When Did Peter See Jesus After The Resurrection

When did Peter first see the resurrected Jesus?

After examining the role of Peter in the canonical gospels’ post-resurrection narratives, this article will attempt to explain why there are conflicting signals. There is a strong argument in favor of Peter meeting the resurrected Jesus for the first time, as per 1 Corinthians 15:5, sometime after the writing of the gospels of Mark and Matthew but just prior to the writing of Luke’s gospel — or, more likely, as late as the redacting of Luke by the author of Acts and around the time of the Pastorals.

For the time being, let us also suppose that Paul’s first epistle to the Corinthians contains proof that some of the first Christian groups thought that the risen Christ appeared to Peter for the first time.

resurrected from the dead.

(1 Corinthians 15:3-5) The book of Corinthians has a list of Paul’s resurrection appearances.

  1. (15:9) To put this in perspective, consider the attitude of the author of Galatians, who describes Peter as one who “seemed to be something — whatever it was, it made no difference to me.
  2. who seemed to be.” (Gal.
  3. when he retreated and isolated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision.
  4. Why do you force Gentiles to live like Jews?” (Galatians 2:11-14) After reading that passage in conjunction with the author’s earlier discussion of false brethren, it becomes clear that Peter is one of those false brethren according to Paul: “false brethren secretly brought in.
  5. to whom we did not yield submission even for an hour.” (Galatians 2:3-5) It is argued that the inventory of resurrection appearances in 1 Corinthians 15:3-11 is not unique to that epistle, and that this is supported by the evidence in Galatians.
  6. The “Orthodoxy” traces its origins back to Peter and the Twelve as well as James, and the catalogue of appearances lends credibility to this claim.
  7. In 1 Corinthians, we see that Peter was clearly regarded in the greatest respect among many early Christians, regardless of whether or not the passage can be traced back to the original author of the book.

In this case, I’ll suppose that Mark’s gospel ends at 16:8, and that the following verses were added later to make the gospel more appealing to new audiences.

In spite of the fact that his given name, Rock, has nothing to do with a solid basis for the church, it looks to be more suitable with the swiftly withering fruit that comes from rocky soil (Tolbert).

Peter fails to get a reminder from Jesus that people who desire to see him again must travel to the Galilee (the figurative location of God’s kingdom that replaced the kingdom of Jerusalem), which Mark says his readers was a reminder that Peter did not even receive.

It was almost as if Jesus didn’t give a damn whether or not he understood the message.

In this gospel, there is no narrative salvation to be found in them.

In Mark’s gospel, there is no apparition of the Resurrection to the apostle.

In reaction to the prominence of Peter and the Twelve among considerable numbers of Christians with whom he disagreed, Mark must have launched an attack against the apostles Peter and John the Baptist (Weeden,Fowler,Kelber,Tolbert).

Peter has been in this position since the beginning.

The same may be said for the other gospels as well.) .it is reasonable to infer that Peter was regarded in very high regard throughout many Christian communities prior to the writing of the Gospel of Mark.

Matthew’s initial resurrection appearance was made possible by a plain yet blunt tool.

The Gospel of Matthew, in response to the Gospel of Mark (which he was mostly copying and rewriting), chose to totally exclude Mark’s harsh reference to Peter after the resurrection.

As a result of his actions, Mark’s vicious attack on the credibility of the witnesses is overturned.

Numerous people have remarked on the seeming pointlessness of Matthew’s narrative of Jesus coming to the three women in this chapter of the Bible.

However, when we consider Matthew’s struggle with the best approach to rewrite Mark’s story in order to restore the authority of the apostles, we see that he has a very legitimate point to make.

That was the first step in establishing the apostles as legitimate authorities.

As Mark had predicted, the women were not fleeing in terror.

Furthermore, they were able to convey not just the word of an angel, but also the precise message of Jesus himself to the disciples.

In any case, it made little difference to him that he couldn’t think of anything further to say about what Jesus may have said other than what Mark had previously provided him with through his discourse to a young man in the tomb.

Peter, on the other hand, does not get a resurrection apparition from Matthew.

Instead, Matthew leaves it up to the reader to determine whether or not Peter was one of the eleven disciples who encountered Jesus on a mountain in Galilee at the conclusion of the book.

