Chapter 4 Strayer Flashcards
The teachings of the prophet Zarathustra served as the foundation for what religion? Identify which of the following classical cultural systems placed a greater emphasis on the issues of this world than they did on the link between the divine and human existence. During which civilisation did a time of “warring states” violence and discord inspire a number of philosophers to develop the classical cultural legacy that we know today? What classical philosophy was founded on the concept that human society requires clear laws that are strongly enforced since the vast majority of people are foolish and shortsighted, and thus requires strict enforcement?
Which philosophy gained such sway in China that it became nearly synonymous with the country’s cultural identity?
The past was a great period, and present people should seek to return it to its former glory.
This ancient philosophy emphasized the need of complementarity and balance between the sexes.
- Which of the following statements is correct about Hinduism?
- What is the name of India’s first sacred scriptures, according to tradition?
- A member of India’s priestly caste What is the significance of Siddhartha Gautama in world history?
- According to Buddhism, which of the following is the most important teaching?
- Women in early Buddhism were characterized by which of the following statements?
- A spiritually accomplished individual who chooses to postpone entering nirvana in order to assist others is referred to as a sage.
- A new type of popular Hinduism emerged that was more appealing to the general public.
It was the worship and connection with a certain deity or goddess that was the point.
In which classical religion did many Jewish notions originate, including the belief in a war between God and Satan, a final judgment, and the ultimate appearance of a savior?
Is there a term for the Greek philosophical idea that the universe is composed of physical reality regulated by natural rules that people can comprehend?
Which Greek rationalist philosopher maintained that underneath the chaos and complexity of the visible world was a basic, unchangeable mathematical order that could not be changed?
Both of them emphasized the importance of compassion in their followers’ lives.
As the cult grew in popularity, its leadership became virtually entirely composed of men.
Emperor Constantine turned to Christianity and established Christianity as a legal religion. Which of the following assertions concerning the Christian world about the year 500 C.E. is correct? It was theologically eclectic and fractured, to say the least.
New book looks at parallel sayings of Jesus, Buddha
CORVALLIS, Ore. – The city of Corvallis is home to the Oregon State University. “It is easier to notice the mistakes of others than it is to see one’s own,” stated the Buddhist scholar Siddhartha Gautama, better known as Buddha, at one point. The following remarks were stated by Jesus some 500 years later: “Why do you see a splinter in someone else’s eye but fail to perceive the log in your own?” Coincidence? Perhaps. According to the editors of a new book produced by an Oregon State University professor, there are a surprisingly large number of parallels in the sayings ascribed to two of the world’s most famous religious figures.
This collection of essays and sayings was not intended to make a scholarly case for Jesus having been familiar with Buddhist teachings or for cultural borrowing from Buddhism into Christianity, according to Marcus Borg, the Hundere Professor of Religion and Culture at Oregon State University and the book’s editor.
- These quotations serve to highlight one another.” It is an intriguing point raised by the book: how could Jesus, who lived 500 years after Buddha and 3,000 miles apart, embody teachings that were so similar in essence to those of his predecessor?
- Yet some speculate that Jesus may have traveled to India during his “lost years,” a period between his adolescence and early twenties during which there was little evidence about his life.
- In the Bo tree, following a six-year religious search, the Buddha experienced enlightenment; in the desert, Jesus encountered his spiritual tutor, John the Baptist; and in the wilderness, Jesus encountered his spiritual mentor, John the Baptist.
- And by the communities that formed up around them, they were elevated to a divine, if not divine, position as well.
- Among these are:
- Buddha’s teachings are as follows: “The avaricious will not enter the kingdom of heaven, and the stupid will not praise the virtues of charity. The intelligent person, on the other hand, rejoices in generosity and is consequently joyful in the hereafter.” (Dhammapada 13.11
- Dhammapada 13.12)
- ‘If you want to be perfect, go, sell your things, and give the money to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven,’ says Jesus. (Matthew 19.21
- Luke 19.21
- “Consider others in the same way that you consider yourself.” (Dhammapada 10.1
- Dhammapada 10.1)
- “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you,” Jesus said. (Luke 6.31
- “Consider others in the same way that you consider yourself.” says Buddha. (10th chapter of the Dhammapada). When it comes to treating others, Jesus says, “Do unto others as you would have them treat you.” (Luke 6.31
- Matthew 6.31).
- According to the Buddha, “If anybody should strike you with his or her hand, with a stick, or with a knife, you should forsake all desires and say nothing bad.” When someone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other cheek as well. (Majjhima Nikaya 21.6)
- Jesus: “If someone slaps you on the cheek, offer the other likewise.” (Luke 6.29
- Buddha’s teachings are as follows: “For six years, the Bodhisattva did austerities, and during that time, the demon trailed after him, looking for an opportunity to attack him. However, he was unable to find any opportunities and returned home dejected and dissatisfied.” According to Jesus, “When the devil had performed every test, he withdrew from him until an appropriate moment.” (Lalitavistara Sutra 18) (Luke 4.13
Over 100 examples of similarities between the teachings of Jesus and Buddha are provided in “The Parallel Sayings,” which includes quotes on topics as diverse as compassion, wisdom (including materialism), inner life (including temptation), salvation (including the future), miracles (including healing), disciples (including healing), attributes (including compassion), and life stories (including life stories of the Buddha).
