Who Was Crucified On Either Side Of Jesus?

Why was the Lord crucified between two thieves?

  • WHY WAS THE LORD CRUCIFIED IN THE MIDDLE OF TWO THRIFTS? Shawn Brasseaux contributed to this article. According to all four Gospel accounts, the Lord Jesus was nailed on a cross between two men: ″Then there were two thieves crucified with him, one on his right hand and another on his left,″ Matthew 27:38
  • Mark 15:27
  • Luke 23:33
  • John 19:18
  • ″And when they came to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on his right hand and the other on the left.″
  • What is the significance of Him being sandwiched between two individuals, one on His right side and the other on His left, you might wonder.
  • This was most likely done by Roman officials in order to pour even more ridicule on Him.
  • For one thing, in the ancient Middle East, the positions of authority on the king’s left and right sides of the throne were by far the most powerful.

Because of this, they were highly sought for around the world.To give an example, consider how the apostles James and John requested to be seated on Jesus’ left and right hands in His kingdom, against the opposition of their mother.″Then came to him the mother of Zebedee’s children with her boys, worshiping him and asking a specific item from him, as recorded in Matthew chapter 20.″ And he asked her, ″What do you want me to do?″ Allow them my two boys to sit with thee in thy kingdom, one on thy right hand and the other on thy left, she pleads with him….It is true that you will drink from my cup, and that you will be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with: but it is not mine to give, but it will be given to those who have been prepared by my Father to sit on my right hand and on my left.″ ″And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, come vnto him, saying, Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we will desire.″ Mark 10: ″And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, come unto him, saying, Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatever we shall desire.″ And he inquired of them, saying, ″What would you like me to do for you?″ They petitioned him, saying, ″Please grant us the privilege of sitting, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left hand, in thy splendor.″ ″However, to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine to offer; rather, it will be given to those who have prepared themselves for it.″ It’s likely that placing a felon on each of the two sides of Christ’s crucifixion was merely another act of mockery.″You consider yourself a ‘king,’ don’t you?″ The people on your right and left hands will be able to ″reign″ with you, and they will be placed on your right and left hands, respectively.″ This is not at all unlikely, given the fact that the Romans had ridiculed Him throughout His trial just hours before.

″And they stripped him down to his underwear and put on a red robe.″ As soon as they had platted a crown of thorns, they placed it on his head, and they placed a reed in his right hand; and they bowed the knee before him and insulted him, saying, ″Hail, King of the Jews!″ And they spit on him, and they seized the reed and whacked him on the back of the neck.And when they had insulted him, they stripped him of his robe and placed his own clothes on him before leading him away to be crucified.″ (30:28-31) (Matthew 27:28-31).″And the soldiers carried him away into a large chamber known as the Praetorium, where they gathered the entire band.In addition, they dressed him in purple and platted a crown of thorns on his head, and they proceeded to hail him with the words ″Hail, King of the Jews!″ And they hit him on the head with a reed, spit on him, and prostrated themselves before him, worshipping him.Following their mockery of him, they removed the purple garments from him and dressed him in his own clothing before leading him out to be crucified″ (Mark 15:16-20).

So Pilate grabbed Jesus and scourged him, as you might expect.″ And the soldiers plated a crown of thorns and placed it on his head, and they draped him in a purple robe, exclaiming, ″Hail, King of the Jews!″ while they struck him with their hands″ (John 19:1-3).They discovered an ancient, worn, and faded Roman soldier’s outer cloak—a crimson garment that had faded to the point that it looked purple—and had Christ wear it!They presented Him with a ″scepter″ to wield, which was a frail reed that represented His ″might!″ They compelled Him to wear a ″crown″ of thorns that they had fashioned for Him!They even knelt and hailed Jesus with the words, ″Hail, King of the Jews!″ in order to poke fun of ″King″ Jesus.

(When the Roman Emperor arrived, he was greeted with the words ″Hail Caesar!″ Assuming that these deranged individuals are behind the crucifixion, it is not impossible that they took full advantage of the situation to disgrace Him.During His ministry, a sign was erected over His head proclaiming, ″THIS IS JESUS OF NAZARETH, KING OF THE JEWS″ (Matthew 27:37; Mark 15:26; Luke 23:38; John 19:19).With men on either side of His crucifixion, with Him in the center, they created a rough representation of a monarch governing with his two highest-ranking officials, which they thought was amusing.

These ″officials,″ of course, were criminals, which was a last insult to Him, given that He himself was seen as a wrongdoer.To just a few points, it is extremely significant that the prophesy of Jesus’ death on the cross between two thieves was fulfilled.Mark 15:28 is included in our King James Bible, despite the fact that it is either missing or bracketed off in recent English editions as doubtful: ″And the scripture was fulfilled, which says, And he was numbered among the transgressors.″ Because He poured out his soul unto death, and because he was numbered with the transgressors, and because He bore the sin of many, and because He made intercession for the transgressors, the Romans did not realize that they were fulfilling prophecy in Isaiah 53:12: ″Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong.″ Christ died in the midst of sinners, having been ″made sin for us″ (2 Corinthians 5:21), having suffered the penalty of sinners when He Himself was sinless.The Holy Spirit made it a point to record it in His Book of Records for all eternity.

Check out these other articles:» Were there five crosses on the hill of Calvary?» On the cross of Calvary, who was it that ridiculed Jesus?» What caused the thief on the cross to repent?

John 19:18 There they crucified Him, and with Him two others, one on each side, with Jesus in the middle.

  • New International Version (New International Version) It was there that they crucified him, along with two others—one on either side of him, with Jesus in the center.
  • New Living Translation (New Living Translation) They nailed him to the crucifixion in that location.
  • Two other people were crucified alongside him, one on either side of him, with Jesus sandwiched in between them.

Version standardized in English That is where he and two others were crucified alongside him with Jesus sandwiched in the middle between the two.Berean Study Bible (also known as the Berean Study Bible) In that place, they crucified Him and two others with Him, one on each side of Him, with Jesus in the center.The Literal Bible of the Bereans They crucified Him there, along with two others, on this side and on the other, with Jesus sandwiched in between.The King James Version of the Bible They crucified him there, along with two others, one on either side of him, and Jesus in the center of it all.New The King James Version describes how they crucified Him together with two others, one on either side of Him, and Jesus in the center.

