Who Was The King Of Judaea When Jesus Was Born

Who Was the Real King Herod?

This photograph depicts the Western (or “Wailing”) Wall of the Second Temple, which was erected by Herod and is still standing today. Although no photos of Herod survive today, remnants of his numerous construction projects do. (Photo courtesy of Shutterstock.) King Herod, often known as “Herod the Great,” reigned as king of Judea from about 74 to 4 B.C., and controlled the country with the sanction of the Romans. While Judea was an autonomous kingdom, it was heavily influenced by the Romans, and Herod rose to power with the assistance of the Romans.

In the modern period, historians largely feel that the narrative is made up.

During a financial crisis, he also played a role in saving the old Olympic Games.

Rise to power

While it is unknown exactly where Herod was born, it is known that his father, Antipater (who died in 43 B.C. ), was from Idumea (also known as Edom), a location on the southern bank of the Dead Sea near the northern border of Israel. Originally from Nabataea, a rich kingdom in Jordan that contained the city of Petra, his mother, Cypros, had emigrated with him. Pompey was in command of a Roman army that launched an offensive in the eastern Mediterranean in 63 B.C., forcing a Jewish dynasty that held what is now Israel to submit to Roman power.

  • Herod and his father sided with the Romans, and they were rewarded with more authority as a result of their actions.
  • Geza Vermes, who was professor emeritus of Jewish Studies at Oxford University until his death in 2013, said in his posthumously released book, “The True Herod,” that he was inspired by the life of the historical figure Herod the Great (Bloomsbury, 2014).
  • Antipater was poisoned to death in 43 B.C., according to legend.
  • As soon as he arrived in Rome, Herod sought the assistance of Octavian and Mark Antony, who were at the moment allies of the Roman government.
  • Herodias re-entered Judea, and with the assistance of the Roman legions, he was able to retake Jerusalem and other areas around the region by 37 B.C.
  • Family members of the Hasmonean Dynasty, who had been in power prior to the arrival of the Romans, were enraged by the fact that the Romans had installed Herod as the ruler of Judea.
  • Her three boys, Alexander and Aristobulus, as well as a third son who died young in Rome, and two daughters were born to him, according to Vermes’s account.

on the grounds that she had committed adultery and attempted to assassinate him, according to Herod.

The king also executed his sons Alexander and Aristobulus in 7 B.C., and Antipater II, Herod’s oldest son (whom he had with another wife) in 4 B.C.

Herod accused his three sons of attempting to assassinate him.

Herod became extremely wealthy as a result of the confiscation of the riches of the hostile Jewish upper classes, which supplied him with sufficient means to pay for the continuous goodwill of his Roman ruler, Mark Antony, according to Vermes.

Having a strong desire for Herod’s realm, Cleopatra VII used her influence with Antony to persuade him to give her a portion of Herod’s territory in exchange for her own.

Despite Herod’s backing for Antony, he came himself on the losing end when Antony was beaten at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE and later committed suicide in 30 BCE, putting Herod on the defensive.

During his meeting with Octavian, Herod removed his crown and informed the emperor that he had stood with Antony until the bitter end, according to the ancient historian Josephus (A.D.

“I have been vanquished by Antony, and with his demise, I have relinquished my throne.

Williamson). Octavian was so taken aback by Herod’s performance that he not only permitted him to continue as king, but also returned to him land that Antony had granted to Cleopatra VII.

Herod the builder

According to Vermes, “Without a question, he was the greatest builder in the Holy Land, designing and directing the execution of palaces, fortifications, theatres, amphitheatres, harbors, and the whole city of Caesarea, and to cap it all, he coordinated the rebuilding the Temple of Jerusalem.” During the Babylonians’ takeover of Jerusalem in 587 B.C., they demolished the First Temple, which had been erected by King Solomon and dedicated to the god Baal.

  1. While a Jewish temple had been constructed on the site in the late 6th century B.C., Herod constructed a second temple that was far greater in scale.
  2. Despite the fact that the Romans destroyed much of the Second Temple in A.D.
  3. “The renowned Western (or Wailing) Wall in Jerusalem, a lovely testament to the past for some and the holiest place of Jewish devotion for others,” said Vermes.
  4. He also built the Herodium, a complex located 7.5 miles (12 kilometers) outside of Jerusalem that contains palaces, bathhouses, a pool house, and other structures that are built on top of a man-made hill.
  5. He made a “substantial contribution to the financial support of the quadrennial Olympic games, whose future was endangered by a shortage of funding,” according to the statement.
  6. And, as a result of Herod’s financial help, “the organizers of the ancient games elected Herod eternal Olympic president and documented it in inscriptions,” according to the article.

Did he kill Jesus?

Most historians think Herod died around 4 BC, however others have argued that he died in 5 BC or 1 BC. There have also been speculations that he died in 1 BC. He is said to have attempted to assassinate baby Jesus and succeeded in killing all of the other infants in Bethlehem, an incident known as the “massacre of the innocents,” according to the Gospel of Matthew. These allegations are largely considered to be incorrect by historians today. According to Peter Richardson, a professor emeritus of religion at the University of Toronto, and Amy Marie Fisher, an adjunct instructor of religion at the University of Edmonton, the legendary “massacre of the innocents” may be a Christian dramatization of Herod’s execution of his own children.