According to Borg, there were significant contrasts between Jesus and Buddha, and not only in terms of their respective origins, languages, or images.
“Many Jesus scholars believe that, in addition to being a wisdom teacher and a healer, Jesus was also a social prophet who influenced his day.
‘Jesus’ work as a social prophet – as a religious voice of social protest – is the most plausible explanation for the fact that his public engagement was so brief when compared to that of the Buddha,’ Borg continued.
Jesus’ early death was most likely brought on by his social and political activism.” If he had merely been a knowledge teacher and healer, I doubt that he would have been put to death in such a manner.” Author Jack Kornfield, who has written numerous best-selling books on Buddhism, contributed an introduction to “The Parallel Sayings” in which he described his perspective on Jesus and Buddha.
When we reached the far end of the island, the monks led us to the top of a hill, where there stood an immense 50-foot tall statue of a standing Buddha, according to Kornfield’s account.
They were holding hands and smiled as they wrapped their arms over one other’s shoulders.
At that moment, when helicopter gunships soared overhead and the battle raged all around us, Buddha and Jesus stood together as brothers, proclaiming compassion and healing for everyone who would follow their path.”
Buddha vs Christ
Buddha (Siddhrtha Gautama) argued that he was a mere mortal and that there is no all-powerful, all-benevolent deity. According to his teachings, desire was the primary cause of all human misery, and that individuals should strive to eradicate their desire. He was born around 500 years before the birth of Jesus Christ in what is now Nepal (Jesus of Nazareth). Christ was born in the city of Bethlehem, which is now part of modern-day Palestine. He was a Galilean Jewish Rabbi who was well recognized as a teacher and healer in Judaea, where he lived during the time of Jesus.
In truth, the Christian notion of God is based on a holy trinity: God (the Father), Christ (the Son), and the Holy Spirit (the Holy Spirit).
|c. 483 BCE (aged 80) or 411 and 400 BCE, Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, today in India
|33 AD, Jerusalem
|c. 563 BCE, Lumbini, Sakya, Nepal
|Approx. 07-04 B.C.
|Islam does not mention the Buddha.
|In Islam as opposed Christianity, Jesus was just a prophet but also revered as the messiah who will return to save the world from the tyranny of the anti-christ.
|Before he renounced his family, he was married to Yasodhara and had a son Rahula.
|Christ Is Married to His Church
|Buddhism believes in in reincarnation until one achieves enlightenment and “nibbana” (or “nirvana”) after which one escapes the cycle of birth and death. The Buddha is believed to have attained nibbana.
|Affirmed in Christianity
|Judaism predates Buddhism and does not discuss the Buddha.
|Not accepted as a prophet, the Jewish people are still waiting for a Messiah to come.
|Christianity does not mention the Buddha.
|Christianity teaches that Jesus is the Son of God, and Saviour the world. Jesus was the founder of Christianity.
|King Suddhodana and Queen Maya.
|Father: God, Mother: Mary
|Nazareth in ancient Israel
|Bethlehem in Judea
|The Virgin Mary
|Cause of death
|Believed to be either unintentional food poisoning or natural causes.
|God the Father according to Christianity
|Many Hindus believe that the Buddha was a reincarnation of Vishnu, just like Krishna.
|Buddhismteaches Gautama was the Enlightened One. He attained enlightenment through meditation, without the benefit of a teacher or teachings. His teachings are meant to enlighten his followers.
|Affirmed in Christianity
|The Buddha encouraged people to follow his teachings: the noble eightfold path. He did not teach about deities, an omnipotent God or prayer. Rather, he encouraged finding the truth yourself through meditation.
|God Is Father, Son(Jesus) and Holy Spirit
|The Cross, because of His Passion and Death
Videos comparing Buddha and Christ
These two religious traditions are compared and contrasted in this movie. The film also draws similarities and differences between the two religions.
Similarities in teachings
Marcus Borg, a Christian scholar, discovered significant parallels between the teachings of Buddha and those of Jesus.
In this video, a Buddhist compares and contrasts Christian and Buddhist views via the telling of two parables about dying.
Books and Novelties
On Amazon.com, you may find various excellent books on Buddhism, including:
Please spread the word about this comparison: If you’ve made it this far, we recommend that you read “Buddha versus Christ.” Diffen.com. Diffen LLC, n.d. [Internet]. 23 February 2022.
Buddhism vs Christianity
Buddha — the enlightened one, or one who is awake — is the central figure in Buddhist teachings, while Jesus Christ is the central figure in Christianity’s teachings. Buddhism is centered on the life and teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who became known as the Buddha — the enlightened one, or one who is awake. Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy, which means that it does not believe in an ultimate creative entity, often known as God, as its source of inspiration. Religions such as Christianity are monotheistic in nature, and they believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.
