Romans had no such restriction, and many persons who were subjected to such a flogging perished as a result of their ordeal. See, for example, C. Schneider’s TDNT, 515-19.” 0 replies on July 23, 2014 Vote for it, share it, and report it.

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ANE TODAY – 201812 – What Do We Know about the Scourging of Jesus? – American Society of Overseas Research (ASOR)

Keep to the eBible’s Statement of Faith; Complete and stand-alone responses are required. Support your points with evidence and scriptural references if at all possible Investigate the “why” to get an answer. Maintain the appropriate tone and attitude of love and compassion. The Complete Guide to eBible has further information.

Scourges from Herbert Haag and Adrian van dem Born,Bibel-Lexikon(Einsiedeln, Benziger, 1956), p. 527.

At least, that’s how it appears. The Greek verb ó is used to describe Jesus’ scourging in the Gospels of Mark and Matthew, which is a loan translation of the Latinflagellum, but the Greek verb ó is used in the Gospel of John, which is a loan translation of the Latinflagellum. Likewise, Pilate’s men used a scourge made of ropes, leather, chains, wood, or whatever else to whip the ground. Unfortunately, there is no information on the scourge in the Bible; instead, there is a passage in which John writes that when Jesus “had created a scourge of cords, he drove them all out of the temple.

  1. However, the public’s fascination in the pandemic has not waned.
  2. Others, on the other hand, came up with hypotheses.
  3. However, there is no proof that these three types of scourges were actually in use in ancient Rome at the time of Jesus, despite common belief to the contrary.
  4. It depicts the figure of a tormented man, whose lacerations are very similar to those that would have been sustained by the crucified Jesus.
  5. This sparked a quest for an item that could have been responsible for the wounds.
  6. In the following century, Daniele Mallonio translated Paleotti’s work into Latin and presented a description of the plague, which he derived from the markings on the Shroud.
  7. Bridget of Sweden (1303–1373 CE) was very extensive, since she depicted a spiked corded scourge in her writings.

Mallonio’s book featured a photograph of aflagellum aculeatum, and he came to the conclusion that “the innumerable scars that the Shroud suffered from the body of Christ demonstrate that scourges of such sort were employed for the flagellation of Christ.” ”

Shroud of Turin ().

For historical facts, Mallonio turned to the well-known 1593 treatiseDe Cruceby Justus Lipsius for assistance. By drawing on the writings of Athenaeus of Naucratis (2nd century CE) and Eustathius of Thessalonica (12th century CE), he detailed, among other things, an East Asian scourge fashioned of astragalus bones, among other things. Because of their almost cube form, the astragalus bones of sheep are used for a variety of purposes, the most well-known of which is as dice. However, when strung together on the cords of a scourge, these little bones dealt devastating blows to a victim.

  • However, when Lipsius translated into Latin the Greek texts containing descriptions of that type of scourge, he made use of the recently coined wordtaxillatum, which means “new taxillatum” (fromtaxillus, i.e.
  • In the process, several subsequent authors propagated the incorrect notion that the Romans were genuinely plagued by something calledflagrum taxillatum, which is Latin for “small cube scourge.” So, what was the actual form of theflagrumof Jesus at that point?
  • When I went in search of this fragment, I discovered that it was simply a little length of thin chain, with a twisted nail connected, and that it was housed in a cross-reliquary among other weird artifacts.
  • He also felt the need to corroborate the round form of the whip markings on the Shroud, so he went on a hunt for a particularly special scourge with blunt spherical things at the ends of its lashes, which he discovered.
  • Flamagrum talis Tesseratum, shown on a marble bas-relief from the second century, included three strings hanging from a handle, as well as twenty-four astragalus bones.
  • .
Rome, Musei Capitolini, Inventario Sculture, s 1207. Photo: Valeria Pezzi.

To gather historical facts, Mallonio turned to Justus Lipsius’s famous 1593 work De Cruce (The Cruce). By drawing on the writings of Athenaeus of Naucratis (2nd century CE) and Eustathius of Thessalonica (12th century CE), he mentioned, among other things, an East Asian scourge that was “made of astragalus bones,” among other things. The astragalus bones of sheep are used for a variety of purposes, the most well-known of which is as dice. A victim would suffer horrible injuries if these little bones were strung together on the cords of a scourge.

  • However, when Lipsius translated into Latin the Greek sections including descriptions of that type of scourge, he made use of the recently coined wordtaxillatum to indicate the nature of the scourge (fromtaxillus, i.e.
  • Unluckily, this led to the incorrect belief that the Romans were plagued by a scourge of little cubes known as flagrum taxillatum, which spread throughout history.
  • When Mallonio discovered the shard near Rome’s Santa Maria in Via Lata, he reported it to the authorities.
  • Paul Vignon, a Shroud researcher who lived around the turn of the twentieth century, reexamined the plague.
  • Like Mallonio, Vignon had access to works on Roman scourges such as theDictionnaire des antiquités grecques et romainesby Charles Daremberg and Edmond Saglio and theDictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquitiesby Anthony Rich, unlike Mallonio who had to rely on his memory.

