Quirinius – Wikipedia
Not to be confused with the Latin name Quininus. Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (c. 51 BC – AD 21), commonly known as Cyrenius, was a Roman nobleman who lived in the first century AD. The ethnarch Herod Archelaus was expelled from the Tetrarchy of Judea in AD 6, and Quirinius was named legate ruler ofSyria, to which the province of Judaea had been annexed for the sake of acensus.
Quirinius was born into an ordinary family, the son of Publius Sulpicius Quirinus and the paternal grandson of Publius Sulpicius Quirinius, fromGens Sulpicia, in the vicinity ofLanuvium, a Latin town near Rome. He followed the typical path of service for a young man of his social class, which was to become a Roman senator. According to the Roman historianFlorus, Quirinius conquered the Marmaridae, a tribe of desert pirates from Cyrenaica, presumably while serving as governor ofCrete and Cyrene in 14 BC, but he refused to accept the honorary title “Marmaricus” as a result of his victory.
During the time period of 12 to 1 BC, he conducted an offensive against the Homanades (Homonadenses), a tribe living in the hilly area of Galatia and Cilicia.
- In the end, he won the campaign by weakening their fortifications and starving the defenders to death.
- By the year 1 AD, Quirinius had been appointed teacher to Augustus’ grandson Gaius Caesar, a position he held until the latter’s death from wounds sustained during a campaign.
- With Claudia Appia, about whom nothing is known, he divorced her and married Aemilia Lepida, daughter of Quintus Aemilius Lepida and sister of Manius Aemilius Lepida, who had been engaged to Lucius Caesar at one point.
- Tacitus writes that she was well-liked by the general populace, who believed that Quirinius was pursuing the case out of contempt for her actions.
- Quirinius was named Legate of Syria at the same time, and he was given the responsibility of assessing Iudea Province for revenue reasons.
- As a result of their animosity toward their pagan conquerors, Jews were prohibited from participating in censuses under Jewish law.
- However, despite efforts to avert a revolt, the census did in fact spark the uprising ofJudas of Galilee and the foundation of the Zealot group, which, according to Josephus and Luke in the Acts of the Apostles, resulted in the death of Jesus.
Quintus Quirinius served as governor of Syria with responsibility over the province of Iudaea from 12 AD until his return to Rome, when he became a close companion of Emperor Tiberius. A public funeral was held for him nine years after he passed away.
“A great crowd of people came together from all over Italy to my election,. when Publius Sulpicius (Quirinius) and Gaius Valgius were consuls,” according to an inscription from 12 BC discovered in Antioch Pisidia and known asRes Gestae Divi Augusti (‘The Deeds of the Divine Augustus’). The inscription states: Another pair of inscriptions discovered in Pisidian Antioch (Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae9502–9503) named Quirinius as a Duumvir, which corresponded to the time when Marcus Servilius was a Roman consul in the year 3 AD.
Among his many accomplishments is the taking of a census in the Syrian city of Apamea, which was confirmed by an inscription purchased in Beirut in 1674 and brought to Venice.
Tiberius Caesar “requested that the Senate pay tribute.with a public funeral,” according to the Roman historianTacitus, who also described Quirinius as a “tireless soldier, who by his faithful services had become consul during the reign of Augustus,.later was appointed to be an adviser to Caius Caesar in the government of Armenia.” The Jewish historian Josephus wrote in greater detail about the census of Judea that Quirinius conducted in the year 6 AD while serving as governor of Syria.
- Sulpicia (genera)
- Census of Quirinius
- List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources
- Sulpicia (genera)
- In the King James Version ofLuke 2:2, “o” is a back-transliteration of the Greek letter o
- In Josephus,Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVIII, Chapter 1: ” Cyreniuscame himself into Judea, which had now been added to the province of Syria, to take an account of their substance.”