Christianity is an outgrowth of Judaism and an Abrahamic religion, as opposed to other Abrahamic religions.
|Meditation, the Eightfold Path; right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration
|Prayer, sacraments (some branches), worship in church, reading of the Bible, acts of charity, communion.
|Use of statues and pictures
|Common. Statues are used as meditation objects, and revered as they reflect the qualities of the Buddha.
|In CatholicOrthodox Churches.
|Belief of God
|The idea of an omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent creator is rejected by Buddhists. The Buddha himself refuted the theistic argument that the universe was created by a self-conscious, personal God.
|One God: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The Trinity.
|Life after death
|Rebirth is one of the central beliefs of Buddhism. We are in an endless cycle of birth, death and re-birth, which can only be broken by attaining nirvana. Attaining nirvana is the only way to escape suffering permanently.
|Eternity in Heaven or Hell, in some cases temporal Purgatory.
|Place of origin
|Roman province of Judea.
|Buddhistsare those who follow the teachings of the Buddha.
|Follower Of Christ.
|The Buddha (born as Prince Siddhartha)
|The Lord Jesus Christ.
|View of the Buddha
|The highest teacher and the founder of Buddhism, the all-transcending sage.
|The Buddhist Sangha, composed of bhikkhus (male monks) and bhikkhunis (female nuns). The sangha is supported by lay Buddhists.
|Priests, bishops, ministers, monks, and nuns.
|Ignorance, as all sentient beings. In the Buddhist texts, it is seen that when Gautama, after his awakening, was asked whether he was a normal human being, he replied, “No”.
|Man has inherited “original sin” from Adam. Mankind then is inherently evil and is in need of forgiveness of sin. By knowing right and wrong Christians choose their actions. Humans are a fallen, broken race in need of salvation and repair by God.
|Christian (followers of Christ)
|Tripitaka – a vast canon composed of 3 sections: the Discourses, the Discipline and the Commentaries, and some early scriptures, such as the Gandhara texts.
|The Holy Bible
|Holy days/Official Holidays
|Vesak day in which the birth, the awakening, and the parinirvana of the Buddha is celebrated.
|The Lord’s Day; Advent, Christmas; New Year, Lent, Easter, Pentecost,every dayis dedicated to a Saint.
|Pali(Theravada tradition) and Sanskrit(Mahayana and Vajrayana tradition)
|Aramaic, Greek, and Latin.
|View of other Dharmic religions
|Since the word Dharma means doctrine, law, way, teaching, or discipline, other Dharmas are rejected.
|It is not a religious duty to marry. Monks and nuns do not marry and are celibate. Advice in the Discourses on how to maintain a happy and harmonious marriage.
|A Holy Sacrament.
|Goal of Philosophy
|To eliminate mental suffering.
|Objective reality. Worship of God who created life, the universe, and is eternal. Christianity has its own philosophy, found in the Bible. That philosophy is Salvation from sin, through the Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ.
|Place of worship
|Buddhist monasteries, temples, shrines.
|Church, chapel, cathedral, basilica, home bible study, personal dwellings.
|Geographical distribution and predominance
|(Majority or strong influence) Mainly in Thailand, Cambodia, Sri lanka, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, Japan, Myanmar (Burma), Laos, Vietnam, China, Mongolia, Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Other small minorities exist in other countries.
|As the largest religion in the world, Christianity has adherents are all over the world. As a % of local population, Christians are in a majority in Europe, North and South America, and Australia and New Zealand.
|Means of salvation
|Reaching Enlightenment or Nirvana, following the Noble Eightfold Path.
|Through Christ’s Passion, Death, and Resurrection.
|Religion which atheists may still be adherents of
|Sin is not a Buddhist concept.
|Protestants confess straight to God, Catholic confess mortal sins to a Priest, and venial sins straight to God (Orthodox have similar practice) Anglicans confess to Priests but considered optional. God always forgives sins in Jesus.
|Goal of religion
|To attain enlightenment and be released from the cycle of rebirth and death, thus attaining Nirvana.
|To love God and obey his commandments while creating a relationship with Jesus Christ and spreading the Gospel so that others may also be saved.
|Authority of Dalai Lama
|Dalai Lamas are tulkus of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. They are cultural figures and are independent of the doctrinal basis of Buddhism.
|Over two billion adherents worldwide.
|Varies among denominations. Has existed amongCatholicsin the form of canon law.
|The conch, endless knot, fish, lotus, parasol, vase, dharmachakra (Wheel of Dharma), and victory banner.
|Cross, ichthys (“Jesus fish”), Mary and baby Jesus.
|Place and Time of origin
|The origin of Buddhism points to one man, Siddhartha Gautama, the historical Buddha, who was born in Lumbini (in present-day Nepal). He became enlightened at Bodhgaya, India and delivered his first set of teachings at a deer park in Sarnath, India.
|Jerusalem, approx. 33 AD.
|Status of Vedas
|The Buddha rejected the 5 Vedas, according to the dialogues seen in the nikayas.
This movie compares and contrasts the ideas of Christians and Buddhists, as well as drawing connections between the two religions, in order to better understand both.
Similarities in teachings
Marcus Borg, a Christian scholar, discovered significant parallels between the teachings of Buddha and those of Jesus.
This article in the New York Times by Jay L. Garfield, who is the Kwan Im Thong Hood Cho Temple Professor of Humanities at Yale-NUS College in Singapore and the author of the book Engaging Buddhism: Why Buddhism Matters to Contemporary Philosophy, describes how Buddhist philosophy is concerned with questions that are different from those that are concerned with questions that are concerned with Abrahamic religions such as Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
- First and foremost, because Buddhism is an atheistic religion, it does not pose the kinds of concerns about the existence of God that predominate in Abrahamic religions’ philosophical discussions, much alone inquiries about the qualities of the god.
- How difficult is it to reach your goals?
- Is a Buddha conscious of her surroundings, or do they fade away as if they were illusory?
- Is there a difference or are they the same?