  • It is also claimed in the Gospel of Luke that Mary and Joseph (the parents of Jesus) were required to be registered in a census at the time of Jesus’ birth, which is another reference to Herod’s reign.
  • “As for the census, which had the objective of preparing the introduction of Roman taxes in Judaea, it could not have taken place during Herod’s rule because of the conflict with the Romans.
  • The fact that the Bible asserts that Jesus was born before Herod died poses a conundrum that academics have been arguing for quite some time now.
  • Or, did Herod live for a longer period of time than the historical records indicate, and not die until around 1 BCE?

Is it possible that the Bible’s assertion that Jesus was born before Herod died is incorrect? Over the course of more than a century, scholars have been debating the solutions to these concerns.

Grim ending

Near the conclusion of Herod’s life, a rebellion began to develop. A group of people attempted to demolish an eagle, which was a Roman emblem, from the Second Temple just before Herod’s assassination. Herod ordered the execution of those who were involved in the crime. It was the anticipation of his death that “began to loosen the tensions that had been buried just under the surface of a peaceful kingdom.” Richardson and Fisher collaborated on the writing. During Herod’s dying days, according to Josephus, he was so detested by his own people that he requested his sister, Salome, to kill a large number of them when he died, according to Josephus.

Herod, according to Josephus, proclaimed that he would “When I die, I expect loud celebrations from the Jews, but I can be grieved on the behalf of others and have a wonderful burial if you would follow my instructions.

Following Herod’s death, a great insurrection erupted throughout his kingdom, prompting Rome to dispatch military troops.

Herod did not have his picture on his coins, and he did not erect sculptures of himself because he was concerned about violating Jewish beliefs that were often opposed to “the portrayal of human beings,” according to the historian Vermes.

  • Study biblical archaeology to have a better understanding of the subject. Find out what Jesus was like on the inside. According to the findings of the research, animal sacrifice had a significant part in the economics of ancient Jerusalem.

Owen Jarus is a writer for Live Science who specializes in archaeology and all topics relating to the history of mankind. A bachelor of arts degree from the University of Toronto and a journalism degree from Ryerson University are among Owen’s qualifications. He loves learning about fresh research and is always on the lookout for an interesting historical story.


Frequently Asked Questions

When did Herod the Great reign?

The Roman-appointed king of Judaea, Herod the Great (73–4 BCE, Jericho, Judea), who built many fortresses, aqueducts, theaters, and other public buildings and generally increased the prosperity of his land, but who became the center of political and family intrigue in his later years, was born in 73 BCE and died in March/April 4 BCE, Jericho, Judea. He is depicted as a dictator in the New Testament, and it is into his rule that Jesus of Nazareth was born.

Family and early life

In the southern part of Palestine, Herod was born. His father, Antipater, was of the Edomite ethnicity (a Semitic people, identified by some scholars as Arab, who converted toJudaismin the 2nd centurybce). Antipater was a man of great power and wealth, which he increased by marrying the daughter of a noble from Petra (in southwestern Jordan), which was at the time the capital of the rising ArabNabataean Kingdom. Antipater was a man of great influence and wealth, which he increased further by marrying the daughter of a noble from Petra (in southwestern Jordan).

The fight against Pompey (106–48 BCEinvasion )’s of Palestine in 63 BCE was backed by Antipater, who thus began a lengthy alliance with Rome, from which both he and Herod would reap benefits.

Julius Caesar also favored the Antipater family; in 47 BCE, he appointed Antipater procurator of Judaea and granted him Roman citizenship, an honor that passed down to Herod and his descendants.

Herod made his political debut the following year, when his father named him ruler of the Galilee region of the country. Six years later, Mark Antony elevated him to the position of tetrarch of Galilee.

King of Palestine

During the invasion of Palestine by the Parthians in 40 BCE, a civil war erupted and Herod was forced to flee to Rome. The senate in that city nominated him as king of Judaea and provided him with an army to defend his position in the region. Herod became the undisputed ruler of Judaea in the year 37 BCE, when he was 36 years old, and he would hold that position for the next 32 years, until his death. In order to further consolidate his authority, he divorced his first wife, Doris, and banished her and his son from the court.

  • In spite of the fact that the marriage was intended to put an end to his dispute with the Hasmoneans, a priestly dynasty of Jewish leaders, he was genuinely smitten with Mariamne.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.
  • The fight between the two triumvirsOctavian and Antony, the two successors to Caesar’s rule, occurred during the reign of Herod, who sided with Antony.
  • After Antony’s fatal loss at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, he came clean to the triumphant Octavian about whose side he had been with.
  • He also returned to Herod the area that had been seized by Cleopatra.
  • Both the emperor and the minister paid him state visits, and Herod returned to Italy on two further occasions.
  • In the years 22 and 20 bce, he doubled the size of Herod’s dominion, expanding it to encompass not only Palestine, but also sections of what is now the kingdom of Jordan to the east of the Jordan River, as well as southern Lebanon and Syrian land.
See also:  When Jesus Came To Birmingham

Construction of the Second Temple and role in the story of Jesus

Herod endowed his realm with massive fortresses and splendid cities, of which the two greatest were new, and largely pagan, foundations: the port ofCaesareaPalaestinae on the coast between Joppa (Jaffa) and Haifa, which was afterward to become the capital of Roman Palestine; and Sebaste on the long-desolate site of ancientSamaria. At Herodium in the Judaean desert Herod erected a huge palace, which researchers in 2007 tentatively identified as the site of his burial. InJerusalemhe built the fortress of Antonia, portions of which may still be seen beneath the convents on the Via Dolorosa, and a magnificent palace (of which part survives in the citadel) (of which part survives in the citadel).