- In Erich S. Gruen, “The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus,” in The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume X: The August Erich S. Gruen’s “The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus,” in The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume X: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC – AD 69, (Cambridge University Press, 1996), pages 153–154
- Also see Ronald Syme’s “The Roman Revolution,” (Oxford University Press, 1939, reissued 2002), page 399
- And Erich S. Gruen’s “The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus,” in In his book Galatians and the Imperial Cult (Mohr Siebeck, 2008), Justin K. Hardin suggests that it is uncertain whether Quirinius actually served as legate, and that it is possible that he served only as a military general
- Justin K. Hardin, Galatians and the Imperial Cult (Mohr Siebeck, 2008), page 56
- P. Sulpicius Quirinius can be found on Livius.org
- Robin Seager’s Tiberius (Blackwell Publishing, 2005), page 129
- Francesca Santoro L’Hoir’s Tragedy, Rhetoric, and the Historiography of Tacitus’ Annales (University of Michigan Press, 2006), page 177
- Hayes, John Haralson
- Mandell, Sara R.’s Tiberius (Blackwell Publishing (1998). “Chapter 3: The Herodian Period,” says the author. From Alexander to Bar Kochba, the Jewish people lived throughout ancient antiquity. In Louisville, Kentucky, the Westminster John Knox Press publishes a book with pages 153–154. ISBN978-0-664-25727-9. The information was obtained on June 13, 2010. As a result, in 6 or 7 AD, Augustus commissioned Quirinius, the newly appointed Legate of Syria, to conduct the census
- Erich S. Gruen, “The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus,” in The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume X: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC – AD 69, (Cambridge University Press, 1996), pages 157
- David Golinkin, “The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus,” in The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume X: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC – AD 69, (Cambridge University Press, 1996), pages 157
- Erich S (December 2008). “Does Jewish Law Allow for the Conduct of a Census?” The Schechter Institutes for Advanced Study. retrieved on April 13, 2020
- The Jewish Encyclopedia is a resource for learning about Jewish culture and history. P. SULPICIUS, QUIRINIUS, QUIRINIUS: “In response to the evaluation, there was widespread unhappiness among the Jews (ib. ), and only the efforts of the high priest Joazar stopped a full-scale insurrection (ib. 2, 1). The imposition of this tax, in addition, culminated in the uprising of Judas the Galilean and the founding of the group of the Zealots (Josephus, “B. J.” vii. 8, 1
- Lucas, in Acts v. 37
- Josephus, “B. J.” vii. 8, 1
- Lucas, in Acts v. 37). Moreover, Josephus refers to the evaluation in another section (“Ant. xx. 5, 2”) as well “Ben-A Sasson’s History of the Jewish People (Harvard University Press, 1976
- ISBN0-674-39731-2) includes the following quotation: abNovak, Ralph Martin, “Josephus connects the beginnings of the extremist movement with the census held under the supervision of Quirinius, the legate of Syria, shortly after Judea had been converted into a Roman province (6 AD)”
- Ac 5,37
- Brown 1978, p. 17 abNovak, Ralph Martin, “Josephus connects the beginnings of the extremist movement with the census held under the supervision of Quir (2001). Historically Informative Texts on Christianity and the Roman Empire Bloomsbury Publishing USA, p. 291, ISBN 978-0567018403
- CILIII, 6687= ILS 2683
- Argubright, John. Bloomsbury Publishing USA, p. 291, ISBN 978-0567018403
- (2013). Volume 2 of The Bible Believer’s Archaeology: The Search for Truth is now available. John Argubright’s Bible Believer’s Archaeology, Vol. 2, pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0979214813
- Argubright 2013, p. 7
- Argubright 2013, p. 6
- Argubright 2013,
- Brown, R.E., et al (1977). The Infancy Narratives in Matthew and Luke: A Commentary on the Birth of the Messiah DoubledayCompany
- Livius.org: Publius Sulpicius Quirinius
- Jewish Encyclopedia: QUIRINIUS, P. SULPICIUS
- Josephus Jewish Antiquities 18
- Livius.org: QUIRINIUS, P. SULPICIUS
- Livius.org: QUIRINI
|Preceded byTiberius Claudius Nero, andPublius Quinctilius Varus||Consulof theRoman Empire12 BCwithMarcus Valerius Messalla Appianus||Succeeded byLucius Volusius Saturninusas Suffect consul|
When was Publius Quirinius governor of Syria? – Luke 2:2
Between 12 B.C. and 1 A.D., secular history confirms that Publius Quirinius (the Roman governor who Luke believes was in charge at the time of Jesus’ birth) was engaged in a military campaign in the mountainous areas of Galatia and Cilicia, which he claimed was against the Jews. He would not have been eligible to serve as governor (lieutenant governor/ procurator) until he earned the title of Duumvir during that election campaign.
A man called Quirinius was the ruler of Syria at the time of Christ’s birth, according to Luke 2:1-2. (Luke 2:7). In those days, Caesar Augustus issued a decree ordering a census of the entire world’s population, which was carried out over the entire globe. This was the first census done in Syria when Quirinius was serving as governor. 2:1-2 (Luke 2:1-2) (NASB) “Was Publius Quirinius the governor of Syria?” is the question we are interested in answering. Yes, we think that the Quirinius to whom Dr.
- 51 BC – AD 21), who lived during the time of Dr.
- Historically, opponents of the Bible have asserted that Dr.
- They were not looking for truth, but rather for ways to bring Dr.
- Unfortunately, the critics have established a habit of such conduct.