The importance of Peter as a leader in the church, on the other hand, was something that Matthew was clearly aware of.

By the time of Luke’s gospel, the world had changed.

However, the plot had not yet developed the flesh and bones of narrative detail.

It is possible that it originally occurred in 1 Corinthians 15 at that time.

Luke tells fantastic stories, with well-developed characters and plots.

These two run out to inform the disciples about their intimate encounter with the resurrected Jesus, during which they exclaim: “The Lord has risen truly, and he has appeared to Simon!” (See also Luke 24:34) Something unusual to say when the group to whom they are speaking plainly includes Simon Peter himself, as was the case in this case.

  • What clues did the two travelers have that he had appeared to Simon?
  • The account of the two travelers encountering Jesus has been badly modified to include a report that Jesus appeared (for the first time) to Peter, which has been awkwardly inserted into the narrative.
  • The redactor of an early version of Luke, I believe, was the same person who authored the pro-Petrine Acts and revised Luke to make it suitable for use as a companion book for Acts (Tyson).
  • Similarly to 1 Corinthians 15:4-5, the order of events in Luke 24 is the same, with the identical phrases stating an apparition to “Simon” followed by an appearance to the entire group.
  • German biblical scholar Wolfgang Schenk has produced a thorough thesis based on the parallels between Luke 24, 1 Corinthians 15, and Galatians 1.
  • It’s possible that Luke 24:34 is a mirror of 1 Corinthians 15:4-5.
  • Even if we assume that John’s gospel was written later than Luke’s (some scholars, such as Matthews, Shellard, and others, do not believe this), we still do not have a story of the risen Jesus appearing first to Peter in the New Testament.

It was at this time that principles represented in the Pastoral epistles began to throw a larger shadow on the origins of orthodoxy, such as: Allow a woman to learn in quiet and complete obedience.

I just allow her to sit in quiet.

And Adam was not fooled, but the woman, who had been deceived, fell into transgression as a result of her deception.

The original conclusion in Mark, with ladies rushing around like panicked rabbits and unable to open their tongues, was undoubtedly a favorite of the author of that (16:8).

At the very least, the author of John’s gospel had the foresight to have the first woman witness to the risen Jesus fail to identify him when he initially appeared (John 20:11-16).

Even if the passage in Luke that tells of the appearance of the resurrected Jesus to Simon Peter was written by the author of Acts (and other recent posts on this blog have expressed reasons for Acts’ late date), we can surmise at least one good reason for him including this passage in Luke.

Both execute miracles (rising the dead, healing the crippled) and go through comparable experiences (raising the dead, healing the crippled) (e.g.

The author, on the other hand, goes to great lengths to emphasize Paul’s subjection to Peter and the Twelve (e.g.

According to 1 Corinthians 15, Paul’s conversion would take place by a direct revelation from Jesus himself, just as he appeared to all of the apostles, beginning with Peter.

There were no other stories about Jesus appearing to Peter after his resurrection that this author could draw upon.

As a result, it was awkwardly inserted into the mouths of the two pilgrims on their way to Emmaus.

After all, by the time 2 Peter was written, it appears to have come directly from the apostle’s own pen.

Scholars have speculated that Jesus’ appearance at the Transfiguration was a recounting of the first resurrection appearance.

It was Ignatius who was the first non-canonical author to mention it. However, this raises a whole new set of questions about dates and identities, which will have to be addressed at a later date as well. The following two tabs alter the content of the section below.

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The Sequence of Christ’s Post-Resurrection Appearances

Some individuals believe that the Gospel descriptions of Jesus’ post-Resurrection appearances are inconsistent in terms of the places, witnesses, and time of his appearances. We are admonished by Scripture to constantly be prepared with responses (1 Peter 3:15) for the hope that we have in ourselves. Because these solutions, as well as our everlasting hope, are predicated on the reality of Christ’s Resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:17), we must sort through some of the “many infallible proofs” (Acts 1:3) that the Bible provides.

Contradictory or Complementary Accounts?

