Who Were Jesus’ Brothers?
Those of us who have siblings are well aware of the toll they may have on our ability to remain calm under pressure.I recall thinking as a youngster that I would have sinned significantly less if I had not been given siblings.I was probably right.Of course, knowing me, I would’ve sinned regardless, but I had a strong belief in this idea for many years before I realized it.Our first thoughts aren’t often about Jesus’ brothers and sisters; they’re more typically on Jesus himself.
For the reason that we frequently envision Jesus in his early years in a stable and a manger as an only child, we sometimes forget that Mary and Joseph had numerous children after Jesus is born into the world.After all, ancient Israel lacked effective contraceptive measures, and Mary gave birth to Jesus when she was a very young girl.This would indicate that they may have had a number of children before Joseph died, if not enough to fill an entire homeschool passenger van.
- But who are the brothers and sisters of Jesus Christ?
- Are there any of them that we get the chance to meet in the Bible?
- And what unanticipated insights may we get from Jesus’ brothers and sisters?
Did Jesus Have a Twin?
- In a nutshell, no.
- After the birth of Jesus, the Bible makes it plain that Joseph and Mary did not have sexual relations until after the birth of Jesus (Matthew 1:25).
- Despite this, the belief that Jesus has a twin brother continues to pervade churches today.
- The notion that Jesus had a twin called ″Didymus Judas Thomas″ is completely absurd, especially in light of the fact that Joseph and Mary did not engage in sexual intercourse until after the birth of Jesus.
- Jesus, on the other hand, did not grow up in a family without siblings and sisters.
- Scripture has several references to Jesus’ half-brothers and sisters, and we even have a few books in the New Testament that were written by some of these individuals.
- Let’s have a look at some of the names of Jesus’ brothers and sisters that appear in the Bible.
Jesus’ Brother and Sister Names
- In the Bible, there are no names for sisters that are mentioned.
- Women’s names are rarely mentioned in the Bible, unless they had major parts in the story, such as the judge Deborah or Mary the mother of Jesus, who were both mentioned.
- Consider some of the scriptures that refer to Jesus’ brothers and sisters.
- ″While Jesus was still speaking to the multitude, his mother and brothers stood outside, eager to meet with him,″ Matthew 12:46 says.
- As a result of the verses below, we know that Jesus had sisters.
- ″Aren’t all of his sisters here with us?″ says Matthew 13:56.
- ″How did he obtain all of these things?″ you might wonder.
- When it comes to the names of brothers, we only have four names given in the Gospels: James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas (Judas Iscariot) (also known as Jude).
- What is now happening to some of these brothers will be discussed in detail later.
- We can presume that Jesus had at least six siblings based on the fact that the Gospels refer to them as sisters (plural) and that four brothers are named.
- The number of children he has is not specified in the Gospels.
- Despite this, we do know that Jesus is the firstborn, and the firstborn had obligations when it came to caring for his siblings and the rest of the family, which is why Mary appeared with all of Jesus’ brothers during one of his lectures, as we have previously said.
- Joseph was most likely deceased, and she need Jesus to serve as the home’s head of household.
- Since the notion of Mary’s eternal virginity, which holds that she did not engage in sexual intercourse during her whole life, this subject of Jesus’ half-siblings has been problematic among Christians.
- Regardless of one’s objections, Scripture refers to these individuals as Jesus’ siblings, and for the sake of this essay, we will refer to them as half-siblings.
What Happened to Jesus’ Brothers and Sisters?
- Even while Mary initially supports Jesus’ work, as the going gets rough, she urges him to step back and return home to take care of his family, as recorded in Matthew 12.
- In the New Testament, we don’t learn anything about what happened to Jesus’ family until much later in the book of Matthew.
- The New Testament story is dominated by two of Jesus’ brothers, James and Jude, and we know that they play a significant role in it.
- As we have seen, James and Jude must have had some reservations about Jesus at initially since they arrive with Mary in order to stop Jesus from continuing his teachings.
- These two, on the other hand, subsequently became Christians.
- Following his conversion, James becomes the pastor of a church in Jerusalem, and he later goes on to write the Book of James.
- He serves as the pastor of the church for more than ten years, until he is martyred in AD 62.
- He is either stoned to death or thrown from the Temple tower, depending on the circumstances.
- Jude, Jesus’ half-brother, goes on to compose a book that is included in the New Testament, despite ongoing debates over his true relationship with Jesus and where he belongs in the family.
- The Book of Jude, as you would have guessed.
- Jude identifies himself as James’s brother in the Bible (Jude 1:1).
- Beyond the fact that Jude converted after Jesus returned to the Father’s presence in heaven, we don’t know much about his life.
- In other words, throughout Jesus’ time on this planet, he did not believe in the existence of God.
- As far as the rest of Jesus’ siblings are concerned, we know that many of them have converted and have gone on to finish missionary missions (1 Corinthians 9:5).
- Whether or not they all decided to have a saving connection with him is unknown, but it is likely that a significant number do so.
3 Lessons from Jesus’ Brothers
- In spite of the fact that we don’t get to learn much about Jesus’ siblings and sisters in Scripture, we may take away a number of important truths from them.
- First and foremost, Jesus’ relationship with his siblings demonstrates that he fully comprehends every element of our existence.
- He understands what it’s like to grow up in a family with folks who don’t always agree with you.
- Even though ancient Israel did not have the same individualistic worldview as we have now, there was nonetheless sibling rivalry and competitiveness between brothers and sisters.
- Jesus was completely innocent in his relationships with his siblings, and it speaks a lot about him.
- Second, even Jesus’ siblings expressed skepticism.
- Despite the fact that his mother initially supported his ministry, once Joseph died, they wanted Jesus to return to carpentry and take care of the rest of the family.
- Until after Jesus has ascended back into heaven, James and Jude do not accept him as their Lord and Savior.
- It is possible that we have family members that are hostile to our Christian beliefs in the same manner.
- We may take consolation from Jesus’ example, knowing that even his own family did not stand by him during his trial.
- Finally, we know that many members of Jesus’ family later became Christians.
- This might provide encouragement to those of us who have family members who have not yet made a commitment to Christ.
- Not only do James and Jude become Christians, but one of them goes on to become the leader of a church in the city of Jerusalem.