- Then they never acknowledged that they were incorrect, instead moving on to another point of contention.
- The Bible has the advantage of time on its side.
- Although supporting facts may not be discovered within their lifetime, history has proved that the facts will be discovered.
It has happened on several occasions. The following article will establish that there is reliable evidence that Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was the ruler of Syria at the time of Christ’s birth, as will be demonstrated in the next section.
Meaning of Luke 2:2
The meaning of Luke 2:2 can only be understood if we comprehend the phrases that are used in the verse. There are two essential terms in the passage that we must study in order to grasp the meaning of the verse. The phrases “census” and “governor” refer to the same thing. This was the first census done in Syria when Quirinius was serving as governor. 2:1-2 (Luke 2:1-2) (NASB) In this passage, we are told that Quirinius, who was known to the Greeks as Cyrenius because the letter “Q” was missing from the Attic alphabet, was tasked with taking a census.
- The second census was conducted in the year A.D.
- The census is mentioned in Acts 5:37.
- Notice that the Greek word for “census” isapograhe in Acts 5:37 (NASB).
- It literally refers to the process of registering people in order to prepare for taxes.
- This provides us with a better understanding of the nature of the census.
- The first taxation took place around the time of Christ’s birth, while the second took place around the time of A.D.
- The Greek term for governor is hegemoneuo, which translates as “ruler” or “prefect,” depending on who you ask.
- Sir William Ramsay penned the following: So the term Quirinius, as used by Luke, could be used to any Roman official who held a position of leadership and authority in the province of Syria.
Publius Quirinius Governor of Syria
History says that C. Sentius Saturninus served as governor of Syria from 9 BCE to 6 BC, according to historical records. From 6 B.C. until 4 B.C., P. Quintilus Varus served as governor. As a result, because Christ was born when King Herod the Great was still alive, and because it is generally accepted that King Herod the Great died in 4 B.C., it follows that Christ was born during the reign of King Herod the Great. As a result, Publius Sulpicius Quirinius could not have been governor of Syria at the time of Christ’s birth, as previously thought.
The first is that King Herod the Great could not have died and did not die in 4 B.C., but rather later in the period of history.
Second, the early church fathers confirm that Christ was born between 3 B.C.
To find out more, check out “Fables of Christmas – The Birth of Christ, the Pagan Holidays, the Christmas Tree, and the Candy Cane.” The study “Prophecy of Daniel’s Seventy Weeks – Daniel 9:24-25” establishes the year in which Jesus Christ was born as well as the year in which King Herod the Great died, among other things.
- until A.D.
- The information supplied by Zumpt, as recorded by Karl Georg Wiesleler and F.
- As reported by Karl Georg Wiesleler, Cilicia and Syria were unified under a single government during the time period when Quirinius subjugated the Homonadenses.
- On two occasions, in 30 A.D.
- So, who were these Clitae in the first place?
- The fact that Quirinius was “legatos Augusti” and ruler of Syria at the time he subdued the Homonadenses has been proved by Zumpt.
- Publius Sulpicius Quirinius died at the end of the 4th century B.C., after only three years in power.
- Ceasar until the end of the first century B.C., when he returned to the city of Rome.
- It is also crucial to remember that history reveals that Quirinius served as governor once more in the years A.D.
- This indicates that Quirinius served as governor of Syria on two separate times.
The Latin inscription is described as follows on the Vatican’s website, which includes a photo of the inscription and a description of it in Latin: The inscription, which was discovered near Tivoli in 1764, is thought to have belonged to the tomb of Publius Sulpicius Quirinius, who served as “proconsul” (governor) of Asia and “legate divi Augusti” (imperial official) of Syria and Phoenicia during the reign of Emperor Augustus in the first century AD (27 BC -14 AD).
According to the Gospel of Luke, this figure is mentioned in connection with the census that took place in Bethlehem at the time of Jesus’ birth “when Quirinius was governor of Syria” (Lk 2, 1-7): indeed, this census has been the subject of intense historical debate, as it appears to have taken place twelve years after Jesus’ birth.
twice legate”), suggests that Quirinius may have served in Syria at a previous time, during which he could have overseen a more accurate estimate of the population, thereby reducing the presumed discrepancy between historical sources and the passage from the Gospel according to Luke.
Godet concurs with this observation, and Mommsen acknowledges the fact that Quirinius served as governor of Syria throughout his second term.
Because Cilicia and Syria were jointly controlled by a single authority throughout the era 4 B.C.
to 1 B.C., Quirinius was also the ruler orhegemoneuoover Syria during this time period. There is also no dispute because King Herod the Great died in 1 B.C. and the early church fathers largely say that Christ was born between 3 B.C. and 2 B.C., indicating that the two dates are mutually exclusive.