The New American Standard Bible is a translation of the New Testament into English.They crucified Him there, along with two other men, one on either side of Him, with Jesus sandwiched in the middle.NASB 1995They crucified Him there, along with two other men, one on either side of Him, and Jesus in the middle.NASB 1977 (National Association of School Boards) They crucified Him there, along with two other men, one on either side of Him, with Jesus sandwiched in the middle.The Bible with an amplification system They crucified Him there, along with two others, one on either side of Him, with Jesus sandwiched in between them.

The Christian Standard Bible is a translation of the Bible in the Christian tradition.It was there that he was crucified along with two others, one on either side of him, with Jesus in the middle.It was there that they crucified Him together with two others, one on either side of Him, with Jesus in the midst.The Holman Christian Standard Bible The American Standard Version describes how they crucified him together with two others, one on either side of him, and Jesus in the middle.

Where they crucified him and two others with him, one on one side and one on the other side, with Yeshua in the midst, as described in the Aramaic Bible in Plain English.Version in the Present Tense of the English Language A man was put to either side of Jesus on the cross, and the two men were nailed together on the cross as well.The Bible of Douay-Rheims They nailed him on the cross, along with two others, one on either side of him, and Jesus in the center of them.

Translation of the Good News They executed him there, along with two other men: one on either side of Jesus, and the other in the middle of the cross between them.The International Standard Version (ISO) is a formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized formalized They crucified him there, along with two others, one on either side of him, with Jesus in the middle of the cross.Standard Version in its literal sense They crucified Him there, along with two others, on this side and on the other, with Jesus in the midst of the cross.The New American Bible is a translation of the New Testament into English.

They nailed him on the cross, along with two others, one on either side of him, with Jesus in the middle of the cross.NET Bible is an abbreviation for Networked Information Technology.It was there that he was crucified beside two people, one on either side of him, with Jesus in the midst.It was there that they crucified him, as well as two others, one on either side of him, with Jesus in the middle.New Revised Standard Version The New Heart English Bible is a translation of the New Heart Bible.

They nailed him on the cross, along with two others, one on either side of him, and Jesus in the midst of it.Weymouth The New Testament is a collection of writings that were written during the years of ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad ad where He was put to a crucifixion, along with two others who were nailed to the cross at the same time, one on each side of Jesus, who was in the center.There he was crucified, along with two others, one on either side of him, and Jesus in the middle.

World English Bible They crucified him and two others with him, one on this side and one on the other side, with Jesus in the centre.Context It was the Crucifixion…17 Then He walked out to the Place of the Skull, which is known in Hebrew as Golgotha, and carried His own cross with Him.18 They crucified Him there, along with two others, one on either side of Him, with Jesus in the center.19 Pilate also had a note written on the cross, which was read by everybody.In it, Jesus of Nazareth was referred to as ″the King of the Jews.″ References to Other Sources Luke 23:32 (NIV) Two other people, both of whom were criminals, were carried away to be killed with Jesus.John 19:32 (KJV) As a result, the soldiers arrived and shattered the legs of the first man who had been crucified alongside Jesus, as well as the legs of the second.

2:23 (Acts 2:23) Because of God’s predetermined plan and foreknowledge, he was delivered up to be crucified and you, by the hands of the lawless, put him to death by nailing Him to the cross.The Scriptures are a treasure trove.They crucified him there, along with two other people, one on either side of him, and Jesus in the middle of the cross.John 18:32 (KJV) That the prophecy of Jesus, which he said while predicting the death for which he would die, could be fulfilled.

In fact, hounds have surrounded me, and the assembly of the wicked has encircled me; they have wounded my hands and my feet, according to Psalm 22.For this reason, I will give him a share with the mighty, and he shall divide the spoil with the powerful; for he poured out his soul unto death, and he was counted among the transgressors; and he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors (Isaiah 53:12).(18) Notes on Matthew 27:38, Mark 15:27, and Luke 23:33-34 are included.In verse 18, the author says, They nailed him to a cross there.Due to the fact that John only briefly mentions the horrific conclusion of his Gospel, it is not necessary to go into the heartbreaking details of this heinous process, which Cicero described as ″crudelissimum, teterrimum, summum supplicium,″ one from which no Roman citizen could suffer, and which was reserved for the most ignominious and degraded of humanity – traitors, brigands, and condemned slaves.

To summarize, the cross was not simply of the T shape known as crux commissa, but rather (according to Luthardt and Zockler) of the familiar shape + and known as crux immissa, upon the upper arm of which the title or accusation, which had been placed around his neck, was affixed, as is evident from the mention of the (Luke 23:38).When the victim of this punishment was undressed, he was put on the central bar and his arms were tied to the transverse beam with ropes, while his wrists and feet were affixed to the wood with massive iron nails.A sedile was constructed to support a portion of the body’s weight, which would have been impossible to bear given the open wounds.

Afterwards, the executioners hoisted the cross and thrust it with a powerful jolt into the hole or socket that had been prepared for it.There was nothing in this inhumane treatment that necessitated the murder of the victim.The victims typically lingered for twelve hours or more, and in some cases for many days, before succumbing to dehydration, malnutrition, and completely terrible anguish at the end.Romans customarily disposed of the bodies by allowing them to be consumed by birds of prey, whereas Jews buried their dead.Because of his reverence for the Lord whom he had chosen, Constantine I., after his conversion, abolished the punishment, which, while far more terrible than being killed by wild beasts or set on fire, has never been reinstated and is only rarely practiced in Europe to this day.These Jews ″crucified the Lord of glory″ there, at the hands of lawless men and Roman executioners, and in their hideous insensibility to goodness, in their judicial blindness, bigotry, envy, and pride, they offered up a sacrifice, slew the Lamb of God, and killed the Passover of incalculable value, completely unaware of the infinite crime they were committing.

  • He has elevated that torture-tree to the status of throne, and it has become the very emblem of all that is most precious and awe-inspiring in the entire domain of human thinking.
  • They did not completely satisfy their rage with this heinous and inconceivable act of wickedness; instead, they crucified two other men with him either side one (a phrase that can only be found in this passage and Revelation 22:2), and Jesus in the midst, the most prominent figure in this tragedy, and exalted to what they believed was the pinnacle of humiliation and shame.
  • The synoptic narrative has informed us that these two men were ″robbers″ (not ″malefactors″) or () ″malefactors,″ and that they were ″suffering the appropriate reward of their acts,″ as they confessed in their own confession.
  1. For a time, both of these dying ruffians attempted to bring further suffering on their silent and patient co-Sufferer.
  2. One of the most exquisite portents that followed the Crucifixion is Luke’s description of the transformation that occurred in one of them as the terrible hours drew to a close.
  3. This well-known episode is passed over by John, who is most obviously attempting to fill in the gaps in the synoptists’ narrative with information that had been left out.