- Both of them are New Testament authors that compose books for the New Testament.
- At least one of them is martyred as a result of their actions.
- That exemplifies real dedication.
- Siblings, whether you love them or tolerate them, can be one of the most difficult groups of individuals to persuade to accept Christ as their Savior.
- In the end, many of us are stubborn and stubbornness can stand in the way of developing a positive relationship with others.
- In spite of this, we may learn from Jesus’ example and discover creative methods to pray on a consistent basis and provide a positive example for our siblings.
- Perhaps, like Jesus’ half-brothers and half-sisters, they will come to understand the magnificent lovingkindness of our Lord.
- Perhaps, as a result of our transformed life, people will be curious to learn more about the hope we have and will ask us to throw light on what has brought about such a shift within ourselves.
- When it comes to our siblings, we should ask God for patience and prayer.
- Allow him to demonstrate to you the various ways you may love them.
- Sources She is the author of many novels and a graduate of Taylor University’s professional writing program.
- Hope Bolinger lives in Nashville, Tennessee.
- More than 1,200 of her writings have been published in a variety of periodicals, ranging from Writer’s Digest to Keys for Kids and everything in between.
- As a writer and editor, she has worked for a number of different publishing companies as well as magazines, newspapers, and literary agencies, and she has worked with authors such as Jerry B.
Jenkins and Michelle Medlock Adams.Her modern-day Daniel trilogy, published by IlluminateYA, is now available.She is also the co-author of the Dear Hero duology, which was released by INtense Publications and has received positive reviews.Her inspirational adult novel Picture Imperfect, which will be released in November of 2021, will also be released.You can learn more about her by visiting her website.People of Christianity is a catalog that includes the biographies, significance, and meaning of well-known people from the Bible and history.
This article is a part of the People of Christianity catalog.Some of the most popular articles for getting to know important figures in Christian history are listed below.What Caused the Apostle Paul’s Death?In the book of Revelation, who are the Nicolaitans?
Deborah was a biblical character.Who was she?Was Moses a historical figure or a mythical figure?The Bible tells the story of King Solomon.In the Bible, who was Lot’s wife and what was her name?
The Biblical character Jezebel was a woman named Jezebel.Who Was the Prodigal Son, and What Was His Story?
They Were Brothers And Sisters, Not Cousins
- 2:12 12 JOHN 2:12 In the aftermath of this, He and His mother, as well as His siblings and followers, traveled down to Capernaum, where they did not stay for very long.
- Who was with Jesus, His followers, and Mary as they traveled to Capernaum?
- The ″brothers″ of Jesus (John 2:12).
- Jesus had brothers, didn’t he?
- Yes, and there are sisters as well.
- What was the total number of brothers and sisters that Jesus had?
- Jesus had four brothers and at least two sisters, according to the Bible: ″55 Isn’t this the offspring of the tektonos, after all?
- Isn’t His mother’s given name Mary?
- 56 His brothers James and Joses, as well as Simon and Judas, as well as His sisters, aren’t they all here with us?
- ″So, where did this Man obtain all of these things?″ you might wonder.
- (Matthew 13:55-56; Mark 10:45-46) Is it possible that ″brothers″ refers to people who have come to trust in Jesus?
- Because Jesus’ brother did not believe in Him, those who did believe in Him were referred to be ″His disciples,″ as previously stated in John 2:12.
- Could the term ″brothers″ allude to Jesus’ more distant cousins and aunts and uncles?
- When used in the broad sense of ″brethren,″ the Greek word for ″brothers″ (adelphoi) above can also refer to more distant relatives – ″brethren″ in the broad sense – but this usage does not fit the narrow nuclear family context above: the sequence ″father, mother, brothers, and sisters″ fits, whereas the sequence of ″Father, Mother,″ ″Father, Mother, relatives, and sisters″ does not.
- Could Jesus’ ″brothers″ be His half-brothers from Joseph’s previous marriages before his marriage to Mary, as some have speculated?
- Because Joseph was not Jesus’ original father, all of Jesus’ siblings and sisters stated above were biological half brothers and half sisters of Jesus’ biological father, Joseph.
- The fact that Joseph having been married before he married Mary, however, is not supported by the evidence.
- Joseph’s children from prior marriages would have joined him and Mary to Bethlehem of Judea to register for the census mandated by Augustus Caesar, assuming Joseph had any children from previous marriages.
- In light of this, what does it say about Mary’s purported virginity throughout her life?
- A myth created by those who wish to deify Mary and pervert the meaning of the words ″brothers″ in Matthew 13:55-56 to suit their own purposes.
- However, there is another passage in Matthew that they are unable to ignore: ″Then Joseph, awoken from his slumber, did as the angel of the Lord told him and took to him his wife, whom he did not know until she had given birth to her firstborn Son.″ ″And he called His name Jesus,″ he continued.
- (See Matthew 1:24-25.) As can be seen from the context of the paragraph above, the term ″to know″ is used in the Bible to refer to sexual encounters or encounters with another person.
- The fact that Joseph did not have sexual relations with Mary ″until″ she had given birth to her firstborn son implies that Joseph did have sexual relations with her after that.
- What does the Greek word ″tektonos″ mean in Matthew 13:55?
- The Greek word tektonos (which literally translates as ″builder″) is the origin of the term.
- Is that a slang term for ″carpenter″?
- It doesn’t work like that.
While builders in northern Europe, where the Bible was originally translated into English, constructed their structures with wood, builders in Israel at the time of Jesus constructed their structures using rocks.The majority of their time was spent quarrying and constructing using rocks, however they would occasionally work with wood to create doors and other fittings.The people who are cited in Matthew 13:55 above are not referring to Jesus as the son of a carpenter, but rather as the son of a builder who constructed a structure out of rocks (photo).What is the location of ″Capernaum″ (John 2:12)?Take a look at Capernaum.
Did Jesus have brothers and sisters (siblings)?
- Answer to the question More than a few verses in the Bible make reference to Jesus’ brothers.
- A visit by Jesus’ mother and brothers is recorded in three different Bible passages: Matthew 12:46, Luke 8:19, and Mark 3:31.
- The Bible teaches us that Jesus had four brothers: James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas, according to the book of Matthew (Matthew 13:55).