The supporting evidence clearly suggests that Quirinius was the ruler of Syria around the period of Christ’s birth, which would have been about 3 B.C. – 2 B.C. This was the first census done in Syria when Quirinius was serving as governor. 2:2 (Luke 2:2) (NASB) Historically, the findings of Dr. Luke are supported by the evidence.
1. Johannes P. Louw and Eugene Albert Nida, “Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains,” in United Bible Societies’ Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains (New York: United Bible Societies, 1996), 393. 2. Moulton and Milligan’s Greek Testament Vocabulary is a good place to start. 1997, p. 276. Hendrickson Publishers, New York. 3. Ian Howard Marshall’s commentary on the Gospel according to Luke. The New International Greek Testament Commentary has been published.
- Sir William Ramsay is a Scottish chef and restaurateur.
- Hodder and Stoughton, 1978, p.
- Finegan, p.
- The Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ, by Harold Hoehner, is another resource.
- 20 (Academy Books, 1977).
- This is a chronological summary of the four gospels.
(The book was originally published in 1878 by George BellSons.) (See, for example, pages 105-150.) Page 146.
When the Critics Inquire.
On the Vatican’s website, you can see a ” Fragment of the sepulchral inscription of Quirinius “.
Godet’s The Gospel of Luke.
During what period of time did King Herod the Great reign and pass away? Is it possible to estimate the date of Christ’s birth based on the magi’s visitation? Is it true that Jesus was born on December 25th? — Testimony of Historians (in English) Christmas fables include the birth of Christ, a pagan holiday, a Christmas tree, and a candy cane. Daniel’s Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks – Daniel 9:24-25
The Problem of Luke 2:2 “This was the first census taken when Quirinius was governor of Syria”
According to biblical scholars, the census recounted in Luke 2:2—a census that reportedly led Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem, where Jesus would be born—is one of the most difficult events in the Bible to verify in terms of veracity. Following is a translation of the Greek text: “O” “O” “O” “O” “O” “O” For two reasons, this text raises major issues about Luke’s accuracy: first, it contradicts what Luke says in his gospel; and second, it contradicts what Luke says in his gospel. First, there is little, if any, evidence that Quirinius was governor of Syria before to Herod’s death in 4 BC, and second, there is little, if any, evidence that Quirinius was governor of Syria before Herod’s death in 4 BC.
- The author of Acts 5:37, however, has exceptional historical accuracy in general, and even demonstrates awareness of this later census (cf.
- Luke 1:5).
- First and foremost, it is highly dubious that this is the case: “first of at least three,” which is used in a superlative sense.
- It’s difficult enough to locate a second census!
Despite the inventiveness of this translation, the foundation on which it is built is weak for the following reasons: When the genitive follows the comparative adjective in both John 5:36 and 1 Cor 1:25, it makes the comparison explicit; however, when it is far removed from the comparative adjective in this textand, in fact, is genitive because it is part of the genitive absolute construction, it does not make the comparison explicit.
3 This means that what is required in other books is neither required nor natural in this one.
4 (b) This point of view implies that the word “modifies.” However, due to the anarthrous nature of the construction, such a viewpoint is nearly hard to hold (since when a demonstrative operates attributively to a noun, the noun is almost invariably articular); however, 5Rather than “this census is.”, it would be considerably more natural to say “This is the first census.” or “this census is.” This census occurred before Quirinius was governor of Syria, which is frequently considered an adverb: “this census occurred before Quirinius was governor of Syria.” 6 In this case, the historical difficulty of Quirinius’ governorship overlapping the reign of Herod is avoided, which is a significant gain.
However, it makes the same mistake as the prior viewpoint in that it assumes that the modification occurs.
While the adjective acts similarly to John 1:15, 30, the genitive is immediately after the adjective in each of these instances.
Finally, when it comes to Luke 2:2, simple solutions are not what come readily.
Of course, this does not imply that Luke made a mistake. Likewise, Marshall “warns against a hasty acceptance of the conclusion that Luke has gone wrong here; only the discovery of fresh historical evidence may lead to a solution of the dilemma,” as Schürmann does. 7
According to biblical scholars, the census recounted in Luke 2:2—a census that reportedly led Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem, where Jesus would be born—represents one of the most serious challenges to the Bible’s veracity. The Greek text reads as follows: o o o o Luke’s truthfulness is seriously questioned by this passage for two reasons: first, it contradicts what Luke says in his gospel; second, it contradicts what Luke says in his gospel. First, there is little, if any, evidence that Quirinius was governor of Syria before to Herod’s death in 4 BC, and second, there is little, if any, evidence that Quirinius was governor of Palestine prior to Herod’s death.