- They are concerned with hermeneutical concerns regarding the intent of seemingly contradicting canonical passages, as well as with how to reconcile these issues.
That sort of thing. If they are considered to be some of the most fundamental problems in religious philosophy, the picture becomes very different. In this video, a Buddhist compares and contrasts Christian and Buddhist views via the telling of two parables about dying.
For further reading, there are a number of books on Buddhism and Christianity available on Amazon.com, including:
Please spread the word about this comparison: If you’ve made it this far, we recommend that you read “Buddhism against Christianity.” Diffen.com. Diffen LLC, n.d. [Internet]. 19 February 2022.
Buddhism is one of the world’s main faiths and is practiced in over 100 countries. This religion began in India, about 563-483 B.C.E., with Siddhartha Gautama, and expanded throughout Asia and into the rest of the globe over several millennia after that. Tibetan Buddhists believe that human existence is a never-ending cycle of suffering and reincarnation, but that if one attains the ultimate level of enlightenment (nirvana), it is possible to break free from this circle once and for all. Siddhartha Gautama was the first person to achieve this condition of enlightenment, and he was and continues to be recognized as the Buddha throughout history.
- Siddhartha Gautama was an Indian prince who lived in the fifth century B.C.E.
- He sacrificed his money and spent time as a penniless beggar, meditating and traveling, but he remained dissatisfied and eventually settled on something referred to as “the Middle Way” to find happiness.
- Eventually, while in a profound state of meditation, he attained enlightenment, also known as ornirvana, beneath the Bodhi tree (the tree of awakening).
- The Buddha taught about the Four Noble Truths, which are as follows: The first truth is referred to as “Pain (dukkha),” and it teaches that everyone experiences some level of suffering throughout their lives.
- The third truth is “Cessation of suffering (nirodha),” and it asserts that it is possible to gain enlightenment while still experiencing discomfort.
- Among Buddhists, they believe that souls are born again into new bodies based on how they conducted themselves in their past lifetimes, which is represented by a wheel of reincarnation.
- Mahayana Buddhism and Theravada Buddhism are the two primary branches of Buddhism, and they are distinct from one another.
It underlines the importance of bodhisattvas as role models (beings that have achieved enlightenment but return to teach humans).
It emphasizes the importance of a monastic lifestyle and meditation as a means of attaining enlightenment.
The Dalai Lama, the head of the Tibetan school of Buddhism and traditional leader of Tibet, escaped from China-controlled Tibet to India in 1959, fearing for his life.
Several issues have been raised recently by the current Dalai Lama, who is believed to be the fourteenth reincarnation of the first Dalai Lama, about whether and where he would choose to reincarnate in the future.
In Buddhism, the use of incense and meditation are extremely essential.
Asceticism rigorous self-denial as a measure of personal and especially spiritual discipline is defined as follows: karma Nounspiritual idea linked mostly with Hinduism and Buddhism, according to which an individual’s intentions and deeds have an impact on his or her destiny.
NounThe place of housing and worship for a religious group of adherents, commonly referred to as monks.
pilgrimage Traveling to a sacred location is an example of a noun spiritual trip. reincarnation Nounrebirth in new bodies or forms of lifereligionNouna system of spiritual or supernatural belief religionNouna system of spiritual or supernatural belief
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Buddhism is a religion that originated in India more than 2,500 years ago, when Siddhartha Gautama (“the Buddha”) established it. Buddhism is considered to be one of the major world religions, with around 470 million adherents, according to experts. Its practice has traditionally been most prevalent in East and Southeast Asia, but its impact is beginning to spread to the Western world. Many Buddhist beliefs and philosophies are similar to or overlap with those of other religious traditions.
Some fundamental Buddhist beliefs are as follows:
- Buddhists do not believe in a supreme god or deity and do not worship them. Instead, they concentrate on obtaining enlightenment, which is a condition of inner calm and insight. When followers reach this level of spiritual attainment, they are believed to have reached nirvana. Buddha, the religion’s founder, is regarded as a remarkable individual, but not as a deity in the traditional sense. The term Buddha literally translates as “enlightened.” The route to enlightenment is paved with morality, meditation, and wisdom, all of which are employed. Buddhists frequently meditate because they think it aids in the awakening of truth. Buddhism encompasses a wide range of philosophical perspectives and interpretations, making it a tolerant and developing religion. Others argue that Buddhism is not a religion in the traditional sense, but rather a “style of life” or a “spiritual tradition.” Buddhism teaches its adherents to refrain from self-indulgence while simultaneously refraining from self-denial. The Four Noble Truths, which are considered to be Buddha’s most fundamental teachings, are vital to comprehending the Buddhism. Among Buddhist principles are karma (the rule of cause and effect) and reincarnation (the concept of a never-ending cycle of birth and rebirth). Buddhist adherents can worship at temples or in the privacy of their own homes. Buddhist monks, known as bhikkhus, adhere to a stringent code of behavior that includes the practice of celibacy. No one Buddhist symbol exists, but a number of symbols have developed over time to reflect Buddhist teachings, including the lotus flower, the eight-spoked dharma wheel, the Bodhi tree, and theswastika (an ancient sign whose name means “well-being” or “good fortune” in Sanskrit).