Flamagrum talis Tesseratum, shown on a marble bas-relief from the second century, included three strings hanging from a handle, as well as twenty-four astragalus bones. It was the most impressive piece on display. .

Anthony Rich,Dictionnaire des antiquités romaines et grecques(Paris: Firmin Didot, 1859), p. 273.

The truth is that all of the designs on which Vignon relied were faulty. Where can we discover a comparison to the Shroud that is comparable? Some academics propose the use of the so-calledplumbatae, a torture tool dating back to the fourth century CE. However, in first-century Palestine, this was not the case. Other examples include an 18-karat-gold necklace with a spiral engraving and three chains, each of which has a charm selected from Rich’s lexicon, which was purportedly “copied from an original unearthed at Herculaneum.”

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Anthony Rich,Dictionnaire des antiquités romaines et grecques(Paris: Firmin Didot, 1859), p. 273.

However, nothing like has ever been discovered in Pompeii and Herculaneum, nor has anything similar ever been discovered at the Naples Archaeological Museum. Rich’s piece was really a copy of an eighteenth-century artwork that belonged to the Count of Caylus (1692–1765), who was a collector in his own right. Caylus claims to have purchased the scourge, as well as other objects, from a merchant in Rome, but he incorrectly labels them as scourges from the Roman period. I was fortunate in that the Caylus collection had survived, and I was able to trace down each and every item in it.

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Département des mon- naies, médailles et antiques, inv. bronze 1836. Photo: René-Ginouvès.

Modern archaeology is significantly more careful in its approach. Because of the perishable nature of the materials, it is exceedingly difficult to locate and identify genuine scourges. Archaeologists must also use extreme caution when adopting previous categories, particularly when the item has been subjected to arbitrary modifications and restoration attempts by diggers and private collectors, among other things. The only thing that I have been able to identify as a scourge is a handle with 29 bronze balls strung on two strings.

British Museum, Greek and Roman Antiquities, Bronze 2694.

However, the countless spheres on the Shroud are far bigger than those on the Shroud. A form akin to the supposed scourge of the Shroud has not been shown in any of the countless ancient pictures that have been offered. We were unable to discover a single one of them, either in real life or in drawings/carvings, that would leave markings that matched those visible on the Shroud, yet Vignon searched for hours. However, in medieval artistic portrayals, soldiers frequently strike Jesus with two separate scourges: one made of ropes tied together with knots or spherical weights, which is occasionally spiky, and the other made of a cluster of switches.

Stuttgarter Psalter, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Cod.bibl.fol.23, f. 43v.

The spheres on the Shroud, on the other hand, are far bigger in number. A form akin to the supposed scourge of the Shroud has not been shown in any of the various ancient depictions that have been suggested. No one one, whether in real life, in a drawing, or carved, could be found that would leave markings similar to those shown on the Shroud, according to Vignon. In contrast, soldiers beating Jesus with two separate scourges, one made of ropes with knots or spheres of weight, occasionally spiky, and the other a cluster of switches, is a common depiction in medieval artistic renderings.

From the first part of the ninth century onwards, they may already be discovered, and both forms can be found as late as the thirteenth century.

The Science of the Crucifixion

The science of Christ’s crucifixion is the subject of a special lecture presented by Cahleen Shrier, Ph.D., associate professor in the Department of Biology and Chemistry, on an annual basis. She goes into depth on the physiological processes that a typical crucified victim went through, and she instructs her pupils on how to see Christ’s death on the cross in a fresh light. Although the exact actions depicted in this scenario may not have occurred in Jesus’ individual situation, the tale is based on historical evidence of crucifixion techniques that were in use at the time of Jesus’ death.

Understanding that Jesus would have been in superb physical condition from the beginning is critical.

In addition, he traveled throughout the countryside on foot for much of the duration of His ministry.

Keeping this in mind, it becomes evident exactly how much He suffered: If this torment could break a guy in such good form, it must have been a horrifying experience for him.

Matthew 26:36-46, Mark 14:37-42, Luke 22:39-44

Following the celebration of the Passover, Jesus leads His followers to the Garden of Gethsemene to pray. During His frantic prayer concerning the events that would take place, Jesus sheds blood droplets. There is a rare medical illness known as hemohedrosis, which occurs when the capillary blood veins that supply the sweat glands get damaged or destroyed. Blood that has been released from the vessels combines with the perspiration, resulting in the body sweating blood droplets. This condition is caused by mental pain or extreme anxiety, a state that Jesus conveys in his prayer, “my soul is greatly saddened to the point of death,” which means “my soul is grieved to the point of death” (Matthew 26:38).

Matthew 26:67-75, Mark 14:61-72, Luke 22:54-23:25, John 18:16-27

Following the celebration of the Passover, Jesus leads His followers to the Garden of Gethsemene to pray with them. As He prays contemplating the events that will take place in the future, Jesus begins to sweat droplets of blood. When the capillary blood capillaries that supply the sweat glands get damaged, it is referred to as hemohedrosis, and it is extremely unusual. Consequently, perspiration contains droplets of blood because it is mixed with blood discharged from arteries. This condition is caused by mental pain or extreme anxiety, a state that Jesus conveys in his prayer, “my soul is greatly saddened to the point of death,” which means “my soul is grieved till the point of death” (Matthew 26:38).