  • The huge outer court, 35 acres (14 hectares) in area, is still visible as Al-Ḥaram al-Sharīf.
  • HerodpatronizedtheOlympic Games, whose president he became.
  • Herod undoubtedly saw himself not merely as the patron of grateful pagans but also as the protector of Jewry outside of Palestine, whose Gentile hosts he did all in his power to conciliate.
  • His mental instability, moreover, was fed by theintrigueand deception that went on within his own family.
  • In the end Herod murdered Mariamne, her two sons, her brother, her grandfather, and her mother, a woman of the vilest stamp who had often aided his sister Salome’s schemes.
  • He had 14 children.
  • He had to repress a revolt, became involved in aquarrelwith his Nabataean neighbours, and finally lost the favour of Augustus.
  • He altered his will three times and finally disinherited and killed his firstborn, Antipater.
  • After an unsuccessful attempt at suicide, Herod died.

His final testament provided that, subject to Augustus’s sanction, his realm would be divided among his sons: Archelaus should be king ofJudaea and Samaria, with Philip andAntipassharing the remainder as tetrarchs. Stewart Henry Perowne Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica

King Of Judea Herod I

At the time of Jesus Christ’s birth, he was the ruler of Judea (Mt 2.1). Born in 73 BCE, he was the second son of Antipater, chief official of the Hasmonaean king Hyrcanus II, and Cyprus, a Nabataean lady. He was the second son of Antipater, who was also the chief official of the Hasmonaean king Hyrcanus II. Early years of one’s life. Throughout his early years, when numerous groups seized control of Palestine one after another, Herod, like his father, was able to maintain his allegiance to the victorious party at all times.

  1. While the Roman governor’s army was being taken over by a Pompey supporter in 46 bc, Herod’s father and his elder brother Phasael battled against him on behalf of Julius Caesar’s faction, and they were victorious.
  2. Cassius, who had gained charge of Syria, and backed him in his preparations for the battle against Mark Antony.
  3. Herod executed Malichus with Cassius’ knowledge and re-appointed Phasael as governor of Jerusalem, with Herod’s knowledge and connivance.
  4. After overcoming this resistance, Herod further solidified his position by marrying Hyrcanus’ granddaughter Mariamme; as a result, the Idumean Herod, whose family had only been Jewish for three generations, was to some extent associated with the genuine Hasmonaean dynasty.
  5. Following the victory at Philippi (41 b.c.
  6. Against the protests of Jewish delegates, Antony appointed Phasael and Herod as tetrarchs of Judea and Galilee, respectively, despite their resistance.
  7. In contrast, Herod sneaked away from Jerusalem with his family and household, and left them in the care of his brother Joseph in the fortification of Masada in southeastern Judea.

Phasael appears to have committed suicide, while Hyrcanus has been maimed and brought to Mesopotamia as a result of the incident.

after being denied shelter by the Nabataean monarch at Petra.

Herod was proclaimed king during a formal session of the Senate called by Antony and Octavian.

However, Herod would not be able to launch his siege of Jerusalem until the spring of the following year, when he married Mariamme.

Antony ordered Antigonus’s execution, and Antigonus was put to death.

In addition, Cleopatra used her influence with Antony to acquire much of Herod’s best land, including Jericho and the port of Joppe (Jaffa); she supported a plot to restore an independent Idumea; and, at the request of Mariamme’s mother Alexandra, she exerted pressure on Herod to appoint his nephew, Aristobulus, as high priest.

  1. Hyrcanus, who had returned from Babylon following the fall of Antigonus, was likewise assassinated by Herod in 30 b.c., when he was seen to be the final remaining competitor for authority.
  2. He immediately shifted his allegiance, lending assistance to Octavian’s armies, and by 30 b.c., he had become a member of the Senate.
  3. In 22 b.c., his jurisdiction was further expanded to encompass Trachonitis, Batanaea, and Auranitis, as well as the rest of Greece (Hauran).
  4. He needed force to maintain control, so he built or fortified a number of fortifications, including Masada, Alexandrium, Hyrcania, Antonia, Phasaelis, Herodium, Machaerus, and Cyprus.
  5. His army was primarily composed of mercenaries, according to reports.
  6. Some of his most notable accomplishments are the reconstruction of the city of Samaria as Sebaste (27 BCE), his fortress-palace in Jerusalem (23 BCE), and the port of Caesarea (22 BCE) as well as the construction of the rebuilt Temple in Jerusalem (built between about 20 and 10 b.c.).
  7. While Herod was in power, he maintained cordial relations with Augustus until, in 9 b.c., a misinterpretation of his conduct during a military campaign against the Nabataeans resulted in him falling out of favor with the Roman leader.