A gold Buddha image at the Longhua Temple, which was founded in 242 AD and is located in the south of Shanghai. Images courtesy of In Pictures Ltd./Corbis/Getty Images
Founder of Buddhism
a gold Buddha image at the Longhua Temple, which was founded in 242 AD and is located in the south-western part of Shanghai Corbis/Getty Images courtesy of In Pictures Ltd.
When Gautama died in 483 B.C., his disciples immediately began to create a religious organization in his honor. The teachings of Buddha served as the foundation for the development of what would become known as Buddhism. Ashoka the Great, the Mauryan Indian monarch who reigned during the 3rd century B.C., established Buddhism as the official religion of India. Construction of Buddhist monasteries was encouraged, as was the spread of missionary activities. Over the next few centuries, Buddhism began to expand beyond the borders of Indian subcontinent.
The Huns invaded India in the sixth century and destroyed hundreds of Buddhist temples, but the intruders were finally pushed out of the country by the local population. During the Middle Ages, Islam began to expand rapidly throughout the region, pushing Buddhism to the back of the queue.
Types of Buddhism
There are many different types of Buddhism practiced now all throughout the world. A brief description of the three basic categories that reflect distinct geographical locations is as follows:
- Theravada Buddhism is widely practiced in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, and Burma, among other places. Mahayana Buddhism is found in China, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, and Vietnam, among other places. Tibetan Buddhism is practiced in Tibet, Nepal, Mongolia, Bhutan, and sections of Russia and northern India
- It is also practiced in other regions of the world.
Each of these types holds particular scriptures in high regard and has a somewhat different view of Buddha’s teachings than the other types. Buddhism is divided into various subsects, the most notable of which being Zen Buddhism and Nirvana Buddhism. Some versions of Buddhism, such as Taoism and Bon, assimilate concepts from other faiths and philosophies into their own.
The teachings of Buddha are referred to as “dharma.” Wisdom, kindness, patience, generosity, and compassion were among the values he emphasized in his teachings. To be more specific, all Buddhists adhere to five moral precepts, which forbid the following:
- Killing living beings
- Taking what has not been given to you
- Stealing Sexual misbehavior, lying, and the use of drugs or alcohol are prohibited.
Four Noble Truths
The Four Noble Truths, as taught by Buddha, are as follows:
- The reality of suffering (dukkha)
- The truth of the source of suffering (samudaya)
- And the truth of the way out of suffering (samudaya). It is the reality of the cessation of pain (nirhodha) that we seek. The road that leads to liberation from suffering (magga)
- The truth about ourselves and our circumstances.
These concepts, taken together, explain why humans suffer and how to overcome their difficulties.
The Buddha taught his disciples that the cessation of suffering, as expressed in the fourth Noble Truth, might be attained by following the Eightfold Path, which they could learn from him. The Eightfold Path of Buddhism emphasizes the following goals for ethical conduct, mental discipleship, and acquiring knowledge, which are not listed in any particular order:
- By pursuing an Eightfold Path, the Buddha taught his disciples that they may bring an end to their suffering, which is described in the fourth Noble Truth. There is no specific order to the Buddhist goals for ethical conduct, mental discipleship, and acquiring knowledge, which are taught via the Eightfold Path in no particular sequence:
Buddhist Holy Book
Buddhists hold several sacred writings and scriptures in high regard. Some of the most significant are as follows:
- Tuppalaka: These texts, collectively known as the “three baskets,” are considered to be the oldest collection of Buddhist works. A total of more than 2,000 sutras, which are sacred teachings primarily adhered to by Mahayana Buddhists, have been written. The Book of the Dead: This Tibetan literature discusses in great detail the phases of death.
His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and exiled spiritual leader of Tibet, in 2001. Photograph courtesy of David McNew/Getty Images The Dalai Lama is considered to be the most important monk in Tibetan Buddhism. Followers of the faith believe that the Dalai Lama is a reincarnation of a previous lama who has consented to be born again in order to aid mankind in its efforts to eradicate poverty. Through history, there have been a total of 14 Dalai Lamas. The Dalai Lama was also the ruler of Tibet from 1959 until the Chinese seized control of the country.
Buddhists remember Buddha’s birth, enlightenment, and death on the occasion of Vesak, a festival that takes place once a year. Uposatha is a Buddhist ceremony that takes place during each quarter of the moon. It is performed by adherents of Buddhism. Buddhists can reaffirm their dedication to their teachings by participating in this celebration. They also celebrate the Buddhist New Year and take part in a number of other events throughout the year.
Buddhists remember Buddha’s birth, enlightenment, and death on the occasion of Vesak, a holiday held once a year. Uposatha is a Buddhist ceremony that takes place throughout each quarter of the moon.
It is attended by adherents of the religion. Buddhists can reaffirm their dedication to their teachings by participating in this observance each year. The Buddhist New Year is also celebrated, and they take part in a number of other regular festivals and celebrations.
BBC – Religions – Buddhism: Theravada Buddhism
Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Burma are among the countries where Theravada Buddhism is most prevalent (Myanmar). It is referred to as ‘Southern Buddhism’ at times. The term literally translates as ‘the teaching of the elders,’ with the elders referring to the most senior Buddhist monks. This school of Buddhism holds the belief that it has remained the most faithful to the original teachings of the Buddha over the centuries. Nonetheless, it does not over-emphasize the importance of these teachings in a fundamentalist manner; rather, they are seen as instruments to assist individuals in seeing the truth, rather than as having significance in and of themselves.
