What Killed Jesus?

Who Killed Jesus?

  1. It was released in 1965 as part of the Second Vatican Council, under the title Nostra Aetate, which represented a significant shift in the Catholic Church’s stance on the topic of Jewish blame for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
  2. That modern-day Jews could not be held responsible for Jesus’ crucifixion, and that not all Jews who were alive at the time of Jesus’ execution were guilty of the crime, according to the arguments in the paper.
  3. In the history of Christian views toward Jews, this was a significant stride forward, as Jewish culpability for Jesus’ murder has long been a central tenet of Christian anti-Semitism.

Many Jews, however, were dissatisfied with the results.When Jesus was crucified, they thought that the Church would come out and claim that the Jews had had no role in his execution.

Jews Lacked A Motive for Killing Jesus

  1. Indeed, most historians believe that it would have been more rational to place the responsibility for Jesus’ execution on the Romans.
  2. Crucifixion was a common form of punishment among the Romans, not among the Jews.
  3. At the time of Jesus’ execution, the Romans were enforcing a harsh and ruthless occupation on the Land of Israel, and the Jews had been rebellious at times throughout the occupation.

The Romans would have had good cause to desire to silence Jesus, who had been dubbed ″King of the Jews″ by some of his disciples and was well-known as a Jewish upstart miracle worker at the time of his death.Jews, on the other hand, lacked a compelling reason to assassinate Jesus.Even while the many factions of the Jewish society at the period — the Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and others — had numerous differences with one another, no one of the organizations orchestrated the murder of the leaders of the other purportedly heretical sects.

As a result, it is highly improbable that they would have targeted Jesus.READ: The History of the Land of Israel Under Roman Control Nonetheless, the notion that Jews murdered Jesus can be found in Christian foundational literature dating back to the early days of the Jesus movement, and it is unlikely that it will be readily abandoned simply because of historians’ arguments.

The New Testament Account

  1. When Paul writes his letters to the Corinthians, which historians believe to be the first works of the New Testament (written 10 to 20 years after Jesus’ death), he mentions ″the Jews who crucified the Lord, Jesus,″ a reference that is almost incidental (I Thessalonians 2:14-15).
  2. While the idea that the Jews bear primary responsibility for Jesus’ death is not central to Paul’s understanding of Jesus’ life and death, the idea that the Jews bear primary responsibility for Jesus’ death is more prominent in the four gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, each of which presents a slightly different account of Jesus’ life.
  3. The gospel of Matthew, the most well-known of the gospels, depicts Jesus’ unjust trial, which was orchestrated and presided over by the Jewish high priest, who searched the whole country for anybody who would testify against Jesus.

Eventually, the high priest comes to the conclusion that Jesus is guilty of blasphemy and petitions the Jewish council for guidance on how to punish him.″They responded by saying, ‘He deserves to die.’″ When he turned around, they spit on his face and struck him.″ (See Matthew 26:57-68.) Matthew’s account of Jesus’ suffering and death on the cross (referred to by Christians as ″Jesus’ ″passion″) has served as the inspiration for numerous books, plays, and musical compositions over the years, and it is a prominent part of Christian liturgy, particularly during the celebration of Easter.Each of the four gospels makes the argument, either tacitly or directly, that because the Jews were not permitted to punish other Jews who were guilty of blasphemy, they had to persuade the hesitant Romans to execute Jesus.

It is said that Pontius Pilate, the Roman ruler of Judea, was fundamentally sympathetic to Jesus, but that he was unable to overcome the pressure from the Jews, who demanded that Jesus be put to death.Throughout the gospel of John, we see this concept represented most clearly: ″Pilate responded, ‘Take him yourselves and judge him according to your own law.’″ In response, the Jews stated, ″We are not authorized to put anybody to death.″ (18:31).When Pilate arrives, the gathering members of the Jewish community tell him, ″His blood be on us and on our children,″ which is the most contentious verse in all of the passion accounts (Matthew 27:25).According to Christian doctrine, succeeding generations of Jews are also guilty of deicide, the crime of murdering God, which was committed by their forefathers.