Due to his intense devotion to his wife, Mariamme, he was susceptible to feelings of jealously.

Herod, convinced of Mariamme’s infidelity, hanged her in 29 b.c., and her mother, Alexandra, within a year of her execution, once again at Salomé’s urging, in 28 b.c.

Herod and Mariamme had a son named Herod, who was the father of Herodias’ first marriage.

Salomé and Herod’s brother Pheroras conspired to bring Alexander and Aristobulus into disrepute.

Upon hearing their charges, Herod ordered Alexander and Aristobulus’s execution in Sebaste in 7 b.c., and Antipater was selected as their successor.

Herod himself died a few time later, reportedly of cancer, according to historians.

Bibliography: Flavius Josephus, Ant.14:19; Bell Iud.17–2.183; s.

Perowne, The Life and Times of Herod the Great (Nashville 1959); a.



(Oxford 1938) History of Palestine from the conquest of Alexandria to the Arab invasion, 2 vols., f.

abel, Histoire de la Palestine depuis la conquête d’Alexandre jusqu’àl’invasion arabe, 1 vol., 1–155, v.

1:310–406 Momigliano’s The Cambridge Ancient History (London and New York, 1923–29) is a good example of this.

Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, edited by J.

Rahner, 10 vols.

Freiburg 1957–65): j.

Hofer and K. Rahner, 10 vols. 25:263–265 . Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Tübingen, 3rd ed., 1957–65) by W. Foerster 33:266–268. Translation and adaptation of A. van den Born’s Bijbels Woordenboek988–990 into the Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Bible by L. Hartman (New York1963).

BBC – Religions – Christianity: King Herod

Herod was a monarch who was selected by the Romans to rule over the people of Israel. In 37 BC, the Romans anointed King Herod as King of Judea, and he reigned until his death. Historians generally believe that Herod’s reign was extraordinarily successful in a variety of ways. King Herod, an ethnically Arab Jew who practiced Judaism, expanded the territory he ruled from Palestine to portions of modern Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, building fortresses, aqueducts, and amphitheatres in the process, earning him the epithet ‘Herodes Magnus,’ or Herod the Great, for his achievements.

We may begin to understand what Herod was like from the Bible by looking at his title, which is “King of the Jews.” The Bible forms the popular idea of Herod that we have today, portraying him as a king who was proud of his position and would go to any length to maintain it.

The massacre of the innocents

Assuming the prophecies of the period were right, the birth of a new King of the Jews was impending, posing a serious danger to Herod’s status. A dictator is shown as King Herod in the Nativity narrative, when he orders the killing of newborn babies in Bethlehem. King Herod is depicted as a tyrant who is willing to kill newborns who may pose a threat to him in the future. Only one verse in Matthew specifically describes the occurrence, which is the only source of historical proof for it. The occurrence is conspicuously lacking from the other gospels as well.

  • It is impossible to believe that a murder of this magnitude was not recorded by Josephus, a first-century historian who wrote about other events in Herod’s life and death.
  • In reality, demographic evidence from first-century Palestine reveals that Bethlehem was a tiny community with a population of between three hundred and a thousand people at the time of Jesus’ birth.
  • As a result, it is possible that the lack of mention of the killings is due to a simple matter of numbers.
  • Matthew 2:16 (KJV)

Herod’s downfall

Many historians believe that Herod’s demise began with his obsessive love for his wife Mariamme, which they attribute to his jealousy of her. While on a political mission, he paid a visit to the Roman ruler Octavian at Rhodes, where he was terrified for his life (he had previously sided with the defeated Marc Antony). Because he couldn’t face the prospect of having another guy with her, he requested that Mariamme be murdered if he didn’t return alive. His sister later persuaded Herod that Mariamme was plotting something against him, and Herod believed her.

Herod’s suffering was excruciating, despite the fact that he was responsible for her death.

Herod became polygamous, maybe in a vain attempt to replace his love for Mariamme with another woman.

Despite the fact that the historical evidence for the killing of children is primarily Biblical in nature, it indicates that King Herod was capable of carrying out the crime.

Who Was Herod?

Herod the Great, who reigned as king of the Jews at the time of Jesus’ birth, is one of the most important characters in the Christmas tale. During the time of Jesus’ life and ministry, Judea was controlled by Herod and his sons. But who exactly was this individual? And what was it about the news of Jesus’ birth that made him so hostile?

How Herod Got His Power

From 37–4 BC, Herod “the Great” ruled as king of the Jews under Roman control for thirty-three years, during which time he was known as “the Great.” In the accounts of Jesus’ birth (Matt. 2:1–19; Luke 1:5), Herod is the one who features most prominently. Herod has shown to be an outstanding political survival from the beginning of his reign. When a civil war erupted in Rome between Mark Antony and Octavian, Herod first allied with Antony and his ally Cleopatra VII, the queen of Egypt, before shifting his allegiance to Octavian.