- Although the Bible says that Jesus had sisters, they are neither named or counted in the book of Matthew (Matthew 13:56).
- In John 7:1-10, Jesus’ brothers accompany him to the feast, while he remains at home.
- During a prayer session with the disciples, his brothers and mother are mentioned in Acts 1:14.
- James, according to Galatians 1:19, was Jesus’ younger brother.
- The most logical interpretation of these verses is that Jesus had true blood half-siblings, which is supported by the evidence.
- Some Roman Catholics believe that these ″brothers″ were actually Jesus’ cousins, rather than his siblings.
- However, the precise Greek word for ″brother″ is utilized in each and every case in which it is spoken.
- While the word can apply to other relatives as well, its conventional and literal meaning is a physical brother in the traditional sense.
- There existed a Greek term for ″relative″ that was not utilized in this instance.
- If they were Jesus’ cousins, why were they so frequently represented as being with Mary, Jesus’ mother, if they were Jesus’ cousins?
- In the context of His mother and brothers coming to meet Him, there is absolutely nothing that even remotely suggests that they were anything other than His genuine, blood-related, half-brothers and sisters.
- It is also possible, according to a second Roman Catholic theory, that Jesus’ brothers and sisters were the offspring of Joseph from a prior relationship.
- Without any scriptural support, a complete narrative about Joseph’s being substantially older than Mary, having been previously married, having several children, and then being widowed before marrying Mary is concocted.
- There is a difficulty with this because the Bible makes no mention of Joseph being previously married or having children before he married Mary.
- Considering that Joseph and Mary had at least six children before to their marriage, why aren’t they mentioned in the accounts of their journey to Bethlehem (Luke 2:4–7), their journey to Egypt (Matthew 2:13–15), or their journey back to Nazareth (Matthew 2:20-23)?
- No scriptural basis exists to assume that these siblings are anything other than the biological children of Joseph and Mary, as is commonly believed.
- Those who oppose the notion that Jesus had half-brothers and half-sisters do so not on the basis of a careful reading of Scripture, but rather on the basis of a preconceived notion of Mary’s perpetual virginity, which is itself clearly unbiblical: ″But he (Joseph) had no union with her (Mary) until she gave birth to a son,″ says the Bible.
- ″And he named Him Jesus,″ the Bible says (Matthew 1:25).
- Jesus had half-siblings, half-brothers, and half-sisters who were the offspring of Joseph and Mary, and they were known as the children of Joseph and Mary.
- In God’s Word, there is a clear and unequivocal teaching on the subject of marriage.
- Return to the previous page: Questions regarding Jesus Christ Is it possible that Jesus had brothers and sisters (siblings)?
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Who Were the Brothers and Sisters of Jesus?
Now we’ll take a look at Jesus’ brothers and sisters and see what the Bible has to say about each of them.
- In the Book of Exodus, we learn about the 10 plagues that God inflicted on the stubborn Egyptians in order to rescue the Hebrews from their oppressive rule.
- The plagues were terrible: water that turned to blood, locusts, gnats, and darkness, to mention a few examples of what was happening.
- The tenth plague, the last of the plagues, was the most terrible of them all.
- Because of this, God issued a fair warning: ″I will send one more plague onto Pharaoh and upon Egypt.″ After that, he will release you from his custody.
- He will really drive you away when he finally decides to let you go″…
- All firstborn in Egypt will perish, from Pharaoh who sits on his throne to the firstborn of the slave-girl who is working at a handmill, as well as all of the firstborn of the animals, according to this prophecy.
- The LORD declares, ″I will go across Egypt, striking down every firstborn in the land, human being and beast alike, and bringing retribution on all the idols of Egypt″!
- (12:12, for example) And thus it came to pass that the firstborn in the country of Egypt was murdered – both humans and beasts alike, it seemed.
- As a result of striking down all the firstborn in Egypt, God declared that ″I devoted to me every firstborn in Israel, whether human or beast.″ The LORD says, ″They are mine; I am their owner.″ (Num.
- 3:13; et cetera) A procedure that God devised would be used to accomplish this task, in which the firstborn son of every marriage would need to be ″redeemed″ (committed) to God; therefore the name of the ritual, The Redemption of the First Born Son…or Pidyon Haben as it is known to modern-day Jews, is derived.
- This ritual is only performed for the firstborn son, who is also the one who opens the womb, and it takes place at the age of 30 days.
- Unless the firstborn child is born to a male, the ritual is not performed: ″Consecrate to me every firstborn; whatsoever opens the womb among the Israelites, whether human being or beast, belongs to me…
- ″ It is necessary for you to ransom every human firstborn of your sons.″ (Exodus 13:2 and 13) As a result of Jesus’ dedication to God at the age of thirty days, we can be certain that he had no older sisters or brothers: ″When the days were completed for their purification according to the law of Moses, they took him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord, just as it is written in the law of the Lord, ″Every male that opens the womb shall be consecrated to the Lord″!
- (Lk 2:22-23; cf.
- While taking part in the ritual, the father declares, ″This is my first born son, and the first born of his mother.″ Once again, this demonstrates that Jesus did not have any elder siblings.
- When it comes to younger siblings, this is also ineffective.
- When Jesus was dying on the cross and ″seeing his mother and the disciple there whom he loved, he said to his mother, ‘Woman, look, here is your son,’″ he said to his mother.
- Then he turned to the disciple and said, ‘Look, here is your mother.’ As a result, the disciple accepted her into his house from that point on″ (Jn 19:26-27).
- According to Jewish tradition, younger siblings are expected to care for their parents after their elder siblings have passed away.
- However, because Jesus did not have any younger siblings, he entrusted John with the responsibility of caring for his mother.
- What’s the deal with John?
- Perhaps he was the eldest of the apostles to have lived.
- Perhaps he was the ″one whom Jesus loved,″ as the saying goes (Jn 13:23).
- There was a good chance that John was the only one of the apostles in attendance.
- Then there’s Mary, who was described as having given birth to ″her firstborn son″ (Lk 2:7).
- The prefix ″o″ (prototokos) is used in Greek to demonstrate that Jesus is the one who is to be presented to God (or to offer himself, depending on the situation) and that he is the one who inherits all of the rights to the kingdom of God.