So, where precisely did Jesus show up, and to whom did he appear? On the basis of the word “to the mountain,” some have questioned the internal coherence of the Bible’s text. Once they had reached Galilee, they went to the mountain that Jesus had designated as a meeting place. When they saw Him, they worshipped Him, but others were skeptics about His identity. Is it possible that Jesus appeared to the eleven disciples on a hillside in Galilee or in Jerusalem behind closed doors? (Matthew 28:16–17, emphasis added) Is this story in Matthew in conflict with those in Mark, Luke, and John, or is it in agreement with them?

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(Matthew 16:14) As a result, they woke up at the crack of dawn and returned to Jerusalem, where they saw the eleven and others who were with them gathered together, proclaiming, “The Lord has certainly risen, and has appeared to Simon!” On the breaking of bread, they shared their stories of what had transpired on the trip, as well as how He had been known to them during the journey.

  1. “Peace be with you,” Jesus said to them that same evening, which was the first day of the week, when the doors to where the disciples were gathered were closed out of fear of the Jews.
  2. When the disciples finally saw the Lord, they were overjoyed.
  3. Beginning on Resurrection Sunday, He “showed himself alive.
  4. The apostles stood by and watched as he descended from Mount Olivet, which is near Jerusalem (Acts 1:9–12).
  5. In 1 Corinthians 15, Paul includes a summary statement that includes information on these appearances as well as others that were not reported in the Gospels or Acts.
  6. After then, He was seen by over five hundred brethren all at once, the vast majority of whom are still alive today, though some have passed away.

Paul writes in 1 Corinthians 15:3–7, We know that those appearances included a meeting with Cephas (Peter), a later appearance to “the twelve,” and a subsequent appearance to almost five hundred individuals at once, the vast majority of whom were still living eyewitnesses at the time Paul composed his letter.

Eleven or Twelve?

Some may argue that Paul was incorrect in referring to “the twelve” since that Judas is no longer alive. Although Matthias had taken over as betrayer at the time Paul wrote this letter (Acts 1:20–26), Paul was still writing it. It is noteworthy that the eleven unanimously decided that the successor would have to be a man who had been with them from the time of the Lord’s baptism until the day He ascended. 1 In fact, one of the primary goals of this appointment was to ensure that the new apostle would serve as a testimony to the Resurrection of Christ.

This scenario serves as a reminder that Jesus had a large number of followers in addition to the twelve apostles.

The Women

Prior to attempting to reconcile the four different Gospel versions of the women’s acts, it is necessary to consider their early appearances on Resurrection Sunday. The gospels of Matthew 28, Mark 16, Luke 24, and John 20 all begin with the arrival of the ladies (including Mary Magdalene) at the tomb of Jesus. 2 They discover it to be empty, with the stone removed. After the initial visit to the tomb, we advise that Mary Magdalene be secluded from the other ladies for a while. The implication is that she raced out to locate Peter and the “other disciple” (John).

  • 3 Mary Magdalene informed them that the body of the Lord had gone stolen, according to John 20:1–2.
  • She witnessed the angels in the tomb, inquired about Jesus’s whereabouts, and then had her own discussion with Jesus.
  • A new verse, found in Mark 16:9–11, states that Mary Magdalene was the first person to whom Jesus appeared, and that the disciples did not accept her tale.
  • As Luke recounted, they were startled when they learned there were two angels present.
  • The angel instructs the women to go inform the disciples and Peter that Jesus has risen from the dead and would meet them in Galilee, alluding to Peter’s isolation from the rest of the group following his denial and implying that he was not with the rest of the group.
  • It’s possible that they narrowly missed Peter and John, who were on their way to the tomb at the time.
  • Following His appearance to Mary Magdalene, Jesus went to the ladies who were on their way to the city, reinforcing the message that they should go tell His brethren that He would be in Galilee when they saw Him for themselves.

They were overjoyed to convey the message after meeting with Him. The fact that “the eleven and all the others” eventually learned of Christ’s Resurrection through all of the women, including Mary Magdalene, is summarized in Luke 24:9–11. No one, however, took them seriously.

The Empty Tomb and Beyond

Another significant incident occurred on that Sunday morning, according to Matthew 28:11–15. The leading priests were informed of what had occurred by the guards. The leading priests concocted and circulated the story that the disciples had taken the body while the guards were sleeping, with the assistance of bribes in the appropriate places. The fact that the tomb was indeed empty was verified for all time by this act of defiance. On that particular Sunday, none of the events mentioned in the subsequent verses of Matthew 28 took place.