- The author of Acts 5:37, however, has exceptional historical accuracy in general, and even demonstrates awareness of this later census (cf.
- Luke 1:5).
- First and foremost, it is questionable whether this is the case that “first of at least three” is indeed the case.
- It’s difficult enough to locate a second census.
The foundation for this translation, notwithstanding its inventiveness, is insufficient for the reasons listed below: When the genitive follows the comparative adjective in both John 5:36 and 1 Cor 1:25, it makes the comparison explicit; however, when it is far removed from the comparative adjective in this text (and, in fact, is genitive because it is part of the genitive absolute construction), the comparison is not made explicit.
- 3 As a result, what must be provided in other books is neither required nor natural in this one.
- Instead of “this census is.”, it would be considerably more natural to say “This is the first census.” or “this census is.”.
- 6 In this case, the historical difficulty of Quirinius’ governorship overlapping the reign of Herod is avoided, which is a distinct advantage.
- While the adjective acts similarly to John 1:15, 30, the genitive is immediately after the adjective in each of these passages, as seen in the table below.
- Finally, when it comes to Luke 2:2, simple solutions are not the norm.
It is important to note that Luke did not make a mistake. In accordance with Schürmann, Marshall “warns against a hasty acceptance of the conclusion that Luke has gone wrong here; only the discovery of fresh historical evidence may lead to a solution of the dilemma.” 7
Quirinius, Governor of Syria When Jesus Was Born?
Quirinius was the Governor of Syria. When Was Jesus’ Birth Announced? Quirinius would be all but forgotten if it weren’t for the fact that his name appears in the Gospel of Luke. The mere mention of his name poses perhaps the most difficult challenge to the validity of the five precise date limitations provided byLuke and Matthew for the birth of Jesus of Nazareth in Bethlehem. In the year 2 BC, just five events occurred: the reign of King Herod, the hiscensus edict, Quirinius ruling in Syria, the rule of King Augustus, and the appearance of an astronomical star.
- LK 2:13 – 3:3 “And it came to happen during those days that an edict was issued by Caesar Augustus requiring that everyone on the planet be registered.
- As a result, everyone proceeded to his or her own city to register.” The New King James Version (NKJV) Luke 2:2 provides three hints regarding Quirinius.
- It implies that Quirinius was the subject of more than one census at the same time.
- According to Matthew’s Gospel, Herod was King at the time of Jesus’ birth; subsequently, Luke affirms Herod as King and adds the restricting limits of Quirinius ruling in Syria, a census required by Augustus, and the Star of Bethlehem.
- Quirinius (Cyrenius in Greek) was a well-known and powerful Roman Consul, the highest Senate position that could be obtained at the time.
- A contrasting picture of Quirinius emerges in Jewish history.
- It is conceivable that the contemporaneous Jewish reading audience of Luke would readily detect a reference to Quirinius, and that the author chose to delineate two registration ceremonies in order to avoid confusing the reader.
Indeed, the shared author of the Gospel of Luke and the Books of Acts makes a second reference to anapographeregistration in the Book of Acts, as follows: 5:37 (Acts 5:37) When the census was taking place, Judas of Galilee stood up and pulled away many others with him, following in his footsteps.” He, too, perished, and all others who followed him were scattered.” NKJVLuke’s narrative is mild and suggests, as confirmed by Matthew, the strangeness that Mary had to notice as well as the fact that Luke did.
The Acts situation, on the other hand, is markedly different in that it resulted in a popular insurrection.
Luke’s usage of the wordhegemoneuo, a particular form of the Greek word hegemon, is unique to the Gospels.
Appearing in close proximity to one another: LK 2:2 (Luke 2:2) “This census was conducted for the first time while Quirinius was in charge of Syria.” 1 LK 3 LK 3 “Now, in the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar’s reign, Pontius Pilate, who is the governor of Judea, has arrived.” “Governor” of a Roman province appointed by Caesar, Pilate had the position of Procurator, which was equivalent to that of a Roman Prefect – nota legate “governor” – of which he was not a member.
- Pilate’s responsibilities included the administration of Roman finances as well as the exercise of vested judicial authority over life and death judgments, giving him effectively the authority of a governor.
- Jews saw no distinction between Roman ranks because both were subjected to the same frightening, absolute Roman ruling authority, regardless of their religious affiliation.
- “Saturninus and Volumnius.the presidents of Syria,” according to Josephus, were mentioned multiple times.
- In a letter to Herod that was quoted by Josephus, Caesar authorized the King to appoint three Syrian judges to preside over the trial of Herod’s two sons for their involvement in a murder conspiracy.