- As a way of giving freely, Jesus declares, ″Everything that the Father has is mine.″ ″For this reason, I told you that he will take from what is mine and disclose it to you″ (Jn 16:15).
- Because ″the Father and I are one,″ as the saying goes (Jn 10:30).
Siblings By Name
- So, who exactly are those brothers and sisters who are listed by name as belonging to Jesus in the Gospel of Mark?
- It is the carpenter who is being referred to, the son of Mary, and the brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon.
- ″Aren’t His sisters our neighbors here,″ says Jesus in Mark 6:3.
- According to Fr.
- William Saunders, ″the mistake stems from the languages of Hebrew and Aramaic, which were the languages of the majority of the original Old Testament manuscripts as well as the language of Christ.
- ″ Because there was no unique term for cousin, nephew, half-brother, or step-brother in these languages, they had to rely on the word brother or a ″circumlocution,″ such as ″The son of Paul’s sister″ (Acts 23:16), which clearly indicates that Paul’s nephew is being addressed.
- ″When the Old Testament was translated into Greek and the New Testament was written in Greek, the word adelphos was employed to encapsulate all of these connotations,″ Fr.
- Saunders explains further.
- Consequently, we must consider the context in which the title is being utilized in each instance.″ For instance, when Spanish-speaking individuals (or French-speaking people) talk about their parents, they use the word ″my padres″ (″mes parents″ in French), which means ″my parents.″ When they refer to aunts, uncles, cousins, and other relatives, the word ″mis padres″/″mes parents″ is still used.
- This is true in other languages as well, including English.
- The Gospels provide further clarification on the aforementioned ″siblings.″ Mary of Clopas had two sons, James and Joses, who were related to each other (Mk 15:40).
- Judas was the son of James (not one of the Apostles), and he was a traitor (Lk 6:16).
- James the Lesser was the younger brother of Alphaeus (Lk 6:15).
- They were the sons of Zebedee, who had a mother other than our Blessed Mother Mary, and they were called James the Greater and John (Mt 20:20).
- But why these four in particular?
- Their relationship with Jesus was documented in the works of Eusebius, a church Father and historian.
- They all unanimously declared Symeon, the son of Clopas, whom the Gospel also mentions, to be worthy of the episcopal throne of that parish,″ Eusebius writes in his Church History when describing the process of selecting someone to replace James (the head of the Church in Jerusalem), who had been martyred.
- He was, as the saying goes, a cousin of the Saviour.
- Clopas was Joseph’s brother, according to Hegesippus, who writes this.″ So… Uncle Clopas was a relative of Jesus!
- ″There were others, descended from one of the so-called brothers of the Saviour, whose name was Judas…″, says the author once more.
- And then there’s this…
- The next bishop was selected after James the Just had been killed in martyrdom, as had also been the Lord on the same account.
- Symeon, the son of the Lord’s uncle, Clopas, was the next bishop.
- Because he was a cousin of the Lord, everyone wanted him to be the second bishop.″
The Founders of the Protestant Reformation
- Mary’s permanent virginity was upheld even by the three fathers of the Reformation – Martin Luther, Hulrych Zwingli, and John Calvin — all of whom were committed to the doctrine.
- ″Christ…was the sole Son of Mary, and the Virgin Mary carried no other children save Him,″ according to Martin Luther.
- ″Brothers″ truly means ‘cousins’ in this context, because the Bible and the Jews usually refer to cousins as brothers.″ (Sermons on John, chapters 1-4, 1537-39; Sermons on John, chapters 1-4, 1539) ″To deny that Mary remained ‘inviolata’ before, during, and after the birth of her Son was to dispute the power of God,″ writes Zwingli.
- In addition, it was appropriate and beneficial to repeat the angelic greeting, which was ‘Hail Mary’…
- God saw Mary as superior to all other creatures, even saints and angels, since it was her purity, innocence, and unwavering faith that mankind was called upon to emulate.
- It was his final booklet, ‘Fidei expositio,’ that he wrote…
- On the subject of Mary’s continuous virginity, there is an especially strong emphasis.″ To paraphrase John Calvin, ″He claims that she was the mother of Jesus, and in doing so he uses the phraseology of the Hebrew language, which includes cousins, and other relatives, under the name ‘brothers.″ Despite the fact that many of the Early Church Fathers wrote and preached about Mary’s perpetual virginity, the great St.
- Augustine is credited with having said it best: ″It was not the visible sun, but its invisible Creator, who consecrated this day for us, when the Virgin Mother, fertile of womb and integral in her virginity, brought him forth, made visible for us, by whom, when he was invisible, she too was created.″ A Virgin conceiving, a Virgin carrying, a Virgin pregnant, a Virgin giving birth, and a Virgin perpetuating are all examples of virginity.
- ″What is it about this that you are perplexed about, O man?″ (Sermons 186, verse 1)
Did Jesus have brothers and sisters (siblings)?
- According to the New Testament, Jesus had siblings and sisters as well.
- ″While he was still speaking to the people, behold, his mother and his brothers stood outside, demanding to speak with him,″ Matthew 12:46 says.
- According to Luke 8:19, ″Then his mother and brothers came to him, but they were unable to reach him because of the large number of people.″ Mark 3:31 has a second tale in a similar vein.
- Jesus was claimed to have four brothers, who were named as follows: ″Isn’t this the carpenter’s kid, or something?
- Isn’t his mother’s given name Mary?
- And aren’t his brothers James and Joseph, as well as Simon and Judas, also present?″ (Matthew 13:55; Mark 10:45).
- This James was the author of the book of James in the New Testament, which is attributed to the apostle.
- A passage in First Corinthians 15:7 relates an appearance by the risen Jesus to this same James.
- Galatians 1:19 refers to this James as ″James the Lord’s brother,″ which is a reference to James the Lord’s brother.
- Judas (also known as Jude) was a New Testament author who wrote the book of Jude, which is included in the New Testament.
- John 7:1-10 goes on to say that Jesus’ brothers went to the Jewish holiday, but that Jesus stayed at home with his disciples.
- As a result, Jesus’ brothers were particularly addressed by all four Gospel writers.
- This historical truth was further supported by the first-century Jewish writer Josephus, who mentioned James the brother of Jesus, providing early extra-biblical confirmation of this historical event.