- The Supernatural: A wide range of religious traditions provide supernatural solutions to the spiritual challenges that humans face. Buddhism, on the other hand, does not. The fundamental principle of all varieties of Buddhism is that awakening (or enlightenment) is achieved via meditation rather than by the use of external abilities.
- Natural powers are not ignored, but they are considered incidental, and the Buddha advised against using them as fetters on the road of liberation.
- The Buddha: Siddhartha Gautama was a man who attained the status of Buddha, the Awakened One, in a manner similar to how Jesus attained the status of Christ. Because of his death, the only way to communicate with him now is via his teachings, which point to the awakened state
- God: There is no almighty creator God of the kind found in Judaism and Christianity, nor is there an omnipotent creator God found in Islam and Buddhism. All spiritual beings, including gods, exist in diverse forms but have limited abilities
- The Path to Enlightenment: Each individual must forge their own path to enlightenment without the assistance of God or gods. The Buddha’s teachings point the path, but it is up to us to take the trip to get there.
Awakened One (Buddha): Siddhartha Gautama was a man who transformed into Buddha, the Awakened One, in a manner similar to how Christ transformed into Jesus. He has not been in communication with anybody since his death, and the only way to communicate with him is via his teachings, which point to the awakened state; God: There is no powerful creator God, such as those found in Judaism, Islam, and Christianity; and All spiritual beings, including gods, exist in diverse forms but have limited abilities; The Path to Enlightenment: Each individual must forge their own path to enlightenment without the assistance of God or gods; Despite the fact that Buddha’s teachings point the path, it is up to us to take the journey.
The majority of Theravada monks are members of monastic groups. Some members are as young as seven years old, although anybody may join at any age. A novice is referred to as asamanera, while a complete monk is referred to as abikkhu. Thesangha is the collective term for the monastic community as a whole. Monks (and nuns) go through the training of the monastic order (the Vinaya), which is comprised of 227 rules that must be followed (more for nuns). There are five regulations or precepts that must be followed by everyone who wishes to follow a Buddhist way of life, and they are listed here.
- In most Theravada monastic organizations, monks live with their fellow monks. It is possible to join at any age, with some people as young as seven. It is referred as asamanera, while abikkhu is used to refer to complete monk. Thesangha refers to the whole monastic community as a whole. When monks and nuns enter the monastic order (the Vinaya), they are subjected to 227 rules that must be followed by them throughout their lives (more for nuns). All persons attempting to follow a Buddhist way of life must adhere to five principles or precepts, which are referred to as dharma. They are required to follow the guideline of training in order to:
The fact that Theravadan monks and nuns are not authorized to eat after midday or handle money is particularly interesting.
Meditation is impossible for someone who does not possess intelligence. Wisdom is difficult for someone who does not meditate on a regular basis. A person who meditates as well as possesses insight is said to be close to nibbana. There are two types of meditation in the Theravada tradition.
- Samatha is a calming meditation technique
- Vipassana is an insight meditation technique.
Buddhist meditation does not differ from other forms of meditation in that it is the first kind of meditation. In order to soothe the mind and transport the user to higher jhanic states, it is employed. (Although jhanic states are difficult to express in simple terms, the term “states of consciousness” is perhaps the closest clearly accessible term.) The effects of Samatha meditation are very transient in their nature.
This type of meditation is designed to gain insight into the actual essence of things. It is also known as insight meditation. Due to the fact that humans are accustomed to perceiving things skewed by their beliefs, views, and previous experiences; obtaining this is extremely tough.
A full transformation of our perception and understanding of the universe is the goal of Vipassana, as opposed to the transient alterations brought about by Samatha, which are intended to be permanent.
Lay people and monks
The code of conduct for lay persons is far less stringent than the code of conduct for monks. They adhere to the five fundamental Buddhist principles, which have already been discussed above.
A strong relationship
In Theravada Buddhism, there is a profound bond between monks and lay people that cannot be broken. This style of Buddhism would not have been able to exist in its current form without the contact between the two cultures. It is a system of reciprocal assistance in which ordinary people provide food, medicine, and cloth for robes, and monks provide spiritual support, blessings, and lessons. However, this is not a case of tit for tat competition. There are no restrictions on monks requesting anything from lay people, and there are no restrictions on lay people requesting anything from monks.
The system works effectively and is so well-established in most Theravadan nations that monks are typically well-provided for, regardless of whether or not the local people are wealthy or impoverished at the time.
Ceremonies and commemoration days
In addition to the various rituals and remembrance days that lay people observe, such as Wesak, which commemorates the Buddha’s birth, enlightenment, and parinibbana (passing away), everyone congregates at the local temples to commemorate these events.
Often, monasteries provide accommodations for lay persons who wish to spend time in retreat. Most of the time, the accommodations are rudimentary, and one must adhere to the Eight Precepts (to abstain from killing, stealing, engaging in sexual activity, unskilful speech, taking intoxicating drink or drugs, eating after midday, wearing adornments, seeking entertainments, and sleeping in soft, luxurious beds).
After a Buddhist council convened in Patna, India, in the 3rd century BCE, the core teachings were finally compiled into their present-day final form. During the first century CE, the teachings of the Buddha were written down in Sri Lanka. They were composed in Pali (a language related to Sanskrit), and they are collectively referred to as the Pali canon. It’s referred to as the Tipitaka, which means “three baskets.” The three portions are as follows:
- Buddhist monks and nuns adhere to these guidelines, which they repeat twice a month in order to keep them in mind.