- As Herod’s reign came to a conclusion, Syria was effectively governed by three ruling authorities: two presidents and a procurator general.
According to Caesar’s letters, the presidents, Saturninus and Pedanius, and their lieutenants who were with them, including the procurator Volumnius, were the first to be chosen.” –Wars Following Herod’s death a few years later, Varus and Sabinus each made their way to Jerusalem in order to seize his inheritance.
- At the time of Herod’s death, who was the other “president” of the kingdom?
- Saturninus is regarded as the legate Roman administrator of Syria during the period 9-6 BC, according to secular history.
- Varus was the first legate governor of the Roman Empire.
- Not all of the researchers reached the same conclusions or used the same time frames, but their study results were in general agreement that Quirinius had acted in a governing position in Syria prior to his disastrous governorship in 6 AD.
- The Roman governor of Syria during the years 3-2 BC cannot be confirmed based on secular historical evidence, according to historians.
- “QAemilius Secundus sof Q, of the tribe Palatina, who served in the camps of the divine Augunder P.
Apart from that, under the orders of Quirinius, I conducted a census of 117 thousand people of Apamea.” – Inscription of the Titulus Venetus Gertoux argues that the Quirinius census registration of Apamea, Syria, was part of the special census done in 2 BC as part of the Breviarium of Augustus, and that the Quirinius census registration of Apamea, Syria, was part of the special census taken in 2 BC as part of the Breviarium of Augustus.
- Furthermore, such a census would have necessitated the participation of King Herod of Judea, who would have provided help.
- Multiple historians have concluded that Quirinius ruled Syria at some point between the years 6 and 1 BC, based on their research.
- The most recent update was made on November 21, 2021.
- REFERENCES: Matthew 2 and Luke 1-2.
- Net.bible.org is an online Bible resource.
- “Estimating the dates of the two Censuses of Quirinius.” Titulus Venetus is a Latin term that means “Venetian title” (CIL III; ILS 2683).
- Provinces.”History of Ancient Rome.
Provinces.”History of Ancient Rome.
Provinces.”History of Ancient Rome.
Livius.org, edited by Jona Lendering, published in 2018.
Livius.org, edited by Jona Lendering, published in 2018.
Antiquities pertaining to the Jews.
The translation is accompanied with a commentary.
printsec=frontcover source=gbs ge summary r cad=0 v=onepage q f=false v=onepage Bunson, Matthew, et al.
Crete and Cyrenaica are represented by “Consuls.” Acts 5 is the fifth act of the play.
Mary Smallwood is the author of this work.
lpg=PA151 ots=VWqUOinty4 dq=census percent 20Syria percent 20 lpg=PA151 ots=VWqUOinty4 dq=census percent 20Syria percent 20 pg=PP1 v=onepage q f=false Rome pg=PP1 v=onepage q f=false XVIII, Chapters I-IV, Book XVIII of Josephus’ Antiquities.
“protos”4413 “Lexicon-Concordance Online Bible” is a Greek word that means “protos” in English.
The Jews Under Roman Rule, p.
The Jews Under Roman Rule, p.
A Companion to the History of the Roman Empire.
Online Bible Lexicon-Concordance for the term “hegemoneuo2230.” Book VIII, Chapter XV; Book X, Chapter IV; Book XIV, Chapters IX, XII; Book XVIII, Chapter VI; Josephus.Antiquities.
Flavius Josephus’s life is recounted in Josephus’ Life of Flavius.
‘Wars of the Jews,’ according to Josephus.
Book II, Chapter 22 of Josephus’s book “Against Apion.” Net.bible.org, footnote 5 in Luke 2:1, as well as the Greek text.
Book VIII, Chapter XV; Book X, Chapter IV; Book X, Chapter IV; Book XIV, Chapter IX; XII; Book XVIII, Chapter VI.
Book I, Chapter XXVII, of Josephus’ Warfare.
Livius.org, edited by Jona Lendering, published in 2019.
Josephus, Wars, Book IX, Chapter IX.
“Pontius Pilate,” as in Pontius Pilate the Great.
Chapter III of Book XV of Antiquities; Book XVII of Antiquities (Chapters IV-XX); Chapter III of Book XVIII of Antiquities; Chapter III of Book XIX; Chapter I of Book XX of Antiquities; Book XX of Antiquities (Chapter I of Book XX of Antiquities).
Merriam-Webster.2018.Virtual Library.Net.bible.org Livius, Livius, and Merriam-Webster.
“hgemoneuo2230″ (according to Thayer); Dictionary-Concordance Online Bible, n.d.” Lexicon-Concordance Online Bible, n.d.
Book I, Chapter XXXI; Book II, Chapter II.