On returning to Rome after his triumph, the Roman senate elevated him to the position of imperator, or supreme military commander, and bestowed upon him the honorary title “Augustus” (“exalted one”), which means “exalted one.” Historians consider this event to be the culmination of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire, marking the transition from the governance of the senate to the rule of a supreme emperor in the Roman Empire.

Herod’s position as king of the Jews was safe under the patronage of Octavian, who would later become Caesar Augustus.

What Herod Was Like

Herod was a peculiar combination of a cunning and effective ruler and a brutal tyrant, and he was hated by both. On the one hand, he was suspicious, envious, and violent, mercilessly destroying any possible opponents. On the other hand, he was kind and understanding. He was enraged by the fact that the Jews refused to recognize him as their true monarch. He was constantly paranoid about conspiracies. In the event that he suspected his wife of a conspiracy against him, he killed her. Three of his sons, another wife, and his mother-in-law all met the same end when they were all accused of being involved in a plot as he did.

See also:  Jesus Loves Me He Who Died

Considering what we know about Herod’s ambition, paranoia, and cruelty (Matt.

Was there a good side to Herod?

Herod wasn’t without his redeeming qualities. He posed himself as the defender of Judaism and attempted to win the acceptance of the Jewish people. He fostered the growth of synagogue communities and, in times of tragedy, he forgave taxes and provided free grain to the populace in need. He was also a fantastic builder, which won him the epithet “the Great” for his efforts. One of his most important projects was the reconstruction and embellishment of the temple in Jerusalem, which he completed in a manner even more magnificent than it had been under the reign of Solomon.

He increased Israel’s territory via conquest and constructed fortifications to protect Israel’s borders from the Romans.

He erected theaters, amphitheaters, and hippodromes (outdoor arenas for horse and chariot racing) in the style of Greek architecture across the country.

According to the Gospels (Mark 3:6; 12:13), the Herodians were Hellenistic Jewish followers of the Herodian Dynasty who preferred the stability and status quo brought about by Roman control.

The Death of Herod

Herod died around 4 BC (see Matthew 2:19), most likely as a result of intestinal cancer. His final act of revenge against his despised citizens was to pick up senior Jews and order that they be killed at the time of his execution. He reasoned that, if there was no sorrow for his death, at the very least there would be grief for his death at the hands of others! In the aftermath of Herod’s death, the decree was overturned, and the captives were released.

Herod’s Sons

And then there’s this: if Herod died in 4 BC, who was the Herod who emerges later in the Gospels, the Herod with whom Jesus interacts? There were actually more than one of them. As a result of Herod’s several changes of will during his life, his last will and testament was challenged by three of his sons after his death. They made an appeal to Caesar Augustus, who granted them a division of the kingdom.


During his reign as ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea (4 BC–AD 6), Archelaus was given the assurance that if he performed well, he would be elevated to the position of king. His actions were repressive and unpredictable, and Augustus dismissed him from his position in AD 6. According to Matthew, Joseph and Mary relocated to Galilee in order to evade Archelaus’ authority (Matt. 2:21–23). The control of Judea and Samaria was passed to Roman rulers, who were known as prefects and, subsequently, procurators, after Archelaus was ousted from his position as governor.

Other governors who figure in the New Testament include Felix (AD 52–59) and Festus (AD 59–62), both of whom tried Paul (Acts 23–26) and were executed by the Romans.

Herod Antipas

When Herod Antipas’ father died in 4 BC, he succeeded him as tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, a position he held until he was ousted by the Roman emperor Caligula in AD 39. The term tetrarch originally denoted a ruler of the fourth portion of a region, but it has now come to refer to any small ruler in any area of the world. This is the Herod of Jesus’ public ministry at the time of writing. he imprisoned and later murdered John the Baptist when the latter spoke out against the marriage of his brother Philip to Herodias, Philip’s ex-wife (Luke 3:19–20; Mark 6:17–29; Luke 3:19–20).

), he was likewise perplexed as to Jesus’ identity.

The trial of Antipas culminated with the sending of Jesus to stand before Antipas (Luke 23:7–12; compare.

Herod Philip

Herod Philip was elevated to the position of tetrarch over the territories of Iturea, Trachonitis, Gaulanitis, Auranitis, and Batanea, which were located north and east of Galilee.

The land he owned became part of the Roman province of Syria after he died without leaving an heir. Only one time in the New Testament is he mentioned: in Luke 3:1. (the Philip ofMark 6:17is a different son of Herod the Great).

Herod the Great’s Grandsons

Aside from Herod, the Herodian dynasty is represented by just two additional individuals, both of whom appear in the book of Acts. Herod Agrippa I was the son of Aristobulus and the grandson of Herod the Great. He reigned as king of the Romans from 63 to 66 BC. He assassinated James, John’s brother, and detained Peter in prison (Acts 12). Luke and the Jewish historian Josephus both describe his death in Caesarea as a result of God’s judgment (Acts 12:19–23; Josephus, Ant. 19.8.2 343–52; Josephus, Ant.