Church Fathers and Thereafter

  1. With even more clarity and power, this allegation emerges in the works of the Church Fathers, who are considered to be the most authoritative Christian theologians who lived after the New Testament period.
  2. After explaining to his Jewish interlocutor why the Jews had experienced exile and the destruction of their Temple, Justin Martyr (mid-second century) concludes that these ″tribulations were justly placed on you since you have assassinated the Just One″ (Jesus Christ) (Dialogue with Trypho, chapter 16).
  3. READ: Jewish-Christian Relations in the First Centuries of the Christian Era In both Christian literature and play from the ancient and medieval periods, this topic may be found throughout the ages.

Example: In ″The Mystery of Adam,″ a 12th-century religious drama about the legendary King Solomon, who is speaking to his people, prophesies that they would someday slay the son of God.A rhyming English translation of the original Norman French and Latin text is provided below.This statement is subject to verification.

The masters of the law will be the ones who slaughter God’s own Son for us in the most illegal manner; against all justice, against all belief, they will crucify Him like a thief after God’s own Son for us has died.They will, however, lose their lordly position, as will all those who envy him and implore him.They’ll descend from a tremendous height, and may they be comforted in their bereaved state of affairs.The following is an excerpt from Frank Talmage’s Disputation and Dialogue.In recent times, passion plays — large-scale outdoor theater events that dramatize the end of Jesus’ life and frequently feature hundreds of actors — have continued to spread this notion, as have other forms of religious expression.

In the Talmud

  1. It’s worth noting that the notion that the Jews assassinated Jesus may be found in Jewish religious literature as well.
  2. On folio 43a of the Babylonian Talmud’s tractate Sanhedrin, a beraita (a teaching that dates back to before the year 200 C.E.) says that Jesus was executed by a Jewish court for the crimes of sorcery and sedition, and that he was crucified.
  3. For this reason, there is a blank area near the bottom of that folio in normal Talmuds from Eastern Europe — or in American Talmuds that simply copied from them — since the possibly offending text has been omitted.

Censorship may have been internal — for the purpose of self-preservation — or it may have been imposed on the Jews by Christian authority on their own initiative.This section has been restored in a number of recent Talmudic versions.) When the Talmud claims that the incident occurred on the eve of Passover, it follows the timeline given in the gospel of John, which is supported by historical evidence.According to the talmudic narrative, the Romans played no involvement in his death.

Responsibility for the killing of Jesus is also given to the Jews in Jewish folk literature, such as the popular scurrilous Jewish biography of Jesus, Toledot Yeshu (which may be as old as the fourth century), and in Christian folk fiction.It seems possible that Jews in Christian Europe thought that their forefathers were responsible for the death of Jesus until at least the nineteenth century.From the first through the nineteenth century, the degree of hostility between Jews and Christians was such that both parties believed the accusation that the Jews were responsible for the death of Jesus.Fortunately, it is heard less frequently in our modern environment.People who believe the tales of the New Testament (or of the Talmud) to be credible historical sources should not be shocked if this belief prevails.

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What Actually Killed Jesus?

  1. The death of Jesus Christ has captivated people for millennia and continues to do so now.
  2. That horrible execution was the catalyst for the establishment of Islam, the world’s largest and most important religion, which has affected history for hundreds of years.
  3. Throughout history, billions of Christians have spoken about how Jesus was crucified and died on the cross as a sacrifice for their sins.

Throughout history, as medicine progressed and the real usage of the crucifixion waned, physicians and intellectuals became increasingly interested in learning more about Jesus’ death than merely that He died on the cross.Yes, He was crucified, but the act of nailing someone to a cross does not inevitably endanger the life of the person doing the nailing.That was one of the reasons why the Romans picked it.

People may survive on the cross for several days if the Romans were meticulous in how they carried out the actual crucifixion of their victims.It took only a few hours for Jesus to die, making him the most well-known crucifixion victim of all.So, what was it that ultimately killed Jesus?What was the true cause of His death?Since the 4th century, a full Roman crucifixion has not been carried out, which is fortunate for the general public.

  • Unfortunately for academics, this makes knowledge regarding this heinous manner of execution more difficult to come by, making it more difficult to research.
  • Having said that, Rome is well-known for having maintained meticulous records for its period.
  • In as a result, the crucifixion is more understood now than the majority of harsh punishments from antiquity.
  • Existing records of ″lingchi,″ for example, are difficult to come by and sometimes appear to be medically impossible to get..
  • Similar to this, experts are divided on whether depictions of the Blood Eagle, a gruesome way of death made famous by the television show ″Vikings,″ were intended to be lyrical and symbolic or to be taken seriously as real.