  1. As a result, this event occurred after some of the events reported in the other Gospels.
  2. A brief account of the first is found inLuke 24:13–35 and a longer one in Mark 16:12–13.
  3. In the course of their journey, they had a chance encounter with Jesus, who gave them an eye-opening Bible lecture in which He revealed how the Old Testament Scriptures had been fulfilled via His suffering, death, and resurrection.
  4. When they arrived, they discovered that the Lord had also had a personal encounter with Simon Peter before to their arrival.
  5. To long last, we get at the passages in question.
  6. “The eleven gathered together” and “those who were with them,” according to Luke 24:33, were the recipients of the Emmaus road pair’s story.
  7. Perhaps Thomas had gone out for some reason or was simply not there at the moment, and the name “the eleven” was used to refer to the group of disciples following Judas’ death as a generic description of the company of disciples.
  8. Unlike Mark and Luke, Matthew did not record any of Christ’s visits to “the eleven” on that day while remaining in the city, although Mark and Luke did.
  9. During these two visits in Jerusalem, He reassured His supporters that He was, in fact, still alive.


In Matthew 28:16–17 and John 21, however, the Galilean sightings are detailed, although they are not documented in Mark or Luke. According to Matthew 28:16, the eleven disciples traveled to Galilee, where they presumably waited for Jesus to arrive as He had promised in the word provided by the women. According to John 21, Peter and six other people made the decision to go fishing together. Jesus directed them to throw their nets on the other side of the boat from where they were now fishing. When the disciples arrived on the shore, they saw Jesus preparing breakfast for them.

  • This was “the third time Jesus presented Himself to His disciples after He was risen from the grave,” according to John, indicating that it was the third time He appeared to them as a group after He was raised from the dead (John 21:14).
  • Following Jesus’ seashore apparition, he appeared on the scheduled mountain in Galilee (Matthew 28:16–17), which took place a short time later.
  • We are taken to Galilee, where we will see Jesus in his promised appearance, after the parenthetical remarks concerning the tale the Jewish officials created to explain away the missing corpse in the preceding verses.
  • By this time, knowledge of Christ’s predicted arrival would have spread throughout His large number of disciples, giving them ample time to prepare for it.

When the disciples saw Jesus there, they worshipped Him, though some of them were still skeptical. The eleven had already met Jesus more than once, and some had even had a meal with Him, therefore the phrase “some doubted” is most likely referring to those who had not before seen Him.

Last Appearances

After appearing on the mountain, we learn from 1 Corinthians 15:7 that Jesus met with His half-brother James, who was there. While we cannot be certain of the location of this encounter, it seems likely that it took place in Galilee, given that this is where Jesus and James grew up and where James appears in the Gospel accounts (Matthew 12:46–50; cf. Matthew 13:55). Wherever this occurred, it appears to have served as a trigger for James, who had before identified himself as a skeptic (John 7:5), to come to believe that his half-brother was and continues to be the Son of God.

As stated in Acts 1 (cf.

He delivered them their final instructions before ascending to the throne of God in victory.


Assuming the infallibility of Scripture and, as a result, the veracity of the eyewitness stories, here is one conceivable post-Resurrection/pre-Ascension chronology that may account for all that has been revealed to us in God’s Holy Scripture. 4 As the suggested timeline above demonstrates, there are no inconsistencies in the narratives of Jesus’ post-Resurrection appearances after his death and resurrection. A good reporter piecing together a story from reliable eyewitnesses is what we must do when studying God’s Word.

As a whole, these tales convey the most essential truth in all of human history: that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for our sins and rose again, defeating sin and death for the sake of our redemption and the glory of the Father.

When and Where did Peter See the Risen Jesus?

The resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day is a belief that all Christians must have in order to be considered Christians. Their faith in the alleged Resurrection appearances is in no way obligated to them to accept anything about the actual chronology of those appearances, which may have changed significantly from the timeline we frequently hear preached about around Eastertime. The first accounts of a Resurrection apparition occurred considerably later than the third day of the Easter myth, and they occurred in Galilee rather than Jerusalem, according to my argument.