- This book encompasses the entirety of Buddhist philosophy and ethics in one volume. Also contains the Dhammapada, which embodies the substance of Buddha’s teaching
- And it includes the Mahabharata.
- It is called the Abhidamma Pitaka (additional philosophical and religious teaching)
- Since they were first written down, the texts have remained essentially unchanged. Buddhist monks of the Theravada school believe it is vital to memorize chunks of these scriptures from memory
- Nevertheless, this is not the case.
Even though these books are often regarded as authoritative, non-Buddhists should be aware that they do not contain heavenly insights or absolute truths that followers must embrace as a matter of faith in order to be considered sacred. They are tools that the person attempts to use to their particular situation in order to be successful.
Known as the Buddha (c. 563 – 483 BCE), Siddhartha Gautama was a Hinduprince who, according to legend, renounced his position and wealth in order to seek enlightenment as a spiritual ascetic. After attaining enlightenment, Siddhartha Gautama spread the teachings of the Buddha to the rest of the world, establishing Buddhism in India in the 6th-5th centuries BCE. Although the circumstances of his life are mostly mythical, he is widely regarded as a real historical figure and a younger contemporary ofMahavira (also known asVardhamana, c.
The Buddha’s birth was predicted by a prophesy, according to Buddhist literature, and Siddhartha was destined to be either a strong monarch or a renowned spiritual leader.
He managed to sneak past his father’s defenses one day (or over the course of a few) and witnessed what Buddhists refer to as the Four Signs of the Buddha:
- Old age, sickness, death, and religious asceticism are all examples of those who have passed away.
He recognized that he, too, might become ill, could grow old, could die, and that he would lose all he had worked so hard to achieve and enjoy. He realized that the life he was living ensured that he would suffer, and that, furthermore, that suffering from desire or loss was the essence of all of existence. As a result, he followed the example of the devout austere, tried several instructors and practices, and eventually gained enlightenment via his own efforts, earning the title of Buddha (“awakened” or “enlightened” one).
After his death, his pupils continued to maintain and improve his teachings until they were disseminated throughout the world by the Mauryan kingAshoka the Great, who ruled from India (r.
Buddhism has flourished since the time of Ashokaon and is now considered to be one of the world’s main faiths, ranking with Christianity and Islam.
During a period of social and theological transition, during which a number of philosophers began to call into doubt the authority of the Vedas, Siddhartha was born. While growing up in Lumbini (modern-day Nepal), Siddhartha was witness to a period of profound social and religious transition. Despite the fact that Hinduism (Sanatan Dharma, “Eternal Order”) was the main religion in India at the time, a number of philosophers of the time had begun to call into question the legitimacy of Hinduism, the authority of the Vedas (the Hindu scriptures), as well as the practices of the priests.
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But because these texts were written in Sanskrit, a language that the people could not comprehend, the priests interpreted them in order to encourage acceptance of one’s station in life – no matter how tough or destitute – while they themselves continued to live comfortably from their temples.
- As stated by Hinduism, there was an ultimate entity, known as Brahman, who not only created the cosmos, but who was also the universe.
- Brahman was also the source of all knowledge.
- Also recognized was that the soul will incarnate in physical bodies on a cyclical basis until it reached emancipation from the cycle of reincarnations.
- However, when new ideas began to emerge, more people began to doubt if that order was divine at all, given that it seemed to provide nothing but unending rounds of pain.
- Koller, a scholar, has the following to say: From a religious standpoint, new expressions of faith and practice were a threat to the old Vedic religion.
- Due to the belief that death was a never-ending cycle of deaths and rebirths, fear of death was particularly severe.
- (46) As a result of this requirement, a plethora of schools of thought formed at the same time.
Charvaka, Jainism, and Buddhism were among the nastika schools that persisted and flourished throughout this time period.
Siddhartha Gautama grew up during this period of transition and reform, but, according to the famous Buddhist legend about his youth, he would have been completely unaware of anything that was going on around him. The prophets predicted that he would either rise to great power or serve as a spiritual leader, and his father, wishing for the former, shielded his son from anything that might be distressing at the time of his birth. Despite the fact that Siddhartha’s mother passed away less than a week after his birth, he was completely unaware of it, and his father did not wish for him to have any other experiences that might lead him down a spiritual path as he grew.
If he saw the aged man, sick man, dead man, and ascetic all at the same time on a single ride in his carriage (or chariot, depending on the version), or over the course of four days, the story tells how, after seeing each of the first three, he inquired of his driver: “Am I also a victim of this?” When he asked about how everyone aged, his coachman replied that everyone was susceptible to illness, and that everyone died.
Siddhartha realized that everyone he cared about, every fine object, all of his grand clothes, his horses, and his jewels would one day be taken away from him – and that they could be taken away from him at any time on any day – because he was subject to the same forces of age, illness, and death that everyone else was subject to.
When asked about his path of spiritual reflection and detachment, the ascetic explained that he recognized the world and its trappings as illusion and that he was therefore unconcerned about losing anything because he had already given everything away.
While he knew he would eventually lose his life and suffer for it, the thought of accepting a life he knew he would eventually lose his life and suffer for it was unbearable.