On the other side, there is enough knowledge on the Roman crucifixion that it would be simple to reproduce it and do it just correctly the first time.It is not the same as understanding about the Roman crucifixion to understand what component of the horrifying procedure ultimately cost Jesus His life.Nobody survived the complete Roman crucifixion, which is well-known to historians.Having said that, Rome made certain that the actual process of dying was prolonged enough that any number of things may have been the technical cause of death, but which of these things was the cause of Jesus’ death was determined?

Jesus died quite quickly for a crucifixion victim.Jesus’ trial before Pilate and execution took less than a day, according to the Jewish calendar.Even after accounting for the time spent scourging them and the long march to Golgotha, some of the crucified men endured multiples of that amount of time on the cross.Those who hung on the cross for days or even nights were not always killed by their wounds, according to historical records.Dehydration or exposure caused their deaths, rather than poisoning.When used as a cause of death, ″exposure″ is something of a catch-all word encompassing a variety of different ways of dying that may occur as a result of spending extended periods of time in elements that would not otherwise be harmful.

  1. People who died as a result of exposure were often killed by hypothermia, heat stroke, frostbite, or sunburn, according to medical standards.
  2. Any temperature over 80 degrees Fahrenheit or below 60 degrees Fahrenheit can result in death from exposure when a person is confined outside.
  3. When you factor in the agony of a crucifixion, it’s easy to see how a man may perish in the frigid Israeli nights or under the scorching Judean day.
  4. When a person is already coping with a significant amount of blood loss, dehydration will set in quite quickly.

It would most likely not kill in a short enough period of time to be the cause of Jesus’ death, on the other hand.Suffocation is the most frequently stated cause of death for Jesus, and it would be one of the most plausible causes of his quick death on the crucifixion.The crucifixion victims’ ribs and lungs were stretched out as a result of the manner they were hanged.The condemned was unable to exhale properly as a result of this.As the weight of a person’s body gradually dislocated their shoulders, the fight to breathe would only get more difficult.

  1. This was countered by the inclusion of a tiny seat known as a sedile on many Roman crosses.
  2. This allowed people to breathe more normally while also alleviating some of the weight from their chests.
  3. A sedile was used on a cross to support the weight of a person who was to be crucified for an extended period of time.
  4. The feet of the person were also nailed in such a way that they could sustain their own weight.
  5. According to the most prevalent accounts of how Christ was nailed on the cross, Rome desired to assassinate Him as soon as possible since His feet were not in a position that would have assisted in bearing His weight.
  6. Further evidence for this is provided by the fact that the Roman troops shattered the legs of the two thieves who were hanging next to Christ.
  • They would suffocate very fast if they did not have the support of their legs.
  • It is consistent with the quickness of Christ’s death, but it is not consistent with His activities in the moments before He breathed His last.
  • Shortly before His death, the gospels picture Jesus as having coherent discussions and crying out loudly, according to the accounts.
  1. Neither of these would be conceivable for someone who was battling for every breath of oxygen they could get their hands on at any given time.
  2. Christ, on the other hand, was aware of when His time had arrived.
  3. Someone who suffocates would gradually lose consciousness before passing away, rather than passing away quickly.

The belief that Christ was killed before he was nailed to the crucifixion is perhaps the most persuasive, but it is also the least discussed, among the several theories regarding Christ’s death.According to Christian belief, Jesus was knocked to the ground while on his way to the cross at Golgotha.Although the Bible never explicitly states that Jesus did so, it is a reasonable assumption and was likely a common occurrence during the march to a crucifixion site because the blood loss and pain from the scourging would have made carrying the 100-pound crossbeam extremely difficult for the soldiers.The fact that Jesus was unable to catch himself when he fell practically guarantees that He was unable to do so.It was customary for Roman troops to bind the hands of crucifixion victims to a crossbeam before carrying them through the city to the crucifixion site, where the nails would be hammered into their bodies.This suggests that as Jesus fell, both the weight of his own body and the weight of the crossbeam landed directly on His chest, causing him to die.