The omission of the sublime prayer ″Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do″ (Luke 23:34), a revelation of compassion and power mixed with inward agony and unspeakable tranquility, which has done so much to reveal ″the heart of Christ,″ the essence and character of the living God, is puzzling if John’s selection of facts was purely theological in nature.Commentaries that run in parallel.Greek (hopou)Adverbial phrase ″Whither, where, and at what place,″ says Strong’s 3699.From hos and pou; whatever(-ever) place, i.e.at whatever point you want.They nailed him to a cross (estaursan) is a slang term for ″adventurer.″ The Aorist Indicative Form of the Verb 3rd Person Pronoun – Active Plural For example, Strong’s 4717 says: ″From stauros; to impale on a cross; metaphorically, to eliminate passion or selfishness.″ His (auton)Personal/ Possessive Pronoun – Acusative Masculine Accusative Masculine 3rd Person Pronoun Singular Strong’s 846: ″He, she, it, they, them, the same″ (he, she, it, they, them, the same).

The reflexive pronoun self, which is used in the third person as well as the other persons, is derived from the particle au.as well as (kai)Conjunction Strong’s 2532: In addition to, in addition to, in particular.’with’ (metaphorically) PrepositionStrong’s 3326 is as follows: (a) gen: with, in company with, (b) acc: (1) behind, beyond, after, of place, (2) after, of time, with nouns, neut.of adjectives, with gen: with, in company with Him the (autou)Personal / Possessive Pronoun is masculine in the genitive case.

  1. 3rd Person Pronoun SingularStrong’s 846 is as follows: He, she, it, they, them, and the same are all correct.
  2. The reflexive pronoun self, which is used in the third person as well as the other persons, is derived from the particle au.
  3. a pair of (dyo) Adjective – Accusative Masculine Adjective – Accusative Masculine PluralStrong’s 1417 is as follows: Two.
  4. ‘two’ is a major number; ‘two’ is a secondary numeral (allous) Strong’s 243:Other, another (of more than two), distinct.
  5. Each half of the sentence begins with the word ‘other,’ which means ‘otherwise’ (enteuthen) Strong’s AdverbStrong’s 1782: As a result, from this location, on this side, and on that side.
  6. Because it is derived from the same root as enthade, it may be used on both sides.
  • 1161 (de)ConjunctionStrong’s 1161:A main particle; although, and, and so on.
  • Strong’s 2424: Jesus (Isoun)Noun – Accusative Masculine SingularStrong’s 2424: Jesus Jesus, the name of our Lord, and two other Israelites are descended from the Hebrew language.
  • in the center of the road (meson)Adjective – Accusative adjectival phrase In the center, in the middle of, between, in the midst of is Neuter SingularStrong’s 3319: The word meta comes from the middle (neuter) noun.
  • Return to the previous page Someone on the cross was nailed to it, either him or Jesus in the middle.
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  • Links John 19:18 New International Version 19:18 (John 19:18) NLT 19:18 (John 19:18) ESV John 19:18 New American Standard Bible KJV (King James Version): John 19:18 19:18 (John 19:18) BibleApps.com 19:18 (John 19:18) Paralela’s Paraphrased Bibliography 19:18 (John 19:18) The Chinese version of the Bible French translation of John 19:18 19:18 (John 19:18) The Bible according to Catholic tradition John 19:18 (New Testament Gospels) They crucified him there, and he was crucified with him (Jhn Jo Jn)
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Women at the Crucifixion

  • We take it for granted, then, that four women are listed as being present at the crucifixion of the Lord in the New Testament.
  • In John, we find two pairs of women: the unidentified women, who are the mother of the Lord and her sister, and the two women who are named, Mary of Clopas and Mary Magdalene.
  • In Luke, we see two pairs of women, who are the mother of the Lord and her sister.

Mary the wife of Clopas, as well as Mary Magdalene, gathered around Jesus’ crucifixion, according to the Gospel of Matthew.(See also John 19:25.)

  • According to Luke’s account, there were many other women present, but these are the ones that stand out as being the ones who were most intimately acquainted with Him. ″He was followed by a great number of people, including ladies who wept and cried for him.″ But everyone who knew him, including the women who had followed him from Galilee, stood at a distance, taking note of what was happening. (Luke 23:27) (Matthew 23:49)

Roman Soldiers, Two Criminals, and the Roman Centurion 

  • The soldiers’ presence, as well as the presence of the two malefactors who were crucified on either side of Jesus, is mentioned by all four gospel writers. When it comes to the crucifixion, the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke pay particular attention to the centurion in charge of the execution, and they offer some description of how he was affected in the presence of the Crucified. According to Matthew, he declared, ″Surely he was the Son of God″ (Matthew 27:54)
  • according to Mark, he declared, ″Surely this Man was the Son of God″ (Mark 15:39)
  • according to Luke, he declared, ″Surely this was a righteous Man″ (Luke 23:47)
  • and according to John, he declared, ″Surely this was a righteous Man″ (John 19:26).
  • Let me state right away that there is no conflict between Matthew, Mark, and Luke, on the one hand, and the rest of the Bible on the other.
  • Almost without exception, both of these statements were made by the centurion.
  • It is quite feasible that this guy spoke more than one thing as he stood by Jesus’ cross, and we believe that, although Matthew and Mark record the statement that impressed them, Luke records the statement that appealed to him and was perfectly consistent with his overall teaching plan.

The reports are more complimentary than opposing, and the information is useful.

Chief Priests and Jewish Leaders

  • Luke does not mention the top priests, despite the fact that they were there. Matthew, Mark, and John all mention their attendance. The scribes, elders, and rulers who make up the Sanhedrin are mentioned in Matthew, Mark, and Luke, although John makes no mention of them at all. On the same level, the top priests, professors of law, and other seniors made fun of him. ″In the same way, the top priests and teachers of the law made fun of him among themselves,″ says Matthew 27:41. They said that ″he helped others but that he couldn’t save himself!″ ‘The people gathered around him, and the ruling class even laughed at him,’ says Mark 15:31. ″If he is God’s Messiah, the Chosen One, let him save himself,″ they urged. ″The crowds gathered around him, and the rulers even scoffed at him,″ according to Luke 23:35. ″If he is God’s Messiah, the Chosen One, let him save himself,″ they urged. (See also John 19:21.)