- In addition to the four brothers who are particularly identified in the New Testament, Jesus is also stated as having more than one sister: ″And are not all his sisters with us?″ says the author of the New Testament.
- (Matthew 13:56; Mark 10:45).
- Despite the absence of a name, the plural form of sisters suggested the presence of more than one sister.
- The context obviously refers to two sisters who were the daughters of Mary and Joseph, according to the scripture.
- Because current Roman Catholic beliefs support the belief in Mary’s eternal virginity, Catholic teachings often reject that Mary ever had sexual intercourse and, as a result, deny that she ever had any other children.
- This is because Mary is believed to have had no other children.
- Instead, the texts that speak to Jesus having siblings and sisters are reinterpreted as allusions to other relatives of Jesus, who are often cousins of the Messiah.
- While the Greek phrase for ″brothers″ may theoretically apply to other relatives, the context of the verses from the New Testament described above makes it abundantly obvious that the real brothers and sisters of Jesus were in mind when the term was used.
- It is also possible that these brothers and sisters were siblings from a prior marriage of Joseph, which is another possibility that has been raised sometimes.
- However, there is no evidence to back up this allegation at this time.
- According to the Bible, it is clear that Jesus was born to Mary when she was a virgin, which means she had not had any personal connections with anybody before to the birth of Jesus.
- Having said that, there is nothing in Scripture that prohibits Mary and Joseph from having further children together after Jesus, something that the New Testament explicitly states occurred.
- Several of these brothers, including James and Jude, rose to prominence as early church leaders and played a major part in the growth of Christianity.
- These half-brothers of Jesus (referred to as half-brothers since they were not virgin born as Jesus was) contributed a valuable contribution to the early Christian faith that has benefitted believers throughout history; their works continue to have an influence on Christians today.
Truths that are related: What is the significance of the Bible’s silence on Jesus’ childhood?Is it true that Jesus traveled to India before beginning His public ministry?What happened to Joseph during Jesus’ adolescence?Is it possible that Jesus was married?What was it like to be Jesus in historical times?Who was Jesus as a human being?
Return to the page: The Truth About Jesus Christ.
The Brothers of Jesus: Loving the Unbelieving Relative
- ″The Brothers of Jesus: Loving the Unbelieving Relative,″ a publication from the Society of Jesus.
- The Ensign, March 1987, page 50 For many of us, we have a father or mother, a husband or wife, a brother or sister, a son or daughter who does not believe in the faith that we hold so dear.
- However, despite the fact that many sympathetic and useful lectures have been delivered on how to best manage this issue, I have never heard one that sought to explore how the Savior dealt with it in his own family.
- It is undeniable that the biblical record is incomplete, and it is likely that Jesus extended many kind deeds and words to his unbelieving brethren that have not been recorded in the many historical narratives of his earthly mission.
- But even from the few instances that have been recorded, as well as from the end consequence of Jesus’ labors with his family, we may gain a great deal of insight.
- According to Mark 6:3, Jesus was the youngest of four brothers and at least two sisters, all of whom were the offspring of Mary and Joseph.
- Despite the fact that the names of the sisters have not survived, the brothers were known as James (in Hebrew, Jacob), Joses (in Hebrew, Joseph, named after his father), Simon, and Judas or Juda (also known as Jude).
- The same is true of Matt.
- 13:55.) Tradition holds that when Mary’s husband died, her eldest son, Jesus, took over his business and maintained the family until his brothers and sisters were married or financially self-sufficient.
- Although there is no biblical proof for this, it is widely believed.
- In any case, by the time Jesus was thirty, it appears that his mother was a widow, and as the oldest man in his family, he was sought out when there were significant family affairs to resolve, even after he had given up his carpentry tools and committed himself fully to his ministry.
- (See Matt.
- 12:46–47 for further information.) They were a close-knit group of people.
- Immediately following the wedding at Cana (which, based on the roles played by Mary and Jesus at the feast, was almost certainly a close relative’s wedding), the entire family traveled with Jesus and his early followers to neighboring Capernaum, where they resided for a short period of time.
- (See John 2:1–12 for further information.) The first few weeks of Jesus’ mission were filled with a slew of spectacular victories.
- ″Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee,″ writes the gospel writer Luke, describing the Savior’s first missionary journey: ″And there went out a reputation of him throughout all the surrounding region.
- ″ (See Luke 4:14 for further information.) On the other hand, when Jesus came to Nazareth and announced himself to be the Messiah in front of his old acquaintances and neighbors, the reception was universally negative.
- When he made his accusations, the crowd grew so enraged that they attempted to throw him from the cliff.
- He managed to get away, but it is not documented if any of his brothers spoke up or raised their hands in support of him.
- (See Luke 4:16–30 for further information.) In spite of their exposure to his words and acts, ″neither his brethren believed in him,″ according to the sad fact of the situation.
- (See John 7:5) Following a few months, Jesus returned to Nazareth as part of a second missionary trek through Galilee.
- Despite the fact that he had established himself as a prophet and healer whose name had become well known throughout the land, the Nazarenes’ response was so derisive that he exclaimed, ″A prophet is not without honour, but in his own country, and among his own kin, and in his own house,″ referring to his own home.
- The depth of Jesus’ anguish at being rejected by people he loved is difficult to comprehend.
- (Mark 6:4; emphasis added.) On one occasion, his mother and brothers interrupted a gathering in which he was preaching the gospel, and we may have caught a glimpse of it.
- We don’t know why Jesus was interrupted, but it’s possible that his family wanted him to attend to a family concern that they considered vital around the time.
- ″Then his mother and brothers came to him, but they were prevented from approaching him because of the press.″ Moreover, it was reported to him by a reliable source, who stated, ″Thy mother and brethren stand outside, longing to see thee.″ And he responded by saying, ″My mother and my brethren are those who hear the word of God and put it into practice.″ (See also Luke 8:19–21.) Some people have interpreted Jesus’ remarks as being harsh.
- Although his family did not fully comprehend it at the time, the Savior knew what they did not: that the bonds of faith and covenant are stronger than the bonds of blood, and that his role as eldest son in the family, which they respected, was insignificant when compared to his role as Savior and Redeemer.