  1. If it is even close to being right, such an understanding reveals a great deal about how to read the different gospels.
  2. He talks about this in 1 Corinthians 15:3-7.
  3. And that Jesus was seen first by Cephas, then by the twelve apostles.
  4. After that, Christ appeared to James, and then to the rest of the apostles.
  5. It should be noted that I am by no means the first person to make this suggestion.
  6. After mentioning Jesus resurrecting on the third day, Paul’s “creed” in the book of Corinthians makes no further mention of time or chronology at all.
  7. We have to envisage the apostles escaping Jerusalem, going home, and getting themselves back together enough to continue their fishing expeditions in the Mediterranean.
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Even a number of years?

Of fact, the text of the Letter to the Corinthians makes no mention of a specific place.

I believe there was just one tradition, which was in Galilee, and the Jerusalem traditions arose to fill in what the people of the time saw to be an embarrassing gap or disagreement in the narrative.

At first, however, they made no connection between that experience and any tales of genuine appearances by the risen Jesus during that time period.

It would have been vital that the fact be accepted by some current witnesses, the most obvious of whom would have been the women who went to care Jesus’ body and discovered that it had been taken away from them.

If the earliest appearances took place in Galilee, they took place a long time after that date.

As long as the authors insisted on both a resurrection announcement and a personal appearance to the disciples on the “third day,” it was more or less necessary to picture the disciples as remaining in Jerusalem for both appearances, and to have the Galilee traditions either weakened or ignored.

  • However, the myth of Jesus’ ministry in Galilee was too compelling, and it was too firmly identified with the first disciples, to be completely discarded.
  • According to historical evidence, statements associating Resurrection appearances with Galilee are more likely to be older (and hence, more legitimate) than statements relating them with the city of Jerusalem.
  • The stronger the connection to Jerusalem or the environment in which it occurs, the later the tradition.
  • An angel appears to the ladies on the third day of the burial, and they are informed that Jesus will make an appearance in Galilee, according to Mark.
  • As previously stated, Mark as we now have it does not make an appearance at the Resurrection — despite the fact that his original wording would have done so.
  • The Marcan prophecy to the women about Jesus’ presence in Galilee is found in lines 5-10; yet, two verses later, Jesus appears to the women in Jerusalem and tells them that he would meet the disciples in Galilee.
  • Later in the book, Matthew reports on the previously announced meeting with the disciples, which took place on a mountain in Galilee.

As a result, Luke reflects an even more evolved stage, in which the Galilee tradition has all but disappeared, or has at the very least been transplanted to Judea.

In other words, the lines recorded by his sources expressly reference “Galilee,” yet Luke’s account precludes the action from being transferred to that location.

Afterwards, there is the apparition on the road to Emmaus, followed by a meeting with all of Jesus’ followers at the Jerusalem home where they were all staying.

In order for Luke’s aims to be fulfilled, this definitive journey to Judea must take place before Acts can begin with the disciples well established in Jerusalem.

When presenting these ideas, I am confronted with the question of what should be the correct limitations of the historical project.

Their primary method of doing so is through careful examination of documents, the establishment of chronologies, and the tracking of the growth of traditions as they are documented and maintained.

When it comes to the nature and location of Peter’s experiences – regarding when and where they felt Peter had seen the Risen Jesus – I can absolutely provide an opinion based on what the church believed at the time. And that is precisely the argument I am making.

Restoration of Peter – Wikipedia

Christ’s Charge to Peter, painted by Raphael around 1515. When Jesus came to his followers after his resurrection and talked to Peter in particular, it was known as the Restoration of Peter (also known as the Re-commissioning of Peter). This episode is related in John 21 of the New Testament. Jesus restored Peter to fellowship after Peter had earlier refused him, and instructed Peter to tend to Jesus’ flocks of sheep.


According to the New Testament, Jesus arose from the dead and appeared to his disciples after his resurrection. A number of similar appearances are recorded in the Gospel of John. As a result, this story is included in John’s gospel’s fourth appearance of the resurrection. One interpretation of 1 Corinthians 15:5 is that Jesus had already appeared individually to Peter; A. B. Bruce argues that the account in John 21 is not really a “restoration” because Peter would have already been restored: “Who can doubt that after that meeting the disciple’s mind was at ease, and that thereafter he was at peace with himself as well as with his Master?” Peter is not being restored to his former status, according to Bruce, but rather is being called back to a more somber awareness of his noble purpose.