Multitudes and Disciples

Luke, in order to demonstrate the universality of Jesus’ activity and relationship with the people, proclaims the presence of large crowds of people. ″He was followed by a great number of people, including ladies who wept and cried for him.″ (See also Luke 23:27.)

  • In addition, John is the only one who tells us that the disciples were also present, and he is the only one who relates to the fact of his own attendance, and he does so in order to record Christ’s entrusting of His mother to his care.
  • ″After seeing his mother and the disciple whom he adored standing close, Jesus addressed her as ″Woman, here is your son,″ and the disciple as ″Daughter, here is your mother.″ She was welcomed into the family of this disciple from that point on.″ (See also John 19:26-27.)
  • While taking a step back and looking out over the throngs of people, we notice a number of things: women and children, soldiers and criminals, a centurion, chief priests and Sanhedrin members, a group of His own disciples, and, on top of all of this, vast swaths of people from all over the surrounding country.
  • Everyone and everything is gathered to the Cross in representational throngs, with the entire image serving as a picture and prophesy of how, throughout the centuries, people of every kind and situation would be drawn to the raised Cross of the Son of Man, symbolizing the end of time.
  • G.

Campbell Morgan’s The Crises of the Christ, Book V, Chapter XXIV, is the source for this adaptation.Photograph courtesy of Thinkstock/kasiawronska

The Two Men Crucified Next To Jesus Were

  • According to the Gospel of Luke, two additional men were crucified with Our Blessed Lord, one on either side of Him, and both died at the hands of the Romans.
  • Traditionally, the thief to Christ’s right has been referred to as the ″Good Thief,″ while the thief to Christ’s left has been dubbed the ″Unrepentant Thief.″ While the names of the Good Thief and the Unrepentant Thief are not mentioned in the Gospels, legend claims that the one was named Saint Dismas and the latter, Gestas.
  • Despite the fact that both men were subjected to the same brutal death and were both in the presence of Christ, their attitudes to their circumstances were vastly different.

″Are You not the Messiah?″ Gestas asks Our Lord, who responds, ″Are You not the Messiah?″ ″Save Yourself as well as us.″ (Matthew 23:39) Gestas requests that he be taken down from his crucifixion.Dismas, on the other hand, does not request that he be removed from power.Dismas rebukes Gestas and announces Christ’s innocence, and in one of the most surprising and beautiful moments of the Gospel, he refuses to be pulled down from his certain and terrible death, which is one of the most startling and beautiful moments of the Gospel.Rather, he begs to be brought up into the presence of Christ, pleading, ″Jesus, remember me when You come into Your kingdom.″ (Matthew 23:42) St.Dismas receives a response from Jesus, who says, ″Amen, I say to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise.″ Those who follow in the footsteps of Saint Dismas, who took his cross and placed his trust not in this world, but in God’s promise of eternal life, will learn this lesson.

Which of these two is the most like you?Do you want to come down from your cross and continue to be a part of this earthly existence, or do you want to embrace your cross and be brought up to Christ in the life that is ahead of you?

To help you accept the crosses that you will carry in this life, and to set your heart on Heaven in the next life, the Norbertine Fathers of Saint Michael’s Abbey would like to give you a FREE Saint Dismas prayer card, so that you may seek the intercession of the Good Thief. To download the free prayer card, just click the button below.

Download the Saint Dismas Prayer Card for free here.

Immersed in the 900-year tradition of our order, the Norbertine Fathers live a monastic common life of liturgical prayer and care for souls. Our abbey in Orange County consists of nearly fifty priests and thirty seminarians studying for the priesthood.  

For more than fifty years, St. Michael’s Abbey Norbertine Fathers have served the Christian faithful in Southern California—“lifting high the Holy Eucharist over the miseries and errors of this world” (Pope Saint John Paul II).Our community’s apostolic ministries are many and various—from running a preparatory school for young men to teaching religious education in prisons—but they all find their source in our common life of prayer and fraternal charity.

St. Michael’s Abbey is celebrating its 150th anniversary in 2017.

How Many Were Crucified with Jesus?

Most people believe that our Lord Jesus Christ was crucified alongside two other men, with his cross sandwiched between the two of them.Photographs, television, movies, bumper stickers, crosses by the side of the road and crosses in church yards are all examples of how this idea has been shown in various media.Looking more carefully into the Scriptures, we discover that there were not two other men crucified with Jesus, but four additional men: two on either side of Jesus, two on either side of the cross.Although this may appear to be a small thing, truth has great worth, and being able to read and comprehend the entire Bible and discover that it does not include inconsistencies is quite valuable.

  1. If there were just two men crucified with Jesus, then there would be verses in the Four Gospels that would be in direct conflict with one another.
  2. Recognizing that there were four other men crucified beside Jesus removes many of the seeming inconsistencies and problems, and, more significantly, provides us with an accurate picture of what happened throughout the crucifixion scenario.
  3. In 2 Timothy 2:15, the Bible exhorts us to be ″workmen of the Word of God″ and to ″rightly divide″ the Word of God.

When it comes to the events recorded in the Four Gospels, this means that we must read any particular account in all four Gospels and pay special attention to the specifics in order to be accurate.It is necessary for us to keep track of events, timings, and locations.Occasionally, various Gospels provide somewhat different accounts of the same event, and occasionally events that appear to be fairly similar are actually extremely different.″Narrative development″ is the process of putting together the many pieces of material from each of the Gospels to build a cohesive picture of the entire event.Reading a good translation carefully and paying close attention to the details is necessary for realizing what the Word of God is trying to tell us about truth.At all times, we must remember that the Word of God cannot be contradicted by anything else.

In addition, it takes a lot of guts to question long-held customs.While many traditions that had been passed down for hundreds of years were recognized as being simply traditions and not truth, others that had been passed down were replaced with truth during the Protestant Reformation.This type of reformation must continue in the modern day.Traditions were challenged by Jesus in his day (Matt.15:1–3), and when traditions do not line up with the Word of God, we must be prepared to modify them in our own day.