  • Herod Agrippa II was Agrippa’s son, and he was known as Herod the Great.
  • Drusilla, another sister, was married to Felix, the Roman ruler at the time (Acts 24:24).
  • Adapted from the Four Portraits, One Jesus online course taught by Mark Strauss, this essay was first published on his blog.
  • Strauss offers a FREE introduction video to his work.
  • taught by some of the world’s greatest Bible experts

Who Were the Herods?

Herod the Great, Herod Archelaus, and Herod Antipas are three members of Herod’s family that play significant roles in the life of Christ. Herod the Great is the most notable of these figures. 1. Herodotus The Magnificent It is important to note that Herod the Great (r. 73 BCE to r. 4 BCE) was not a Jew. His father was Idumean and his mother Arabian. In 40 B.C., the Roman senate elevated him to the position of king of Judea. He lost favor with the Jewish people despite the fact that he was a great builder (including the expansion of the temple) and had been occasionally helpful to them in the past.

This is what the Old Testament has to say about Edom.

This is what the LORD Almighty has to say about it: “They may construct, but I will demolish it.” This people will be referred to as “the evil country,” and they will be forever under the anger of the LORD (Malachi 1:4).

Afterward, following Jesus’ birth in Bethlehem of Judea during the reign of Herod the Great, magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, asking, “Where is he who has been born King of the Jews?” We have come to worship him because we have seen his star in the east and have followed it (Matthew 2:3).

  • He was the one who ordered the killing of innocent people in Bethlehem.
  • Towards the conclusion of his reign, Herod’s cruelty increased in intensity.
  • Because of this, the Roman Emperor Augustus observed that being Herod’s pig (husin Greek) would be more secure than being his son (herodotus) (huios).
  • Herod Archelaus (also known as Herodotus) When Herod the Great died, Archelaus, his eldest son, was appointed as the ruler of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea (modern-day Israel).
  • However, when he learned that Archelaus had taken over as ruler of Judea in lieu of his father Herod, he became fearful of traveling there.
  • Archelaus was a legitimate source of concern.
  • It never happened since Archelaus began his rule by assassinating 3,000 influential citizens, thereby preventing the confirmation.

The Emperor then removed the Herod family from their position as rulers of Judea.

His hometown of Galilee became well-known during his lifetime as a hotbed of revolutionary enthusiasm.


In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar – when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, Herod tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1).

He is called a tetrarch – the ruler over a fourth part.

Herod Killed John The Baptist Herod had John the Baptist, the forerunner of Jesus, put to death.

The man went, beheaded John in the prison (Mark 6:27).

Herod Thought Jesus Was John Risen From The Dead The superstitious Herod thought Jesus was John the Baptist raised from the dead.

That is why miraculous powers are at work in him” (Matthew 14:1, 2).

Herod Wanted To Kill Jesus Herod wanted to kill Jesus like he did John the Baptist.

Herod wants to kill you.” He replied, “Go tell that fox, ‘I will drive out demons and heal people today and tomorrow, and on the third day I will reach my goal’ (Luke 13:31, 32).

Jesus called Herod, “that fox.” Jesus Was Brought Before Herod To Be Tried Jesus was brought before Herod when He was tried.

When he learned that Jesus was under Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem at that time.

From what he had heard about him, he hoped to see him perform some miracle.

The chief priests and the teachers of the law were standing there, vehemently accusing him.

Dressing him in an elegant robe, they sent him back to Pilate.

(Luke 23:6-12).

SummaryThree members of Herod’s family figure prominently in the life of Jesus.

When he died Herod Archelaus ruled in his place.

He was the one who had John the Baptist executed. Herod thought that Jesus was actually John raised from the dead. Herod wanted to kill Jesus as he had done John the Baptist. Herod saw Jesus during His trial but was disappointed that Jesus performed no miracle in His presence.

What king was in power when Jesus was born? – SidmartinBio

H erod the Great is a historical figure who lived during the reign of King H erod the Great. King Herod, sometimes known as “Herod the Great,” reigned in Judea from about 74 to 4 B.C. and was recognized by the Romans as the legitimate ruler of the area. While Judea was an autonomous kingdom, it was heavily influenced by the Romans, and Herod rose to power with the assistance of the Romans.

Who appointed king Herod king?

Octavian, who had seen Herod at Rome, saw that he was the only man capable of ruling Palestine in the manner that Rome desired, and he confirmed him as king.

Is king Herod in the Bible?

A dictator is shown as King Herod in the Nativity narrative, when he orders the killing of newborn babies in Bethlehem. King Herod is depicted as a tyrant who is willing to kill newborns who may pose a threat to him in the future. Only one verse in Matthew specifically describes the occurrence, and hence it is the only source of historical proof for it.

Who was king when Jesus was killed?

Herod (also known as Herod the Great)

Predecessor Antigonus II Mattathias (as King of Judea)
Successor Herod Archelaus Herod Antipas Philip the Tetrarch Salome I
Born c. 72 BCE Idumea, Hasmonean Judea
Died March–April 4 BCE (Schürer) or January–April 1 BCE (traditional) or early 1 CE (Pratt) Jericho, Judea

Who was the first Herod during the reign of Jesus?