Matthew Bunson’s Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire is available online.
‘Ramsay, William M.’ Was Christ Born in Bethlehem, or somewhere else?
“Judaea,” says the narrator.
Doug’s New Testament Chronology was published in 1990.
Emil is a German writer who lives in Germany.
14 CE.” e “Ancient History Sourcebook: Res Gestae Divi Augusti, c.
1912 Christ was born in the town of Bethlehem.
11: Syria (in Arabic).
n.d.A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ,” according to the Internet Archive.
Volume 1, page 351 of the encyclopedia “The Star of Bethlehem: The Star That Astounded the World,” by Ernest L.
History of the Christian Church, Volume I.
” Section 16 of Chapter 2 Ramsay is a British chef who has won a number of awards.
?Chapter 11 is a chapter in the book of Revelation.
Davis, et al.
“Census of Population.” “The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.Vol.
1952.” “The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.Vol.
“Quirinius.” In: Davis, J.
“Chronology of the Life of Christ.
” Ramsay is a British chef who is well-known for his innovative cooking.
?Chapter 11 is a chapter in the book of Revelation.
“Smith, William” is an abbreviation.
“Vice’sima,” says the narrator.
History |The Roman Empire.
History |The Roman Empire Mr.
the page number is PP1 and the page number is onepag A=asia percent 20minor q=false A=asia percent 20minor A History of Rome to 565 A.
A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ, Volume 1, pages 351-354.
“Jewish Encyclopedia” is a reference to a book written by a Jew.
Chronology of the New Testament, Chapter 5.
“Syria.” Chronologies of the Roman Empire “A list of Roman governors of Syria,” says the author.
8 Bunson’s Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire is a valuable resource.
Page 3 of 5: “Gertoux, “Dating the two Censuses of Quirinius.” “Dating the death of Herod,” Gerard Gertoux wrote in his book “Dating the Death of Herod.” “2015, page 1 “Dating the two Censuses of Quirinius,” according to Gertoux.
“Titulus Venetus” means “Venetian Title” (CIL III; ILS 2683) On page 4, there is an inscription. .
Quirinius and the Census at Jesus birth
For many years, opponents of people who think the Bible is completely true cited a text from the Bible to bring out what they claimed was an obvious historical flaw in their argument. According to Luke 2:1-2, “And it came to pass during those days that an edict from Caesar Augustus was issued, requiring that everyone in the earth be registered.” This census was conducted for the first time when Quirinius was in charge of Syria.” Since the Bible states that Jesus was born before the death of Herod, who died sometime between 4 and 1 B.C., critics have asserted that the Bible is incorrect, because history records that Quirinius was not governor of Syria until around 6 A.D.
- or later, critics have claimed that the Bible is incorrect.
- As a starting point, let’s look at a few early census stories from history and see how they compare to the Scriptures.
- has been discovered, which similarly recounts a return of the people to their native land for the purpose of taking the census.
- “It was the ninth year of Tiberius Claudius Augustus Germanicus’ reign when the Emperor was crowned.” I find it intriguing that these two census accounts needed a person to return to their native country in order to be officially registered.
- Both Justin and Tertullian, two highly-respected leaders of the early church, were certain that a record of the census, as well as the registration of Joseph and Mary, could be discovered in official papers dating back to the reign of Augustus Caesar.
- Regarding Quirinius being the governor of Syria during this census, it should be noted that the Bible never refers to him as the governor, or at least the New King James Version does not refer to him in that capacity.
- Moreover, we know that Quirinius was certainly acting as a regional ruler in this territory during the time in question.
- His name appears in “Res Gestae – The Deeds of Augustus by Augustus,” which dates him to as early as 12 B.C.
- After Caesar’s young son Caius was appointed as an Imperial Legate to oversee Syria in 1 B.C., the Roman historian Tacitus records that Quirinius was appointed by Augustus to serve as an advisor to Caius while in Armenia about 1 A.D., according to the Roman historian Tacitus.
- Quirinius is the man for the job.
- Josephus, a first-century historian, records this pledge, which was imposed on everyone living in Israel at the time.
His account reads, in part, as follows: “Quirinius, a Roman senator who had previously served in other magistracies and had progressed through them all until he had achieved the position of consul, was appointed governor of Syria by Caesar and charged with the responsibility of assessing property there and in Judea.” The question is, who was in charge of assessing property in Judea during the time of the Biblical census?
Quirinius, everything was just as the Bible had predicted all along.