  1. The first thing we notice when putting together the entire narrative, the entire record of Jesus Christ’s crucifixion is that there are some significant differences between the accounts in the Gospels.
  2. Sometimes the difference is simply a difference in detail, while other times the change is so big that the information cannot possibly be about the same object or event as the previous information.
  3. It is possible that we will not be able to tell whether we are dealing with minor variances in detail or fundamentally distinct things at first, so we will just make note of the differences and assess their significance as the whole picture emerges.
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One point to keep in mind as we read the crucifixion accounts is that Matthew 27:38 (ESV) and Mark 15:27 (ESV) both indicate unequivocally that ″two robbers″ were crucified, but Luke 23:32 (ESV) states that ″two criminals″ were crucified, which is a significant distinction.Another set of translations, such as the New International Version (NIV), the NASB, and the RSV, also employ the terms ″robber″ and ″criminal,″ while other versions employ various terms, such as ″thief″ and ″malefactor″ (KJV).It is obvious that a robber is a criminal, and so these two guys may be the same group of men, but it should be noted that the Bible employs two separate Greek terms to describe them: lsts (robber) and kakourgos (criminal), which suggests that they could be two different groups of men.When we consider the fact that Matthew claims that the robbers (lsts) reviled Christ, while Luke claims that just one of the criminals (kakourgos) did, it seems far more plausible that they are two separate groups of men.

Matthew 27:44 (KJV) (ESV) Moreover, the thieves who were crucified with him abused him in the same way as they did Jesus.Luke 23:39 and Luke 23:40 (ESV) One of the prisoners who were hanged yelled at him, ″Are you not the Christ?″ (Are you not the Christ?) ″Save yourself as well as us!″ The other, however, corrected him, saying: ″Do you have no dread of the Almighty because you are under the same sentence of condemnation?″ (40) It has been taught on occasion that one of the criminals began to revile Jesus, but then changed his mind and rebuked the other criminal in his place.The substance of what this offender stated, on the other hand, does not support that.

  1. Because they believed Jesus to be a forger or impostor, the priests, robbers, and one felon slandered him and mocked him.
  2. Their statements included phrases such as ″If you are the Son of God, come down from the crucifixion…let him come down immediately from the cross, and we will believe in him…let God deliver him now, if that is what he intends.″ ″Because he said, ‘I am the Son of God,’″ (Matt.
  3. 27:40—43 – the ESV has been condensed.) While on the Cross, it is quite doubtful that Jesus could have done anything that would have completely changed the mind of an imprisoned criminal who had been convinced that he was a fake and convinced him that he was the Promised Messiah instead.
  4. What the criminal said, both to the other criminal and to Jesus, reveals a genuine dread of God as well as an understanding of who Jesus Christ was and what he stood for.
  5. Given the fact that he asks Jesus to keep him in mind when he comes into his kingdom, and Jesus responds by telling him that he will be rescued and will be in Paradise (Luke 23:42 and 43), this is very significant.

Even though he was hanging in agony on the cross, it is quite improbable that he realized who Jesus was at the time.It is far more likely that he had some fear of God and some understanding of who Jesus was all along.In this way, there appears to be abundant proof that the two ″robbers″ are not the same guys as the two ″criminals,″ as previously stated.An other extremely significant and compelling piece of evidence that leads to the conclusion that the thieves and criminals are not the same persons is the fact that they were not crucified at the same time.Following a close reading of the biblical text, it becomes clear that the two criminals were crucified at the same time as Jesus, but that the two robbers were killed at a later time of day.

The convicts were carried away to be crucified beside Jesus and were promptly nailed to the cross alongside Jesus.23:32 and 33 (ESV)(32) Two others, both of whom were criminals, were carried away and executed beside him.(33) And when they arrived at the location known as The Skull, they nailed him on the cross beside the criminals, one on his right and one on his left.Matthew 27 states that the two robbers were crucified after Jesus had been crucified and the guards had divided his clothes by casting lots and set down to keep watch over him, as opposed to the two robbers who were crucified with Jesus, according to Luke.This would have taken some time, and the soldiers would not have done those things if they knew there were other guys waiting to be crucified in the same place as them.Take note of the sequence of events as recounted by Matthew: 27:35–38 (Matthew 27:35–38) (ESV) (35) And after he had been crucified, they divided his clothing among themselves by drawing lots for them.

  • (36) After that, they sat down and kept an eye on him from there.
  • (3) And they hung the indictment against him over his head, which said, ″This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.″ (37) On either side of him were two robbers who were crucified alongside him, one on his right and one on his left.
  • The word ″then,″ which appears at the beginning of verse 38, is extremely significant.
  • The two thieves were crucified only after the soldiers separated Jesus’ clothing and kept an eye on him for a bit.
  • The word ″and″ would have been used instead of the word ″then″ if Matthew had wished to convey the idea that the robbers were crucified at the same time as Jesus.

According to the evidence that has been shown so far, the gospel of Luke informs us that two criminals (kakourgos) were with Jesus when he was brought away to be crucified.As recorded in Matthew and Mark, two robbers (lests) were crucified with Jesus after the soldiers had sat down and watched, or guarded, him after the clothes had been separated and the soldiers had sat down and watched, or guarded him.According to Matthew and Mark, Christ was despised by both ″robbers,″ however Luke informs us that one criminal insulted Christ while the other admonished the criminal and requested Christ to remember him.It appears that, based on the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, as well as the concept of narrative progression, we may assume that there were four more men, rather than simply two, who were crucified with Jesus.

  • After that, we’ll turn our focus to the gospel according to John.
  • Because John 19:18 begins with the word ″There,″ it appears that he is less concerned with the ″when″ of the events and more concerned with the ″where″ of the crucifixion.
  • This is supported by the fact that the word ″There″ is more accurately rendered ″Where″ in the KJV.
  • As a result, rather than recounting the sequence of events as they unfold, John provides us with a ″summary statement″ of the current situation.

19:17-18 (ESV)(17) He then walked forth, bearing his own cross, to a site named The Place of a Skull, which is known in Aramaic as Golgotha, where he died.(18) They crucified him there, along with two others, one on either side of him, and Jesus in the middle of the cross.Whoa!In order for John 19:18 to be accurate in the ESV, we must be mistaken about there being four others crucified with Jesus, as it clearly states that there were two others with him, one on each side.

  • When we come into a circumstance in which there appears to be an issue that we are unable to address in English, we must examine the Greek text to ensure that the translation is accurate before proceeding.
  • The Greek text, or an Interlinear translation of the text in Greek, can be used to examine the translation for accuracy.
  • What we discover is that the Greek text does not contain the term ″one.″ The text simply reads: kai meta autos entuthen allos duo entuthen kai entuthen mesos de ho Isous and with him others two on this side and two on that side midway, but the Jesus.