Herod the Great was the first of the Herods. Herod Archelaus, who reigned from 3 BC to 7 AD, was deposed by Herod Antipas after a ten-year reign. Antipas was king during the lifetime of Jesus, and he was responsible for the death of John the Baptist. Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod the Great, is the king whose embrace of religion resulted in his death as a result of his acceptance of worship.

Who was the king of the Jews when Jesus was born?

The team behind Zondervan Academic, a publisher of numerous popular Bible studies, textbooks, and reference publications, is comprised of the following individuals: Herod the Great, who reigned as king of the Jews at the time of Jesus’ birth, is one of the most important characters in the Christmas tale. During the time of Jesus’ life and ministry, Judea was controlled by Herod and his sons.

See also:  What Does Jesus Think Of Me

Where was Jesus born in the days of Herod?

While Herod was in power, the Three Kings came to Jerusalem to pay homage to the infant Jesus. Afterward, following Jesus’ birth in Bethlehem of Judea during the reign of Herod the Great, magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, asking, “Where is he who has been born King of the Jews?” We have come to worship him because we have seen his star in the east and have followed it (Matthew 2:3).

When did Herod the Great become king of Judaea?

Herodias the Great was the king of Judaea for four years, from 37 BCE to 4 BCE. He was chosen by the Roman Empire when the Senate of that country provided him with an army to repel a Parthian invasion. He had served as governor of Galilee since 47 BCE, and he was killed during the invasion. What was it that Herod the Great achieved?

Who was Herod the Great?

QuestionAnswer Beginning with Matthew 2 and continuing until Acts 26, the name Herod appears repeatedly in the New Testament. A casual reader could conclude that Herod reigned for an extremely lengthy period of time. Herod, on the other hand, is the surname of a governing dynasty in the Palestinian territories. It is recorded in the New Testament that there were four separate Herods, as well as Herod Philip II, who is also known in the New Testament as “Philip The Tetrarch.” Herod I became known as Herod the Great, and he was also referred to as the “King of the Jews.” From 37 or 36 BC until 4 BC, he was the ruler of the world.

  • Magi from the East came to Jerusalem in search of the one who had been crowned King of the Jews, and they found him.
  • Herod summoned the scribes and concluded that the Messiah would be born at Bethlehem, as prophesied by the prophet Micah 5:2.
  • Herod, on the other hand, had no such plans.
  • He becomes enraged when he discovers that the magi have not returned his requests for information.
  • God informs Joseph that he must flee to Egypt with Jesus and Mary, and that he must do it immediately.
  • Herod the Great left a biblical legacy like this.
  • Even though he was a descendent of Esau, Herod was an Idumean or Edomite (a descendant of Esau), yet there had been marriages between Jews and Edomites, and Herod proudly claimed himself as a Jew, even though he did not adhere to Jewish law.

Herod, on the other hand, was a supporter of Rome in the battle between the Jewish Hasmonean dynasty and the Roman Empire.

Herod was victorious in 37 or 36 BC after a battle that lasted around three years.

Throughout history, Rome sought to maintain peace and promote goodwill among the conquered peoples.

(If it didn’t succeed, Rome would respond with overwhelming force at some point).

Herod also constructed a splendid castle for himself on top of a mountain that he created.

The temple in Jerusalem was significantly extended and modernized by Herod the Great in order to win the approval of the Jews.

Herod’s temple was the name given to this newly rebuilt edifice.

Although he was known for his great and ambitious building endeavors, Herod the Great also had a dark side, which was shown in the events of Matthew 2 as well as other historical occurrences.

In his royal swimming pool, he had his wife’s brother Aristobulus, the high priest, drowned by the order of the emperor.

He was the one who murdered his mother-in-law.

(Herod had 10 wives in total, as well as several other offspring who were not of Hasmonean descent.) The Roman emperor Augustus Caesar is claimed to have quipped, “It is preferable to be Herod’s dog than one of his offspring.” It does not appear out of character when the incident recorded in Matthew 2 is seen in this light.

  • Joseph had received this information via a dream from an angel of the Lord in Matthew 2:19, so he was confident that it was safe to travel with Jesus back to Israel.
  • According to historical records, Herod died in 4 BC, which suggests that Jesus had to have been born before that date.
  • As a result, Jesus was born before 4 BC, and we do not know how much time elapsed between Joseph’s decision to flee with his family to Egypt and Herod’s death.
  • Rather of becoming king, Archelaus was named ethnarch (ruler of an ethnic group), which included the provinces of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea.
  • His name was Philip II (Herod Philip II), and he was made tetrarch of Iturea and Traconitus.
  • Herod the Great was an ambitious and brutal dictator who set himself up in opposition to the King of kings and Lord of lords, setting himself up in opposition to the King of kings and Lord of lords.

From anti-Christ acts in history and the scripture record, we find the Herod family following in the footsteps of their father and resisting him. Return to:Who was Herod the Great? Questions about Biblical Characters Who was Herod the Great?

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How did herod become king of judea?