When he spoke to them, he was essentially repeating what Abinadi had stated about two hundred years previously.″When his soul has been offered as a sacrifice for sin, he will behold his seed,″ Abinadi preached in reference to the Christ who will eventually appear.And now, what are your thoughts?″And who will be his heir?″ you might wonder.″Behold, I declare unto you that whomever has heard the words of the prophets,…all those who have heeded their words and trusted that the Lord would rescue his people, and who have looked forward to that day for the forgiveness of their sins, I declare unto you that they are his offspring.″ (See Mosiah 15:10–11 for more information.) At Calvary, the Savior’s sadness and anguish at the betrayal of his earthly brethren were portrayed in a far more profound way.
When Jesus glanced down from the crucifixion, he saw his heartbroken mother, who was crying with a small group of disciples.She also had four more boys, but none of them appeared to be around to console her.Nobody appeared to be disciples, dedicated to loving God and one another while also following the path he had laid out for them.Only his lover John was with her at the time.
What conflicting emotions Jesus must have been experiencing when he announced to his mother, ″Woman, behold thy son!″Then he says to the disciple, ″Behold thy mother!″ The disciple then took her into his own household from that point on.″ (See also John 19:26–27.) However, this is not the conclusion of the narrative.It is necessary to follow the lives of the Savior’s brothers after the Crucifixion before we can think about what we can gain from his or her experience.Paul recounts how, after the risen Christ appeared to Peter, then to the other Apostles, and then to five hundred of the honorable brethren, Jesus appeared to his brother James as well, according to the Apostle Paul.
(See 1 Corinthians 15:5–7 for further information.) We do not have access to the specifics of that reunion, but we do have access to the results.Likewise, Saul of Tarsus and Alma the Younger, as well as the four sons of Mosiah, answered, as did James and his brothers.Their repentance resulted in them becoming dedicated followers of Christ—their oldest brother being the most prominent—and eventually great leaders in the early Christian church.Following Christ’s ascension, the Apostles returned to Jerusalem to the home of John Mark’s mother: ″When they came in, they went up into an upper room, where abode both Peter, and James, and John, and Andrew, Philip, and Thomas, Bartholomew, and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon Zelotes, and Judas the brother of James″ (Acts 1:11).Luke then offers the following telling observation: ″These all remained in prayer and supplication with one accord, with the women, and with Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers.″ (Read Acts 1:13–14 for more information.) Having finally done so, the brothers of the Lord had taken upon themselves his name and had really become members of his family!
James progressed fast through the ranks to assume leadership responsibilities.Indeed, Paul suggests that James was elevated to the position of Apostle.Paul journeyed to Jerusalem, approximately three years after his conversion, in the year A.D.38, to meet with a few church leaders.
- This is what he said about the experience: ″I went up to Jerusalem to visit Peter, and stayed with him for fifteen days.
- ″But other apostles, with the exception of James the Lord’s brother, I saw none.″ (See Galatians 1:18–19.) At another point in time, during a period of harsh persecution, Herod assassinated James the brother of John and imprisoned Peter in jail.
- (See Acts 12:1–4 for further information.) Immediately after an angel appeared and delivered the principal Apostle from his imprisonment, he rushed to the home of Mary, the mother of John Mark, where some of the disciples had assembled to pray.
- As soon as they finished recounting his escape, Peter commanded them to ″go and shew these things unto James and to the brothers.″ (See Acts 12:7–17 for further information.) A few years later, Paul and Barnabus traveled to Jerusalem to participate in a meeting that addressed Jewish criteria for gentile Christians.
- Only Peter seems to have had a more prominent position at the conference than James, and James was the one who presented the ultimate agreed answer.
(See Acts 15:6–31.) Paul, in alluding to the occasion, spoke of “James, Cephas, and John, who looked to be pillars.” (Gal.2:9.) Quite possibly, James the brother of the Lord filled the position in the church leadership left vacant by the death of that other James who had served with Peter and John.Whatever his exact position in the early church government, we treasure James’s general epistle to the church.The former nonbeliever wrote—most likely from his own painful yet glorious experience with his resurrected brother—“If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him.” (James 1:5.) In that epistle, he identifies himself not as the brother of the Lord, but as “James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ.” (James 1:1.) Though others referred to him, Jude, Simon, and Joses as “the brethren of the Lord,” James himself was loath to assert his special kinship, preferring to be known as a servant of Christ.In a similar vein, another of the four brothers opens his epistle with “Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James.” (Jude 1:1.) We know little about Jude except what we learn from his epistle.Most impressively, Jude demonstrates a keen perception of his elder brother as the past and future Lord—the Lord who brought Israel out of Egypt and who destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, and the Lord who will come in the last days to execute judgment upon all.
- (See Jude 1:5, 7, 14–15.) From his denunciation of certain kinds of apostasy, we also know that his letter was one of the later epistles in the New Testament.
- In his lifetime, Jude stood firm with Peter and Paul in fighting the rising tide of heresy that threatened to destroy the church.
- All four brothers, family members who had once looked at Jesus as their elder brother only, were able to accept him as the Lord and the Son of God.
- What great joy there must have been in heaven, and especially for the Savior, over these four brothers, each of whom repented.
- It is true that the Savior’s family was unique.
- No other family has had to come to terms with their close relative turning out to be the Redeemer of mankind.
- But in another sense, every converted person who deeply loves his or her unbelieving spouse or relative suffers as Jesus suffered over his faithless brothers.
- And, as did Jesus of Nazareth, every disciple can love truly and well, with hope and patience.
- We must never lose sight of the eternal realities—the worth of each soul, the inviolability of each soul’s agency, and the universality of the plan of salvation.
- Above all, we must never give up.
It is well to remember that those of whom it was once written “Neither did his brethren believe in him” ended by designating themselves servants “of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ.” So it may be for our Jameses and our Judes, our Sauls and our Almas, and all of their female counterparts.In a personal, intimate way, Jesus himself suffered so that he is able to succor them that also suffer.(See Heb.
2:18; Alma 7:12.)
Twelve Olympians – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- The Twelve Olympians are the most significant gods in Greek mythology, and they resided atop Mount Olympus, where they were worshipped.
- Olympians were claimed to have been seventeen gods in all, although there were never more than twelve of them present at the same time.
- Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, and Artemis are all regarded Olympians, as are Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, and Artemis.
- Hestia, Dionysus, and Hades are the gods that have been referred to as Olympians at various periods throughout history.