His disappearance is depicted in some versions of the story as the result of supernatural intervention, while in others, he simply disappears.
Criticism of the Four Signs Tale
The criticism that Siddhartha could not possible have gone 29 years without growing sick, encountering an elderly person, or becoming aware of mortality is frequently raised in opposition to this account, however academics have responded in two ways:
- The tale is a representation of the factors that create and alleviate pain
- The story is an artificial construct designed to give Buddhism a famous history
- And the story is a representation of the conditions that cause and alleviate suffering.
Koller responds to the first issue, writing: “It is more likely than not that the tale of the four signs is true in a symbolic rather than literal sense.” In the first instance, they may represent existential crises in Siddhartha’s life that were triggered by encounters with illness, old age, death, and renunciation, among other things. More importantly, these four signs represent his coming to a deep and profound understanding of the true reality of sickness, old age, death, and contentment, as well as his conviction that peace and contentment are possible in spite of the fact that everyone experiences old age, sickness, and death at some point in his or her lifetime.
- Jan van der Crabben is a Dutch painter who lives in the Netherlands.
- Buswell, Jr.
- Lopez, Jr.
- It doesn’t really matter whether or not the narrative is factual; what does important is that it has come to be recognized as fact.
- 3rd century CE), and it is possible that it underwent substantial alteration through oral tradition prior to then.
The famed instructor Arada Kalama was initially sought out by Siddhartha, with whom he studied until he had mastered all Kamala knew. However, the “attainment of emptiness” that Siddhartha achieved did little to alleviate his suffering. He subsequently became a pupil of the teacher Udraka Ramaputra, who taught him how to suppress his wants and achieve a condition that was “neither aware nor unconscious.” However, this did not please him since it did not solve the subject of suffering, which was a major concern for him.
- At this point, according to one version of his narrative, he wanders into a river, where he is barely able to keep his head above water, and gets instruction from a voice on the wind.
- He is revived by the milk, and he decides to abandon his asceticism and travel to the adjacent hamlet of BodhGaya, where he settles himself on a bed of grass beneath a Bodhi tree and pledges to live there until he discovers the method of living without experiencing sorrow.
- In his contemplation of the essence of suffering, he fully grasped that its strength sprang from attachment.
- There was a perpetual state of change in everything a person was, everything they believed they possessed, and everything they wished to obtain.
His enlightenment was complete, and Siddhartha Gautama was now known as the Buddha, the enlightened one, or the enlightened one.
Even though he was now free to spend his life as he liked, he decided to teach others the way of emancipation from ignorance and want in order to aid them in putting an end to their suffering instead. He delivered his first sermon in Sarnath’s Deer Park, in which he introduced his audience to the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, which he had developed. The Noble Truths are as follows:
- Life is a source of sorrow
- Craving is the root cause of all pain. The cessation of pain coincides with the cessation of yearning. One can choose a road that will take them away from their cravings and misery.
The fourth truth points one in the direction of the Eightfold Path, which serves as a guide to living one’s life without the kinds of attachments that cause suffering:
- Having the right perspective, having the right intention, having the right speech, having the right action, having the right livelihood, having the right effort, having the right mindfulness, having the right concentration
Recognition of the Four Noble Truths, as well as following the precepts of the Eightfold Path result in the release from the Wheel of Becoming, which is a metaphorical representation of the nature of life. There are three things at the center of the wheel: ignorance, craving, and aversion, and these things are what propel it. There are six different states of life between the hub and the rim of the wheel: human, animal, ghosts, demons, deities, and hell-beings, to name a few. The circumstances that produce suffering are shown along the rim of the wheel, including body-mind, consciousness, sensation, hunger, and grasping, among many others, which bind one to the wheel and cause one to suffer are depicted along the rim of the wheel.
After accepting the Four Noble Truths and following the Eightfold Path, one will still suffer loss, experience pain and disappointment, but these feelings will not be as intense as those associated with duhkha, which is defined as “unending suffering” and is fueled by the soul’s ignorance of the nature of life and of itself.
This insight is compared to the conclusion of a dinner party by Buddhists.
In the same way that a dinner party does not have a permanent state, neither does everything else in life, the essence of the dinner party is that it has a beginning and an end.
Because it is wholly founded on the notion of indisputable repercussions for one’s thoughts, which construct one’s world and control one’s actions, Buddha named his teaching theDharma, which in this context means “cosmiclaw” (as opposed to “duty” as in Hinduism), he dubbed it “cosmiclaw.” According to the Buddhist textDhammapada, our lives are fashioned by our thoughts; we become what we think about.
When a bad idea enters one’s mind, it is like the wheels of a wagon following the oxen that pull it.
The joy that follows a clean thinking is like a shadow that follows you everywhere you go.
Buddhism believes that Buddha gained nirvana and was liberated from the cycle of reincarnation and death after being served a meal by one Cunda, a disciple, who some academics believe may have poisoned him, maybe unintentionally, and died at Kushinagar.
When Ashoka the Great converted to Buddhism, he ordered the relics to be disinterred and then reinterred in 84,000 stupas around the country.
As a result, individuals who have accepted his message and continue to follow his example of appreciating the beauty of life without clinging to it have come to appreciate the efforts of Siddhartha Gautama on a global scale today.
Did you find this definition to be helpful? Prior to publication, this paper was checked for correctness, dependability, and conformance to academic standards by two independent reviewers.