Peter’s denial

As recorded in the New Testament, Jesus arose from the grave and appeared to his apostles. Many of these visits are recorded in the Book of John. In this way, this story is included in John’s gospel’s fourth appearance of the resurrection. It has been suggested that Jesus had already appeared individually to Peter in 1 Corinthians 15:5, and A. B. Bruce argues that the account in John 21 is not really a “restoration” because Peter would have already been restored: “Who can doubt that after that meeting the disciple’s mind was at ease, and that thereafter he was at peace, both with himself and with his Master?” Peter is not being restored to his former status, according to Bruce, but rather is being called back to a more somber awareness of his noble purpose, according to Bruce.

Meeting by the sea

In the book of John 21, Peter goes fishing with six of his fellow disciples. All night, they don’t catch a single fish, but when they wake up the next morning, Jesus appears and tells them to cast their net on the opposite side of the boat. When they do, they are rewarded with an incredible catch of 153 fish. On the coast, Jesus and his followers have a leisurely breakfast. Jesus gets everything ready for breakfast, including a charcoal fire. Peter also stood near a charcoal fire when he refused to acknowledge Jesus’ divinity.

Jesus’ three-fold charge to Peter

The previous day, Peter had refused Jesus three times. Now, in answer to Jesus’ interrogation, Peter declares his love for Jesus three times in three different ways. William Hendriksen points out several other parallels between this experience and Peter’s denial, which he believes are significant. Consider the fact that Peter originally refused Jesus (John 18:18), and that he is now being asked to declare his devotion for his teacher before a charcoal (v) fire (John 21:9).

Ben Witherington III makes the suggestion that “John arranges for the triple restoration to take place at a location that is comparable to the location of the threefold denial. It’s similar to going back to the site of the crime and getting it right this time around.”

“Do you love me more than these?”

“Do you love me more than these things?” Jesus inquires of Peter. Several alternatives are suggested by D. A. Carson when it comes to interpreting the Greek text’s use of the word “these,” including the following:

  1. Do you care about me more than you care about these disciples? How much more do you adore me than you like this fishing gear
  2. How much more do you adore me than these other disciples?

Carson himself opts for the third option on the list. Adrienne von Speyr argues in favor of “The Lord anticipates that Peter will love him more than the others do, even more than John, who is, after all, the embodiment of love himself. In addition, he should have firsthand understanding of the situation. This anticipation places an immediate burden on Peter’s shoulders, a burden that begins right now and will continue indefinitely until the end of time. Those who have previously known solely personal love are referred to as those who have known more than they have previously.”

Two words used for “love”

The discussion between Jesus and Peter contains two distinct terms for “love,” which some interpreters, but not all, believe to be of exegetical significance in the context of the discourse. The terms areagapaô (which is the verb form of the nounagape) andphileô are two examples of adverbs (the verb form of the nounphilia). The following is the flow of the conversation:

  • “Do youagapâisme?” Jesus inquired, to which Peter responded, “Iphileôyou.” Jesus inquired, “do youagapâisme?” to which Peter responded, “Iphileôyou.” “Do you practice phileisme?” Jesus inquired
  • Peter said, “Iphileôyou.”

This is made clear in the 1984 (but not the 2011) version of the New International Version, which translates agapaoas as “really love” and phileoas as “love.” According to Ben Witherington III, this demonstrates “Jesus’ gracious condescension to the level at which Peter was prepared to reply at this moment.” “Peter was upset because he said to him this third time,” writes William Hendriksen, arguing that Jesus’ third inquiry calls into doubt even Peter’s “subjective attachment” and fondness, which is why it states, “Peter was grieved because he said to him this third time.” (See also John 21:17.) Other writers, such as Carson, are skeptical of the notion of a differentiation between the meanings of the two terms in this context.

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The author, Thomas J.

While the overwhelming opinion has shifted back and forth throughout the years, the current consensus is that, because these two love verbs are employed interchangeably throughout the Gospel, there is no unique significance to their use in 21:15-17 in this particular passage.