- Consequently, it is speculated that Hestia handed up her position to Dionysus because she desired to dwell among humans, although no evidence to support this theory has been discovered.
- When Zeus and his brothers and sisters defeated the Titans in a conflict, the Olympians rose to prominence as the most powerful gods on the planet.
- Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Hestia, and Hades are all related to one another as siblings and cousins.
- All of the other gods are Zeus’ children, each of whom has a different mother than Zeus.
Gods who are Olympians
- Zeus is the most significant god in the universe. As the lord of Mount Olympus and the god of the weather, he is revered by everybody. ″You would be unable to bring me down even if you chained the heavens together and used all of your combined strength to do it. In the event that I attempted to bring you down, it would be a simple issue ″in addition to this, if you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to contact me at [email protected]
- Poseidon is the Greek deity of the seas and the god of the sky. He is the second most important deity after Zeus, after Hades, and after Hera, who is Zeus’ wife. The goddess of marriage, Ares is the deity of war and violence
- they are both related.
- Artemis is the goddess of hunting and animals
- Hephaestus is the god of fire and forging
- and Zeus is the deity of wisdom and knowledge.
- Aphrodite is the goddess of love
- Apollo is the god of light
- Hermes is the god of messengers
- and Poseidon is the god of war. He is also the god of travelers, thieves, and shepherds
- Hestia is the goddess of the home and family
- Demeter is the goddess of the earth, wheat, flowers, and plants
- Aphrodite is the goddess of love and beauty
- Athena is the goddess of wisdom, the arts, industry, justice, and skill
- Hestia is the goddess of the home and family
- Demeter is the goddess of the earth, wheat, flowers, and plants
How Early Church Leaders Downplayed Mary Magdalene’s Influence by Calling Her a Whore
- She was Mary of Magdala, one of Jesus of Nazareth’s early disciples, and she was one of the most famous women in the world.
- It is said that she journeyed with him, witnessed his Crucifixion, and was one of those who were informed of his Resurrection, all according to the Scriptures.
- Everybody, from early church officials and historians to authors and filmmakers, has contributed to the revision and expansion of the tale of Mary Magdalene throughout history.
- On the one hand, they downplayed her significance by stating she was a prostitute, a wrecked woman who repented and was rescued by Christ’s teachings.
- On the other hand, they emphasized her value by claiming she was a prostitute, a ruined woman who repented and was saved by Christ’s teachings.
- Mary Magdalene, on the other hand, is represented in several early Christian scriptures as more than just a mere follower; she is also depicted as Jesus’ close companion—which some have taken to suggest his wife.
- Which begs the question: is there any truth to either of these tales?
- What exactly do we know about Mary Magdalene, the lady who is considered to be the most intriguing woman in the Bible?
- WATCH: Jesus: A Biography on the HISTORY Vault
What the Bible Says About Mary Magdalene
- However, only the Gospel of Luke discussed Mary Magdalene’s role in Jesus’ life and ministry, listing her among ″some women who had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities″ (Luke 8:1–3).
- All four canonical gospels of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) noted Mary Magdalene’s presence at Jesus’ Crucifixion, but only the Gospel of Luke discussed her role in his life and ministry.
- According to Luke, when Jesus drove out seven devils from her, Mary joined a group of women who went with him and his twelve disciples/apostles, ″proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God.″ They were ″proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God.″ However, although Magdalene is not a surname, it is associated with the city of Magdala, which is located in Galilee, in the northernmost area of ancient Palestine, and from whence Mary hailed (now northern Israel).
- In the words of Robert Cargill, an associate professor of classical and religious studies at the University of Iowa who is also the editor of the Biblical Archaeology Review, ″Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus’ early supporters.″ ″She was mentioned in the Gospels, which indicates that she was significant.
- There were hundreds, if not thousands, of followers of Jesus, but we don’t know the names of the majority of them, according to what we know.
- As a result, the fact that she has been identified is significant.″ Mary Magdalene had an important role in the tale of the Resurrection, which took place after Jesus’ crucifixion, which she observed from the foot of the cross with many other women, and after all of Jesus’ male disciples had fled from the scene.
- In accordance with the gospels, Mary went to Jesus’ tomb on Easter Sunday, either alone herself (according to the Gospel of John) or in company with several women, and discovered that the tomb was vacant.
- The ladies are the ones who go to the disciples and inform them what has happened, as Cargill points out.
- That’s crucial since they were the ones who found that Jesus had resurrected from the dead.
- According to the Gospel of John, Jesus personally comes to Mary Magdalene after his Resurrection and urges her to inform his followers of his appearance (John 20:1-13).
- READ MORE: What Did Jesus Look Like When He Was Alive?
Mary Magdalene as sinner
- Because of Mary Magdalene’s obvious significance in the Bible—or maybe because of it—some early Western church leaders attempted to minimize her power by presenting her as a sinner, notably as a prostitute, according to the Bible.
- In Cargill’s words, ″There are many academics who think that because Jesus empowered women to such a great extent early in his career, it made some of the males who would govern the early church uncomfortable later on.″ In response to this, there were two different reactions.
- She was to be turned into a prostitute, for example.″ Early church leaders conflated Mary with other women mentioned in the Bible in order to portray her as the original repentant whore.
- These women included an unnamed woman, identified in the Gospel of Luke as a sinner, who bathes Jesus’ feet with her tears, dries them, and applies ointment to them (Luke 7:37-38), as well as another Mary, Mary of Bethany, who also appears in Luke.
- Pope Gregory the Great clarified this confusion in a sermon in 591 A.D., saying, ″We think that the Mary, whom Luke names the wicked woman and whom John calls Mary, is the Mary from whom seven demons were evicted according to Mark.″ ‘By becoming a prostitute, she has diminished in importance.’ It has a negative impact on her in some manner.
- Look at what she did for a job, and you can see why she couldn’t have been a leader,″ Cargill adds.
- ″Of course, the second option was to advance Mary to the next level.
- Some believe she was actually Jesus’ wife or friend, rather than his mother.
- ″She had a particular place in the world.″ READ MORE: The Bible Claims That Jesus Was a Real Person.
- Is there any further evidence?
Mary Magdalene as Jesus’s wife
- While some early Christians wanted to downplay Mary’s influence, others sought to emphasize her as a source of inspiration.