Due to the fact that the Greek word order differs from the English word order, we may literally interpret this as: ″and with him two others, one on this side and one on that side, but Jesus in the midst.″ In this way, it would be evident that there were two more people ″on this side″ and two more people ″on the other side.″ The term enteuthen kai enteuthen, on the other hand, is more colloquial and is possibly best translated into English as ″on either side of the river.″ It is useful to note that the term enteuthen kai enteuthen appears just one other time in the Bible, in Revelation 22:2, where it refers to the tree of life growing ″on either side″ of the River of Life, which is helpful to understand.″Two on each side,″ we would get ″two on either side″ if John 19:18 were translated the same manner as Revelation 22:2, but with the knowledge that duo, ″two,″ immediately follows the phrase enteuthen kai enteuthen, which would be ″two on either side.″ Actually, if the commas, which are not in the Greek text but were added by translators, and the word ″one,″ which was also added, were removed from the ESV version, the result would be a pretty accurate translation.″There they crucified him, and with him two people on either side of him, and Jesus in the middle,″ the inscription would say.This is the plain and straightforward truth of the Bible.

According to John’s account, there were four people crucified with Jesus, two on either side of him.Even though the word ″one″ does not appear in any known Greek text of John 19:18, the fact that practically every current edition of the Bible does so is a testament to the strength of tradition.The tradition that there were only two persons crucified with Christ drives translators to uphold that tradition despite the fact that the textual evidence is in opposition to that tradition.Young’s Literal Translation is one of the few English versions that does not include the word ″one,″ and it reads as follows without punctuation: ″there they crucified him and with him two others on this side and on that side and Jesus in the center.″ This has everything to do with the soldiers breaking the legs of the men who were crucified, which provides another another piece of extremely strong proof that there were four people crucified with Jesus and not just two, as previously stated.

19:32 and 33 (John 19:32 and 33) (ESV) (32) As a result, the soldiers arrived and shattered the legs of the first, as well as of the other person who had been crucified alongside him.They did not break Jesus’ legs, however, when they arrived at the scene and saw that he had already died.If there were just two men crucified with Jesus, the verses 32 and 33 in John 19 do not make any sense.If this were the case, the soldiers would break the legs of the first guy and then go to Jesus.Those verses, however, do not support that interpretation.

If we could conjure up a mental image of the five men who were crucified, we would see something like this: On either side of Jesus would be the criminals who were crucified at the same moment he was, with the criminals in the centre and next to him on both sides.Then there would be the two thieves, who would be on the outer of the gang and further away from Jesus.As long as we have that picture in mind when reading the passages, they will be flawless.The soldiers were instructed to break the legs of those who were being crucified in order for them to die more quickly as a result of their actions.Naturally, they began at the very beginning and worked their way down the line.

When they arrived, they broke the legs of ″the first,″ which was the first man they came across.″Who had been crucified with him″ was the next man to be broken in two by the crucifixion crew.What you’ve said is absolutely right!The prisoner who had been crucified with Jesus had, in fact, been crucified with him, although the robber, who had been the first guy to have his legs broken, had been crucified much later.Then, when the soldiers ″arrived″ at the third man in line, who happened to be Jesus, they discovered that he had already died.

  1. John didn’t have to say anything because Jesus was the focal point.
  2. Instead, he simply stated that the soldiers formed a circle around Jesus and broke the legs of the other two men.
  3. A graphical portrayal of the five crosses, which will assist us in replacing the customary mental picture with the scriptural one, is provided below: A significant point to note is that the soldiers did not break Jesus’ legs simply to ″confirm″ that he had died.
  4. The Bible predicted that none of the Savior’s bones would be shattered during his death and resurrection.
  5. Exodus 12:46, Num.
  6. 9:12, and Psalm 34:20 all state that the Passover lamb must not have any broken bones, and Jesus fulfilled this requirement that year.
  • The account of the four others who were crucified with Jesus is similar to other accounts in the Gospels in that all of the Gospels must be studied and compared in order to have a complete picture of what actually occurred.
  • Among the most memorable instances is when Jesus encountered men from the tombs, who were under the grip of demons.
  • According to what we read in Mark 5 and Luke 8, Jesus encountered one violent man who was dominated by demons and who lived in the tombs when he arrived on the beach of the Sea of Galilee, and he drove the demons out of that man when he landed on the shore.
  • However, when we read the identical account in Matthew 8, we discover that there are two men, not simply one as previously thought.
See also:  Why Did Jesus Say The Father Is Greater Than I

It’s only that Mark and Luke never mention the second man.In a similar vein, when it comes to the crucifixion, Matthew and Mark only mention the two robbers, while Luke only mentions the two convicts, and only the gospel of John mentions all four men.In God’s Word, there are many profound truths to be discovered, but it may take some searching to discover them.The diligent student of Scripture, on the other hand, works very hard in the Word in order to uncover truth.When people accept the traditions of men as truth, they are quick to point out ″discrepancies″ in the Bible, rather than remembering that the Word of God does not contain any contradictions, apparent contradictions will be resolved as long as we continue to study.According to E.

W.Bullinger, ″…from this evidence, it is clear that there were four ″others″ crucified with the Lord; and thus, on the one hand, there are no ″discrepancies,″ as has been asserted; while on the other hand, every word and every expression, in the Greek, gets (and gives) its own exact value, and its full significance…″ (Bullinger, The Companion Bible, Appendix 164).This study of the five crucified demonstrates how to work God’s Word from the inside out and how to find the reality of the Word via the process of application.

Once we grasp that notion, we can embark on a trip through the Bible that will provide us with answers to a plethora of issues and assist us in understanding why God exalted His Word above His name.As I approach thy holy temple, I will offer sacrifices to thee in thanksgiving for thy lovingkindness and for the truth, because thou hast exalted thy word above all the names of the gods.

Impenitent thief – Wikipedia

The impenitent thief is a guy who appears in the New Testament narrative of Jesus’ crucifixion and is described as such.Two criminal bandits are executed on the cross with Jesus, according to the Gospel story.Mocking him is recorded in the first two Gospels (Matthew and Mark), in which they both join the rest of the mob.One taunts Jesus for not rescuing himself and them, while the other (known as the contrite thief) begs for compassion, according to the version of the Gospel of Luke.

  1. In apocryphal literature, the impenitent thief is given the name Gestas, which first comes in the Gospel of Nicodemus, and his accomplice is given the name Dismas, which first appears in the Gospel of Nicodemus.
  2. It is believed by Christian tradition that Gestas was crucified to the left of Jesus and that Dismas was crucified to the right of Jesus on the cross.
  3. The impenitent thief’s name is Gesmas, according to Jacobus de Voragine’s Golden Legend, which may be found here.