Peter appointed as shepherd

The following directions are given to Peter in response to his three declarations of love for him: “Feed my lambs” / “Take care of my sheep” / “Feed my sheep.” Peter has been re-commissioned as an apostle and a leader in the church by Jesus Christ. The metaphor of “sheep” is used frequently throughout the New Testament to allude to the people of God. This is the source of the term “pastor,” which literally translates as “shepherd.” This statement by Jesus, according to theCatholic Encyclopedia published in 1913, serves as the foundation for the title ” Vicar of Christ “, which is given to the Pope.

In this text, Protestant theologians such as D.

Carson contend that “not foundational preeminence nor comparative authority are taken into consideration.” Victor Potapov, writing from an Orthodox point of view, believes that the term “feed” does not refer to “the highest authority of pastorship,” but rather to “the authority and responsibility of pastorship proper to all the apostles and their successors.”

Jesus’ prediction of Peter’s death

Jesus then goes on to predict Peter’s destiny to him, telling him that “someone else will clothing you and bring you to a place where you do not want to go” (John 21:18,NIV). This is seen by the narrator as a reference to Peter’s sacrifice (John 21:19). Tradition holds that Peter was crucified upside-down, as recorded in the apocryphal Acts of Peter.

“Follow me”

“Follow me,” Jesus said to Peter after he had finished saying everything else (John 21:19). In the words of Romano Guardini, “here too, an event from the past is remembered, transfigured, and carried on.” Peter regained his happiness at this point, having recognized that he had been forgiven, and then he returned to “something of his former garrulousness.”


  1. Paul Barnett, John: The Shepherd King (Sydney South: Aquila Press, 2005), p. 314
  2. Bruce, A. B., The Shepherd King (Sydney South: Aquila Press, 2005), p. 314
  3. (1883). Bruce, The Training of the Twelve, p. 504
  4. William L. Lane, The Gospel According to Mark(NICNT
  5. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971), p. 589
  6. Paul Barnett,John, p. 321
  7. William Hendriksen(London:Banner of Truth, 1961), The Gospel of John, p. 486
  8. Ben Witherington III, What Have They Done with Jesus?, p. 321
  9. William L. Lane, The The Bible is trustworthy despite strange theories and bad history, according to D. A. Carson (New York: HarperOne, 2006), page 73
  10. Adrienne von Speyr (Leicester:Apollos, 1991), page 675–676
  11. D. A. Carson (New York: HarperOne, 2006), page 73
  12. D. A. Carson (Leicester:Apollos, 1991), page 675–676
  13. (1991). “The Preeminence.” Meditations on John 18-21, titled “The Birth of the Church.” Acts 17:11 Bible Studies, translated by David Kipp and published by Ignatius Press under the ISBN 9780898703689
  14. “AgapaoPhileo in Peter’s Restoration.” Retrieved on November 26, 2013
  15. Ben Witherington III, What Have They Done with Jesus?, p. 74
  16. William Hendriksen, John, p. 488
  17. D. A. Carson, John, p. 676-677
  18. Thomas J. Lane, What Have They Done with Jesus?, p. 74
  19. (2016). “The Primacy of Saint Peter” is a phrase that means “the authority of Saint Peter.” The Foundations of the Catholic Priesthood in the Bible. Romano Guardini is published by Emmaus Road Publishing with the ISBN 9781945125096. (1954). The Lord is in charge (Gateway ed.). Page numbers 489–490 from Regnery Publishing, Inc. ISBN0895267144
  20. s^ Charles Herbermann is the editor of this book (1913). “Vicar of Christ,” as in “Vicar of Christ.” The Catholic Encyclopedia is a resource for learning about the Catholic faith. D. A. Carson, John, 678
  21. Potapov, Victor. New York: Robert Appleton Company. D. A. Carson, John, 678
  22. Potapov, Victor. “The Roman Pope’s “Infallibility” and his “Primacy” are discussed. The Cathedral of St. John the Baptist is a church dedicated to St. John the Baptist. The original version of this article was published on December 2, 2013. Retrieved on November 26th, 2013

To Whom Did Jesus Appear after His Death?