The Bible says, “And she will give birth to a Son, and you shall name Him JESUS, because He will rescue His people from their sins.” All of this was done in order for the prophecy of the Lord via the prophet to be fulfilled, which stated: “Behold, the virgin shall become pregnant and have a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel,” which is translated as “God with us.” Matthew 1:21 (KJV) If you would want to learn more about Quirinius in history, you can find it in our four-volume book series “Bible Believer’s Archaeology,” which may be downloaded for your ebook device by visiting our resource download page by clicking here.
- Continue reading the next chapter, which is about John the Baptist.
- 104 A.D.
- Res Gestae is a Latin phrase that means “responsibility.” Augustus Caesar’s Deeds are a collection of his accomplishments.
- Unless otherwise specified, all Scripture is taken from the New King James Version.
- A story of pharisees who refused to swear an oath of good will to Caesar and to Herod’s authority, which was required of all of Israel, is told in Book 17 Chapter 2.
- In Book 17, Chapter 13, we find Cyrenius, who has been dispatched by Caesar to confiscate the property of Archelaus and to take inventory of the goods of the Syrian people.
- According to Josephus in Antiquities, Archelaus (Matthew 2:22) governed for a period of ten years.
A uprising by the Jews against Quirinius’ taxing is chronicled in Book 18, Chapter 2.
In addition, after the conclusion of this tribute, Quirinius installs Annas as High Priest.
Josephus Pages 260 and 262 of the book The Essential Writings, by Paul L.
A collection of the best work by author and performer Josh McDowell.
Free’s Archaeology and Bible History (ISBN 0-310-47961-4) is a book that includes pages 242-243.
Page 490 of Halley’s Bible Handbook (ISBN 0-310-25720-4), by Halley (Census information).
Page 132 of the book (Quirinius full name: Publius Sulpicius Quirinius.) (The name Cyrenius was derived from the Greek version of the name Quirinius.) The Deeds of Augustus are as follows: Res Gestae 10: Quirinius was appointed consul in 12 B.C., Res Gestae 8: Augustus conducted three censuses to count Roman citizens in 28 B.C., 8 B.C., and 14 B.C., and Res Gestae 7: Augustus held three censuses to count Roman citizens in 28 B.C., 8 B.C., and 14 B.C.
- It is crucial to remember that non-Roman people, such as those living in Judea, were not included in these census figures since they were not considered Roman citizens.
- The Annals of Tacitus: Describes Quirinius’ role as a counselor to Caius Caesar as well as a courier from Rome to Tiberius, who was banished on the island of Rhodes.
- In addition, he is described as an active servant and an intrepid soldier.
- Book 1, Chapter 3: Gaius’s account of his wounding in Armenia is included.
- According to Luke 3:23, Jesus began his ministry when he was approximately thirty years old.
- and would indicate that Herod died in the spring of 1 B.C., immediately before Passover in that year, according to Josephus.
- “When was Jesus born?” is a December 2006 article.
Evidence that Jesus was born in the year 2 B.C.
As previously stated, the earliest versions of Josephus before 1544 AD imply a date of 1 B.C.
Beyer and published by Mercer University Press in Macon, Georgia, ISBN 0-86554-582-0, page 85.
As a result of his study, he believes that the majority of Josephus manuscripts dating before to 1544 A.D., as seen in Jewish Antiquities chapter 18 Section 106, had Phillip (Herod’s son) dying in the 22nd year of Tiberius (35/36 A.D.), and that he governed for a total of 37 years.
Using evidence from Josephus Antiquities Book 17 Chapter 6 and other sources, Chapter 8 argues that a Lunar Eclipse account that occurred some time before Herod’s death was most likely the total lunar eclipse that occurred in mid-January of 1 B.C., allowing time for the events of Herod’s illness, death, and funeral to take place before the Passover that year.
One of the people he sought advice from was his adopted son Caius Caesar, who would go on to become legate in Syria in the first century B.C.
Assuming that Herod died in 1 B.C., this would correlate to Caius being appointed as legate to that province.
“while I was administering my thirteenth consulship, the Senate (Res Gestae, VI.35; Res Gestae, VI.36) According to Suetonius’ Life of Augustus, on page 58, the title “Father of thy land” was bestowed to Augustus.
Possibly as a result of this occurrence in 2 B.C., Herod may have placed a great Roman Golden Eagle on a gate of the Temple in Jerusalem to commemorate Caesar just before his death, which occurred presumably early in 1 B.C.
Also consistent with Josephus’s assertion that his friends, one of whom was Phillip, renamed the city of Panias to Caesarea Phillipi immediately after Herod’s death to Caesarea Phillipi.
at Caesarea Maritime. Consequently, it is likely that games were also held there in accordance with Caesar’s rule in 2 B.C.) Copyright©2021BibleHistory.net All Intellectual Property Rights are Reserved. It is not permitted to download any of the images on this page.