The impenitent thief is frequently referred to as the ″bad thief,″ in contrast to the ″good thief,″ since he does not repent of his actions.The apocryphal Arabic Infancy Gospel refers to Gestas and Dismas as Dumachus and Titus, respectively, in reference to their respective names in the Bible.Traditional accounts, such as those in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s poem The Golden Legend, claim that Dumachus was one of a band of thieves that assaulted Saint Joseph and the Holy Family on their journey into Egypt in the year 430.

New Testament narrative

Most scholars agree that the Gospel of Mark has the earliest version of the account, which is generally assumed to have been written about AD 70.He claims that Jesus was crucified with two bandits, one on either side of him, according to the author.Passersby and chief priests make fun of Jesus for claiming to be the Messiah while failing to rescue himself, and the two criminals who were crucified with him participate in the fun.There is a reference to the Book of Isaiah in several verses, which is seen as a fulfillment of prophesy (Isaiah 53:12: ″And he.

  1. was numbered with the transgressors″).
  2. The Gospel of Matthew, which was written about the year 85, repeats many of the same points.
  3. The specifics are different in the Gospel of Luke version, which takes place between verses 80 and 90: one of the bandits rebukes the other for insulting Jesus, and asks Jesus to remember him ″when you come into your kingdom.″ Jesus responds by assuring him that he would be with him in Paradise the following day, on the same day.

This bandit is known as the repentant thief, while the other is known as the impenitent thief, according to tradition.The Gospel of John, which is considered to have been written about AD 90–95, also claims that Jesus was crucified alongside two others, but this story does not provide any description of them or any evidence that they spoke.

See also

  • List of names for the Biblical nameless


  1. Joe Gorra and William Lane Craig are two of the most famous people in the world (1 September 2013). Answers to Difficult Questions about God, Christianity, and the Bible from a Reasonable Perspective.
  2. ″William Lane Craig and Bart Ehrman Debate ″Is There Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus?″″. physics.smu.edu.
  3. ″William Lane Craig and Bart Ehrman Debate ″Is There Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus?″″. physics.smu.edu. Retrieved on the 24th of June, 2020.
  4. a b c d a b c d a b c d a b c d a b c d Bart D. Ehrman, Ph.D. (2008). Whose Word Is It, Anyway? : The Inside Story of Who Changed the New Testament and Why, and How.
  5. The Golden Legend by A&C Black, page 143, ISBN 978-1-84706-314-4
  6. A&C Black
  7. A&C Black
  8. A&C Black
  9. A&C Black
  10. A&C Black
  11. A&C Black
  12. A&C Black
  13. A&C Black
  14. In Professor Bart D. Ehrman’s The Historical Jesus, Part I, p. 6, published by The Teaching Company in 2000, he argues that Jesus was a historical figure. In the words of Ehrman, ″Scholars are virtually convinced that they were written many decades after Jesus’ death: Mark, AD 65–70
  15. Matthew and Luke, AD 80–85
  16. and John, AD 90–95.″ (2000: 5). For example, ″Perhaps we might start with the oldest Gospel to have been written, which most academics think was the Gospel of Mark.″
  17. Mark 15:27–32
  18. Isaiah 53:12
  19. Matthew 27:38–44
  20. Luke 23:33–45
  21. John 19:18–25

It is included into this article through reference to a work that is now in the public domain: James Wood, ed (1907). ″Dumachus″. The Nuttall Encyclopaedia is a reference work. Publishers: Frederick Warne (London and New York).

External links

  • Media related to Gestas at Wikimedia Commons

The Three Crosses – Wikipedia

The Three Crosses
Drypoint by Rembrandt, 1653
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn
Year 1653
Medium Etching and drypoint
Dimensions 394 mm × 456 mm (15.5 in × 18.0 in)
Location Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ is depicted in Rembrandt van Rijn’s print The Three Crosses, which was published in 1653 in etching and drypoint and represents the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.Unlike the majority of his prints, which are predominantly in etching, this one is a drypoint with burin corrections from the third stage onward.In the words of the artist, it is ″one of the most dynamic prints ever created.″ A depiction of Jesus Christ on the crucifixion, flanked by the two thieves who were crucified with him, and his mother, the Virgin Mary, who is sobbing and supported by the Evangelist, are shown.Armed Roman troops on horseback surround the crosses, which are also surrounded by mourning civilians.

  1. It is represented by a beam of light that pierces the black sky and surrounds the crucified figure of Christ, which represents God’s light from on high.
  2. Because of its elaborate symbolism, the print is particularly well-known, and it is said to depict the precise moment of Christ’s death.
  3. Paul Crenshaw of the Kemper Art Museum says Rembrandt was inspired by the text from Matthew 27:46-54, in which Christ cries out, ″My God, my God, why have you abandoned Me?″ ″My God, my God, why have you forsaken Me?″ A significant amount of Rembrandt’s work was inspired by biblical materials, and he was also affected by the work of other Baroque contemporaries.

This is one of more than 300 Bible-inspired paintings by Rembrandt that have been discovered.Due to the design of the Three Crosses, it is not possible to create dramatic contrasts between light and shadow (known as chiaroscuro).Rembrandt worked on the painting in four phases, each level increasing the impact of the light and shadow contrasts on the subject matter.Etching and drypoint are time-consuming procedures that are considered to be among the earliest kinds of printmaking.Rembrandt selected these mediums largely because he was frequently faced with financial difficulties.He sold a large number of his etchings in order to raise the funds necessary to publish The Three Crosses.

In the first three stages of the painting, Rembrandt created around sixty impressions from the plate, with the deepest shadows on the picture being done in dry point and Christ and the lighter figures being done in etching.In addition to adding additional etching and dry point to the painting, Rembrandt was able to change the composition of the picture and make the final image darker and more chaotic since the nature of the medium allowed him to make continual modifications (which he did over a ten-year period).In the last stage, the Virgin Mary is reduced to the appearance of an almost disembodied head surrounded by darkness.The individuals who were initially around her, as well as several of the soldiers on horseback, have all been removed from the scene.One more person has been added, this time wearing a huge hat and riding a horse.