They were the primary reason the disciples believed in the resurrection of Jesus because they witnessed Him alive after He had been declared dead. Jesus appeared to His disciples in a living state on a number of occasions throughout His ministry. It is as a result of this that we see them testifying time and time again to the fact that they were eyewitnesses to His resurrection. Because the disciples had direct knowledge of the resurrection, they provide a significant argument in favor of the resurrection of Christ.

  • The Testimony of Jesus Regarding His Resurrection Jesus’ own personal witness of His resurrection from the dead is the first piece of evidence.
  • And I am in possession of the keys of death and Hades (Revelation 1:18).
  • Take a look at my fingers and toes.
  • You can feel my flesh and bones, and you will realize that a ghost does not have flesh and bones, as you can see I do (Luke 24:39).
  • The following were the people who made an appearance.
  • Mary Magdalene was the first person to see Jesus after he ascended into heaven.
  • ‘Woman, what is the cause of your tears?’ Jesus inquired.

She turned to face him and said, ‘Rabboni!’ (which translates as ‘Teacher’) (John 20:14-16).

Mary the Mother of James, Salome, and Joanna are three of the most important women in the Bible.

This occurred following the apparition of Jesus to Mary Magdalene.

And lo and behold, Jesus came up to them and welcomed them.

Once again, we are treated to an unexpected appearance.

Peter When Paul mentions witnesses, Peter is the first to come to mind, and he is also the first of the apostles to view the resurrected Christ.

The gospels are utterly deafeningly quiet about the specifics of this gathering.

On the Road to Emmaus, There Were Two Disciples Later on Easter Sunday, Jesus appeared to two disciples on the road to Emmaus, according to the Gospel of Luke.

And they were having a conversation with one another about all that had happened.

However, they were unable to recognize him because of their eyesight (Luke 24:13-16).

It was in reality because they had lost faith in Him that they were departing from Jerusalem.

This is the final of Jesus’ five appearances on Easter Sunday, and it is the most dramatic.

It is reported in both Luke’s and John’s gospels, providing us with two completely separate versions of what occurred in that day.

Following his statement, he demonstrated his hands and his side to the group of onlookers.

However, Thomas, one of the twelve disciples, known as Didymus, was not there when Jesus appeared (John 20:19, 20, 24).

It was eight days later when He reappeared, this time with Thomas in attendance.

Jesus entered through the closed doors and stood in the center of the crowd, saying, “Peace to you!” “Reach your finger here and look at my hands,” he instructed Thomas.

‘Do not be unbelievers, but rather believers.” After that, Thomas responded by exclaiming to him, ‘My Lord and My God!

Another appearance took place on the Sea of Galilee, where Jesus appeared to seven disciples.

Simon Peter, Thomas named Didymus, Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, as well as two other disciples, were all present at the same time (John 21:1, 2).

Additionally, the story of Jesus coming before His eleven disciples in Galilee is told in the Bible.

And when they saw him, they worshipped him; nevertheless, some were hesitant to do so (Matthew 28:16, 17).

On another instance, Jesus appeared to over 500 individuals at the same time on a single date.

James In addition, the Bible claims that Jesus appeared to His half-brother James.

The specifics of this apparition have not been documented.

And as he went, he drew close to Damascus, at which point a halo of light flashed around him from above.

In response, the Lord responded, “I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting” (Acts 9:3-5).

They were successful in convincing His disciples that He had resurrected from the grave.

Furthermore, Jesus demonstrated to them that he was alive after his suffering via several persuasive demonstrations, coming to them over a period of forty days and spoke of matters pertaining to the kingdom of God (Acts 1:3) SummaryAccording to the Bible, Jesus made a number of public appearances following His death.

In the Bible, it is expressly stated that on Easter Sunday, Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalene, the ladies who came to Jesus’ tomb (Mary the Mother of James, Salome, and Joanna), Peter, and two disciples who were traveling on the Emmaus road.

Later, he appeared in front of them with Thomas in attendance.

During another appearance, he was in front of more than five hundred individuals at the same time.

The character James makes an appearance as well. At long last, Jesus appeared to Saul of Tarsus, the man who would go on to become known as the Apostle Paul. Any of these appearances convinced His disciples that He had risen from the grave beyond all reasonable doubts.

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