- Several centuries after Jesus’ death, the Gospel of Mary, a document dating from the second century A.D.
- that was discovered in Egypt in 1896, ranked Mary Magdalene higher in wisdom and influence than Jesus’ male disciples.
- She was also extensively featured in the so-called Gnostic Gospels, a collection of books thought to have been authored by early Christians as far back as the second century A.D.
- but which were not discovered until 1945, near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi, and which were written in Greek.
- According to one of these manuscripts, referred to Mary Magdalene as Jesus’ friend and said that Jesus loved her more than the other disciples.
- This document is known as the Gospel of Philip.
- Possibly the most contentious statement in the scripture was that Jesus used to kiss Mary ″frequently on her.″ Damage to the writing rendered the final word illegible, while some scholars have substituted the word ″mouth″ for the unreadable term.
- In the years after its publication, Dan Brown’s enormously popular mystery The Da Vinci Code has been consumed by tens of millions of readers worldwide.
- The premise of the novel revolves around the long-held belief that Jesus and Mary Magdalene had children together.
- This concept was also at the heart of The Last Temptation of Christ, a novel written by Greek writer Nikos Kazantzakis in 1955 that was subsequently made into a film directed by Martin Scorsese, as well as the cinematic adaptation of the novel.
- And then there was the discovery of a previously unknown papyrus fragment in 2012 that was considered to be a copy of a second-century narrative in which Jesus refers to Mary Magdalene as ″my wife,″ according to Karen King, a professor at Harvard Divinity School.
- She ultimately changed her mind after being bombarded with criticism and concluded that the so-called ″Gospel of Jesus’s Wife″ was most likely a fake after defending the document’s validity.
Mary Magdalene as trusted disciple
- The Bible, on the other hand, provided no indication that Mary Magdalene was Jesus’ wife.
- One can’t get a sense of that type of connection from any of the four canonical gospels, despite the fact that they include the women who travel with Jesus and, in some cases, their husbands’ names as well.
- The depiction of Mary Magdalene as a prostitute endured for decades after Pope Gregory the Great declared it official in his sixth-century sermon, though neither Orthodoxy nor Protestantism embraced it once their respective religions separated from the Catholic Church later in the sixth century.
- At long last, in 1969, the Church acknowledged that the text of the Bible did not support such interpretation..
- Mary Magdalene is now venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, and her feast day is observed on July 22nd in all four of these denominations.
- According to Cargill’s conclusion, ″Mary appears to have been a disciple of Jesus.″ ″What’s noteworthy is that Jesus had both male and female disciples in his ministry, which was not often the case at the time,″ says the author.
- He notes that while the prostitute and wife hypotheses have been around for centuries, they are tales and customs that have developed long after the fact: ″Neither of them is anchored in the Bible itself.″ MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: The Evolution of Christian Thought
Mary of Clopas – Wikipedia
|SaintMary of Clopas|
|Mary of Clopas – Sant’Andrea della Zirada Venice|
|Venerated in||Eastern Orthodox ChurchRoman Catholic Church|
|Feast||May 23 (Orthodoxy)April 24 (Catholicism)|
- In the Gospel of John, Mary of Clopas (Ancient Greek: K, Mara htou Clpá) was one of the women who were present at Jesus’ crucifixion and who brought provisions for his funeral, as recorded in the Gospel of Matthew.
- It is not clear whether Mary was Clopas’ daughter or his wife from the Greek text, although exegesis has generally supported the translation ″wife of Clopas″ as the most likely meaning of the phrase.
- Hegesippus recognized Clopas as a sibling of Saint Joseph, according to Hegesippus.
- Her memory is commemorated on April 24th, along with Saint Salome, in the Roman Martyrology.
- Mary of Clopas is regarded as one of the Three Marys, together with Mary Magdalene and Mary, mother of James, who were present at the tomb of Jesus.
- Her relics are reported to be located in two locations in France: the Church of the Saintes Maries de la Mer and the Church of the Virgin of the Sea.
Appearances in the gospels
- It is only in John 19:25 that Mary of Clopas is specifically identified as one of the women who witnessed Jesus’ crucifixion: ″Now there stood beside the cross of Jesus His mother, and His mother’s sister, Mary of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene,″ says the author of the Gospel of John.
- Identical sections from the Gospels of Mark and Matthew are found in both books and are almost identical to one another: Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, as well as Zebedee’s children’s mother Mary.
- (See Matthew 27:56 for further information.) There were additional ladies who were watching from a distance, including Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome, who were all present.
- (Matthew 15:40) As a result, some academics have suggested that Mary of Clopas is the same person as ″Mary the mother of James and Joseph/Joses.″ When it comes to the four brothers of Jesus, the Gospels of Matthew (13:55–56) and Mark (6:3) specifically name James and Joseph/Joses (with Mark usually using the less common form ″Joses″) as being among them.
- According to certain readings, the same Mary was also one of the women who went to the tomb on the morning of Jesus’ resurrection to anoint the corpse of Jesus with spices on that occasion.
- In Matthew 28:1, she is referred to as ″the other Mary″ in order to separate herself from Mary Magdalene, yet in Mark 16:1, she is referred to as ″Mary, the mother of James″ (Maria Iacobi in Latin).
- The apocryphal Gospel of Philip (3rd century) appears to name Mary of Clopas as a member of Jesus’ female entourage in a way that is very similar to that of the Gospel of John: Among those who accompanied the Lord at all times were Mary, his mother and her sister, and Magdalene, the woman who was referred to as his companion by the apostles.
- His sister, his mother, and his partner were all named Mary, as was he.
- To further complicate matters, the Gospel of Philip appears to refer to her as both Jesus’ mother’s sister (″her sister″) and Jesus’ own sister (″her sister″) (″his sister″).
- Pseudo-Matthew (7th century) describes Mary of Cleophas as the daughter of Cleophas and Anna: Jesus appeared to them, accompanied by Mary His mother and her sister Mary of Cleophas, whom the Lord God had given to her father Cleophas and her mother Anna because they had offered Mary the mother of Jesus to the Lord.
- And she was given the same name as her mother, Mary, as a comfort for her parents’ grief.
Identity of Clopas
- It is not clear whether Ma