  1. It’s thought that this is a character from Rembrandt’s painting, ″The Conspiracies of Claudius Civilis.″ It is the ″heavenly light″ that has seen the most significant change, since it has gotten significantly darker, particularly to the right of the picture.
  2. It’s possible that Rembrandt meant the contrast between the heavenly light and the darkness around it to distinguish between the ‘good’ thief and the ‘evil’ thief in this painting.
  3. The central prominence of the Christ figure grows in importance with each successive alteration in the piece.

Rembrandt inked the plates in a varied number of ways and with various kinds of ink in the plates’ fourth and fifth states, respectively.The Kemper Art Museum is home to one of the prints from the fourth stage of the project.


  1. In preparation for an exhibition at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Gisèle Lambert conducted a study of the print. Paul Crenshaw’s ″Spotlight Series″ is on display at the Kemper Art Museum. The Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum opened its doors on October 1, 2008. Web. 9 August 2014.
  2. In October 2008, Paul Crenshaw presented ″Rembrandt, Three Crosses″ as part of the Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum Spotlight series. Art and the Bible go together like peanut butter and jelly. ″Rembrandt’s biblical work,″ says the artist. The most recent modification was made in 2012
  3. ″Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn): Christ Crucified between the Two Thieves: The Three Crosses″ ″Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn): Christ Crucified between the Two Thieves″ (41.1.31) In the Heilbrunn Chronology of Art History. (October 2006)
  4. New York, NY: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. Jonckheere, Koenraad, and Anna Tummers are three of the most talented people in the world. An in-depth study at paintings by Rembrandt, Rubens, and their contemporaries as well as the art market and connoisseurship. In 2008, the Amsterdam University Press published a book entitled
  • v
  • t
  • e
    • Rembrandt Drawings, etchings, paintings, and self-portraits are listed in alphabetical order. The Senses (1624–25)
    • The Stoning of Saint Stephen (1625)
    • The Stoning of Saint Stephen (1625)
    • The Stoning of Saint Stephen (1625)
    • ‘Allow tiny children to come unto me,’ (1620s).
    • History Painting (1626)
    • Balaam and the Ass (1626)
    • The Baptism of the Eunuch (1626)
    • The Baptism of the Eunuch (1626)
    • The Baptism of the Eunuch (1626)
    • The Baptism of the Eunuch (1626)
    • Bust of a Man in a Gorget and a Plumed Beret (1626)
    • Bust of a Man in a Gorget and a Plumed Beret (1626)
    • Andromeda Chained to the Rocks (1631)
    • Christ with a Staff (1631)
    • Christ on the Cross (1631)
    • Old Man with a Gold Chain (c. 1631)
    • Philosopher in Meditation (1632)
    • The Abduction of Europa (1632–1633)
    • The Artist in his Studio (1628)
    • Samson and Delilah (1629–30)
    • The Raising of Lazarus (c. 1630–1632)
    • Samson and Delilah (1629–30)
    • The Artist in his Studio (1633)
    • The Prodigal Son in the Brothel (c. 1635)
    • The Abduction of Ganymede (1635)
    • The Entombment of Christ (1635)
    • Samson Threatening His Father-in-Law (1635)
    • The Prodigal Son in the Brothel (c. 1635)
    • The Abduction of Ganymede (1635)
    • The Entombment of Christ (1635)
    • The Prodigal Son in the Brothel (c. 1635)
    • The Abduction of Ganymede (1635
    • 1656: Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph
    • 1657: Courtesan at her Mirror
    • 1657: Saint Bartholomew
    • 1659: Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law
    • 1659: Saint Bartholomew
    • 1656: Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph
    • Lucretia (1664) 1
    • David and Uriah (c. 1665)
    • Young Woman with a Lapdog (1665)
    • The Return of the Prodigal Son (1662–1669)
    • Landscape with a Castle
    • Ahasuerus and Haman at the Feast of Esther (1660)
    • Titus as a Monk (1660)
    • The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis (1661)
    • St. Matthew and the Angel (1661)
    • The Syndics of the Drapers’ Guild
    • Photographic portraits include: Portrait of Nicolaes Ruts (1631)
    • Portrait of a Man (1632)
    • Portrait of a Woman (1632)
    • Portrait of Jacob de Gheyn III (1632)
    • Aeltje Pietersdr Uylenburgh (1632)
    • Portrait of a Man Rising from His Chair (1633)
    • Oval Portrait of a Woman (1633)
    • Portrait of Marten Soolmans (1634)
    • Portrait of Oopjen Coppit (1634)
    • Portrait of Petronella Buys
    • Self-portraits Among his works are: Self-Portrait with Dishevelled Hair (1628)
    • Rembrandt Laughing (1628)
    • Self-Portrait in a Gorget (c.1629)
    • Self-Portrait Wearing a White Feathered Bonnet (1635)
    • Self-Portrait at the Age of 34 (1640)
    • Self-Portrait in a Black Beret and Gold Chain (1654)
    • Self-Portrait (1658)
    • Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar
    • Illustrations, drawings, and prints (including etchings): Joseph and Potiphar’s Wife (1634)
    • The Artist and his Model (1639)
    • The Death of the Virgin (1639)
    • The Mill (1641)
    • The Three Trees (1643)
    • The State Bed (1646)
    • Portrait of Jan Six (1647)
    • Hundred Guilder Print (1647–1649)
    • Conus Marmoreus (1650)
    • Goldweigher’s Field (1651)
    • Doctor Fautrieus (1652)
    • Descent from the Cross by
    • Dutch Golden Age painting
    • Dutch School (painting)
    • Netherlandish art
    • Netherlandish Baroque art
    • Flemish Baroque art
    • Art of the Dutch Golden Age
    • Art of the Dutch Golden Age
    • Art of the Dutch Golden Age
    • Naturalism, Utrecht Caravaggism, Caravaggisti, chiaroscuro, etching revival
    • Rembrandt lighting
    • Tronie
    • Surface tone
    • Old master print
    • Tronie
    • surface tone
    • Rembrandt’s paintings are studied a group of connoisseurs and researchers
    • the Rembrandt Research Project
    • the Rembrandt catalogues raisonnés of 1908, 1935, 1968, and 1986
    • the Rembrandt Research Project
    • People who are related to each other Hendrick van Uylenburgh (art dealer, patron)
    • Jan Six (art collector, patron)
    • Henry Clay Frick (art collector)
    • Thomas Kaplan (art collector)
    • Saskia van Uylenburgh (wife, model)
    • Titus van Rijn (son, model)
    • Geertje Dircx (mistress, model)
    • Hendrickje Stoffels (mistr

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