Stan Upton posed the question. 4.3 out of 5 stars (66 votes) Herod the Great reigned as king of Judaea from 37 BCE to 4 BCE. He was nominated by the Roman Empire when the Senate provided him with an army to fight off a Parthian invasion during the time period. He had served as governor of Galilee since 47 BCE, and he was killed during the invasion.

How did Herod an Edomite became king of Judea?

Herod’s father was descended from Edomites, who had converted to Judaism via their forefathers. It is partly because of his father Antipater’s close contacts with Julius Caesar that Herod rose to prominence. Antipater was tasked with the administration of Judea’s public affairs by Caesar. Herod, Antipater’s son, was appointed provincial governor of Galilee in the late first century BCE.

Did King Herod meet Jesus?

When Herod finally got to meet Jesus, he was overjoyed since he had been longing to see him for quite some time. According to what he had heard about him, he was hoping to witness him perform a miracle.

What did King Herod do to Jesus?

From 37 BC until 37 AD, Herod was the ruler of Judea. His actions were described in the Bible as an attempt to rid Bethlehem of the newborn Jesus, which resulted in the deaths of all of the babies in the city.

What does the Bible say about King Herod?

Herod was enraged when he realized that he had been ridiculed by the wise men, and he ordered out his army to slaughter all the children who were in Bethlehem and on all of its coastlines from that point on. The King James Version of the Bible has the following text: There were 34 questions that were connected.

Who was king when Jesus was born?

Summary. When Herod reigned as king of Judea, Jesus was born in Bethlehem.

How King Herod died in the Bible?

In a fresh study of historical documents, researchers discovered that King Herod the Great, the bloodthirsty ruler of ancient Judea, died from a combination of chronic renal illness and a rare infection that causes gangrene of the genitalia. Herod the Great was known for his ruthlessness.

Is King Herod an Edomite?

Herod was born in southern Palestine and was the son of Antipater, an Edomite who was subsequently chosen by Julius Caesar as the procurator of Judaea.

Who was eaten up by worms in the Bible?

Agrippa’s death is described in a similar manner in Acts 12, with the addition that “an angel of the Lord smote him down, and he was devoured by worms”: 20 Now, Herod was enraged with the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon, and he wanted revenge.

Who were the four Tetrarchs in Jesus time?

Who were the four Tetrarchs during the time of Jesus? The title was initially used to refer to the governor of any of the four tetrarchies that Philip II of Macedon split Thessaly into in 342 BC—namely, the Thessaliotis, Hestiaeotis, Pelasgiotis, and Phthiotis—when Philip II of Macedon divided Thessaly into four tetrarchies in 342 BC.

Who helped Jesus carry his cross?


27:32) As they were leading him away, they apprehended a man named Simon of Cyrene, who had come from the countryside, and they nailed the cross on his back and forced him to drag it behind Jesus.

Who was Herod during Jesus time?

King Herod, often known as “Herod the Great,” reigned as king of Judea from about 74 to 4 B.C., and controlled the country with the sanction of the Romans. While Judea was an autonomous kingdom, it was heavily influenced by the Romans, and Herod rose to power with the assistance of the Romans.

Who did Jesus call a fox?

This is Herod Antipas, the fox. This is the Herod who was referred to as “that fox” by Jesus. Jesus was not alluding to the king’s personal pulchritude when he said this. It may be demonstrated through a study of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew literature that the fox is both cunning and low in its social status.

Did Jesus have a wife in the Bible?

According to a new book, Jesus Christ was married to Mary Magdalene and had two children with her. Religious academics, on the other hand, believe that this interpretation of an ancient document has ‘no credibility.’

What was Jesus’s full name?

What Is the Real Name of Jesus? Jesus’ Hebrew name is Yeshua, which means “the Lord saves.” It is an acronym that stands for “Yahwehis Salvation.” Yeshua is spelled “Joshua” in the English language. However, when the name Yeshua is translated from Hebrew into Greek, the language in which the New Testament was composed, the name Isous is used instead.

What King was eaten by worms?

The cause of Herod the Great’s death, more than 2,000 years after his death at the age of 69, has finally been determined: chronic renal illness, which was worsened by a particularly unpleasant case of maggot-infested gangrene of the genitals.

What do maggots mean biblically?

The significance of maggots in dreams according to the Bible Worms are depicted in the Bible as a sign of grief and despondency.

Which angel appeared Daniel’s visions?

During the prophet Daniel’s visions, Gabriel appears to him in the Hebrew Bible to explain them (Daniel 8:15–26; Daniel 9:21–27). The archangel can also be found in the Book of Enoch and other ancient Jewish literature, as well as in the Bible.

What happened Herod Antipas?

Antipas passed away while in exile. Modern historians are skeptical of the claims made by the 3rd-century writer Cassius Dio that Caligula ordered his death, although this is supported by other historical sources.

Does Jesus have a brother?

The brothers and sisters of Jesus Jesus’ brothers, James, Joseph/Joses, Judas/Jude, and Simonas are mentioned in both the Gospel of Mark (6:3) and the Gospel of Matthew (13:55–56) as being the son of Mary. The same lines also refer to unidentified sisters of Jesus who are mentioned in passing.

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