Even with contemporary medical assistance, this is the type of collision that can occur in an automobile accident, and it can be fatal.It is common for the heart to crash into the sternum after falling or colliding with anything.This bruises the physical organ.That bruise represents a weak area in the heart muscle’s structure.Every time the heart beats, that weak place grows and eventually forms an aneurism.When the aneurism rupture, death follows in a matter of minutes.

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The greater the amount of stress placed on the heart, the more probable it is that the aneurism would burst, and few things are more difficult on the heart than a Roman crucifixion.Christ would have been able to sense the rupture of the aneurism while still nailed on the cross and utter His last words.In the event of a ruptured heart, the blood would be trapped in the pericardium, which is a fluid-filled sac that surrounds the heart.When the spear pierced Jesus’ side, this mixture of fluid and blood would have surged out, giving the appearance of ″water and blood″ on the scene.

It’s possible that different hypotheses regarding what killed Jesus have varying degrees of credence, but unless someone invents a time machine and is able to perform an autopsy on Jesus Himself, the question is likely to stay unresolved.What the deadly blow was, on the other hand, is a matter of of marginal real significance.Crucifixion was capable of killing in a variety of ways, but they all occurred as a result of being nailed to a cross.The fact that the cause of Jesus’ death is simply stated as ″crucifixion″ may be preferable to certain people.

The crucifixion itself may or may not have been fatal, but there is no question that it was what ultimately brought Him to His death.Because it includes more jigsaw pieces and better depicts just how awful a death Christ endured for those who were least deserving of His sacrifice, the statement that He died on the cross is a more satisfactory account for His death.

Who was responsible for Christ’s death? Who killed Jesus?

  1. Answer to the question The solution to this question has a number of different sides.
  2. In the first place, there is little question that the religious leaders of Israel were directly or indirectly responsible for Jesus’ killing.
  3. ″The chief priests and the elders of the people convened in the palace of the high priest, whose name was Caiaphas, and they devised a plan to secretly capture Jesus and murder him,″ according to Matthew 26:3–4.

The Jewish authorities asked that Jesus be put to death from the Romans (Matthew 27:22–25).The fact that He was doing signs and wonders jeopardized their status and standing in the religious community over which they presided (John 11:47–50), therefore ″they conspired to kill him″ (John 11:47–50).(John 11:53).

Matthew 27:27–37 tells us that it was the Romans who crucified Jesus on the cross.It was a Roman form of execution approved and carried out by the Romans under the authority of Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor who sentenced Jesus to death on the cross.It was Roman soldiers who hammered the nails into His hands and feet, Roman soldiers who built the crucifixion, and it was a Roman soldier who pierced His side (Matthew 27:27–35).The people of Israel were also participants in Jesus’ execution, as was the Roman Empire.They were the ones who sang, ″Crucify him!

  • Crucify him!″ when He was brought before Pilate for trial and execution (Luke 23:21).
  • They also called out for the release of the robber Barabbas rather than Jesus (Matthew 27:21).
  • When Peter told the men of Israel in Acts 2:22–23, he was confirming their suspicions: ″You, with the assistance of evil men, put him to death by nailing him on the cross.″ As it turned out, the murder of Jesus was part of an elaborate conspiratorial scheme that involved the Roman Empire, Herod’s Jewish leaders, and the Jewish people themselves, a diverse group of people who had never worked together before or since, but who came together this one time to plot and carry out an unthinkable act: the assassination of the only begotten Son of God.
  • At the end of the day, and maybe quite astonishingly, it was God Himself who executed Jesus.
  • This was the most significant act of divine justice ever carried out, carried out ″by God’s intentional design and foresight″ (Acts 2:23) and for the utmost good of all mankind, as recorded in the Bible.

Jesus’ sacrifice on the cross insured the redemption of untold millions of people and offered the sole means by which God could forgive sin without compromising His holiness and flawless righteousness, which was otherwise impossible.God’s flawless purpose for the eternal salvation of His own was accomplished via Christ’s sacrifice.As opposed to being a win for Satan, or a needless tragedy, as some have indicated, it was the most gracious act of God’s grace and mercy, the greatest manifestation of the Father’s love for sinners.God sent Jesus to the cross to die in our place so that we may live in blameless righteousness before Him, a righteousness that was only made possible by the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross.