Matthew 27:26-32, Mark 15:15-21, Luke 23:25-26, John 19:1-28

Pilate ordered that Jesus be flogged in accordance with Roman law prior to his crucifixion. Tradition dictated that the guilty be stripped nude, and the flogging was applied to the area between the shoulders and the upper legs. There were numerous leather strips in the whip’s construction. Metal balls were positioned in the midst of the strips and struck the skin, causing severe bruising. On top of that, sheep bone was glued to the ends of each strip for added strength. After making contact with Jesus’ skin, the bone penetrates into His muscles, ripping pieces of flesh away and revealing the bone beneath.

  1. It is at this moment that he has lost a significant amount of blood, which causes his blood pressure to drop and sends him into shock.
  2. If He had consumed more water, His blood volume would have grown significantly.
  3. The garment aids in the formation of a blood clot (much like placing a piece of tissue on a cut after shaving) and so prevents Jesus from suffering more blood loss.
  4. He also suffers injury to the facial nerve, which results in tremendous agony running down his face and neck as a result of the thorns.
  5. They pull the garment from Jesus’ back, and the blood begins all over again.

Jesus’ physical state grows increasingly precarious. Jesus is clearly in shock as a result of the tremendous blood loss that has occurred without replenishment. As a result, he is unable to bear the cross, and Simon of Cyrene is tasked with this responsibility (Matthew 27:32).

Matthew 27:33-56, Mark 15:22-41, Luke 23:27-49, John 19:17-37

The Persians created the crucifixion somewhere between 300 and 400 B.C. It is very probably the most agonizing death that civilization has ever devised in its history. Because crucifixion is recognized as a type of protracted, severe torture, the English language has derived the word “excruciating” from the word “crucify.” 1 Slaves, foreigners, revolutionaries, and the most heinous offenders were the only ones who received such a penalty. Those who died were nailed to a cross; nonetheless, it is likely that Jesus’ cross was not the Latin cross, but rather a Tau cross (T).

The accused only drags the horizontal portion (the patibulum) up the hill, which is a long distance.

In the case of Jesus, this is translated as “This is the King of the Jews” (Luke 23:38).

They fasten His “hands” to the patibulum with nails.

If the nails were pushed into the flesh of the hand, the weight of the arms would force the nail to rip through the delicate flesh.

When a cross is inserted in the wrist, the bones in the lower region of the hand sustain the weight of the arms, and the body stays nailed to the cross for the duration of the ceremony.

This causes Jesus to experience continual searing anguish up both of his arms.

During the lifting of the cross, Jesus’ whole weight presses down on His nailed wrists, causing His shoulders and elbows to become dislocated (Psalm 22:14).

Most likely, Jesus’ feet were nailed through the tops of the columns, as shown in popular culture.

As opposed to the hands, the nails would not rip through the delicate tissue as they would have done with the hands.

Breathing normally requires the diaphragm (the big muscle that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity) to move down in order to take in air.

The diaphragm rises in response to the exhalation of breath, which compresses the air in the lungs and drives the air out (exhalation).

In order to breath, Jesus has push up on His nailed feet, which causes even greater suffering.

From the crucifixion, according to the Gospels, Jesus communicated seven times.

Suffocation occurs as a result of the difficulty in exhaling, which is a laborious process.

The body reacts immediately, causing the impulse to breathe to be triggered.

The reduced oxygenation of the tissues (resulting from the difficulty in exhaling) causes tissue damage, and the capillaries begin to leak watery fluid from the blood into the tissues as a result.

The person is effectively suffocated by his or her collapsing lungs, failing heart, dehydration, and inability to provide sufficient oxygen to the tissues.

Causing the heart to explode is a condition known as cardiac rupture, which occurs when the heart is under extreme stress.

Suffocation occurs after Jesus’ death, as a result of the soldiers breaking the legs of the two prisoners who were crucified with Him (John 19:32).

The fact that Jesus was already dead when they arrived meant that they did not have to break His legs (John 19:33).

It is said that “blood and water flowed forth” (John 19:34), alluding to the watery fluid surrounding the heart and lungs, as a result of this action.

Instructing students about the anatomy and physiology of Christ’s crucifixion serves as a constant reminder of the glorious evidence of God’s love for humanity that occurred on that fateful day at Calvary.

Every time I think about it, I am struck by the incredible awareness that Jesus, as a flesh and blood human being, felt every ounce of this punishment. What kind of love can a guy have for his buddies that is greater than this?

General Resources

“The Crucifixion of Jesus,” by C. Truman Davis, is available online. Journal of Arizona Medicine, vol. 22, no. 3, 1965, pp. 183-187. Edwards, William D., and colleagues, “On the Physical Death of Jesus Christ,” in The Physical Death of Jesus Christ, edited by William D. Edwards, et al. 1555-1463 in the American Medical Association’s Journal of the American Medical Association, volume 255, number 11 (1986). Published on March 1, 2002

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