As the Bible says, ″God caused him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that through him, we may become the righteousness of God″ (2 Corinthians 5:21).As a result, those of us who have come to Christ in faith bear the guilt of His blood, which was shed on the cross for our sins.He died in order to pay the price for our sins (Romans 5:8; 6:23).Throughout the film The Passion of the Christ, the filmmaker, Mel Gibson, is the one whose hands you witness driving the nails through Christ’s hands.Mel Gibson is a Christian.He did it this way to serve as a constant reminder to himself and everyone else that it was our faults that condemned Jesus to death on the cross.

  1. Return to the previous page: Questions regarding Jesus Christ Who was to blame for the killing of Jesus Christ?
  2. Who was responsible for Jesus’ death?

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What Killed Jesus

  1. The Gospels include very little information on the process of crucifixion.
  2. All St.
  3. Mark (15:24) provides is the phrase ″and they crucified him,″ with no more explanation of how the execution was carried out or how the cross tormented its victim.

When the early Christians repeated the Creed, they supplied nothing more than the following: ″He was crucified under Pontius Pilate, tortured, died, and was buried.″ This dramatic event occurs at the conclusion of the Christian play.In spite of this, tradition considers the topic to be little more than a historical truth.

″They nailed him on a cross.″ ″He was nailed on a cross.″ There is no coroner’s report, and there is no meticulous medical reconstruction in history.Perhaps our earliest Christian forefathers couldn’t bring themselves to say anything else.They had witnessed the crucifixion of men.The travel to the outskirts of town was an option if they wanted to calculate the price of their salvation in terms of blood and suffering and disgrace.Because we have not grown up with the experience of public executions and public torture, unlike Christians throughout much of history, we have a unique perspective.

  • Nonetheless, as with every murder victim’s family, we are driven by a desire to learn the truth about our Savior and brother, not least because we think He died for our benefit.
  • With his professional expertise, Pittsburgh physician Jack McKeating has committed himself to this topic for the past 15 years, studying historical and archaeological facts in the context of modern medical research.
  • ‘Any sincere Christian must take a personal interest in the suffering and death of Jesus Christ,’ McKeating said in an interview with Our Sunday Visitor.
  • ″Unfortunately, we’re generally far too detached from the situation.
  • Our natural tendency is to conceive of things in abstract terms, as if it were an abstraction.

However, it involves a genuine person who, out of love for me, through an utterly harrowing ordeal in order to help me.″ In the late 1980s, while away from home on a fellowship in surgical oncology, McKeating developed an interest in the field of robotics.I was in a Bible study with three other surgeons at the time, ″one of whom was a fundamentalist, one of whom was a Methodist, one who was a Baptist, and one who was me.″ One morning, one of his colleagues presented ″On the Physical Death of Jesus Christ,″ a 1986 research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, to him for consideration.The descriptions of the crucifixion from ancient sources were compiled for this research.In this study, the skeletal remains of crucified individuals were examined, and all of the information was weighed in the context of modern medical research.

After reading the JAMA research, McKeating discovered the standard literature in the area, A Doctor at Calvary, authored by French Catholic surgeon Pierre Barbet, which provides a detailed description of his experiences.Barbet finished his work in 1949, after years of study and writing.McKeating commends both investigations for their scholarly excellence as well as their unwavering rigor.″Anyone who wants to learn about this subject has to start with these sources,″ he explained.″But bear in mind that this is only the beginning.As medical science progresses, we have the opportunity to understand much more about our Lord’s passion.″ What was the most common method of crucifixion?

  1. Doctors such as McKeating and Barbet, as well as the JAMA team, have sought to recreate the events by applying their medical understanding to the historical material in question.

Maximum pain

The ancient Romans were particularly gifted in the art of torture.It aided them in maintaining order throughout a huge kingdom.To would-be rebels and insurgents, the public picture of great suffering, which was repeated on a regular basis, functioned as a deterrent.The crucifixion represented the pinnacle of sophistication in the Roman technique of torture.It was described as ″the most horrible of deaths″ by the Jewish historian Josephus.

It was created with the goal of causing the greatest amount of agony in the greatest number of bodily parts for the longest length of time.Due to the fact that crucifixion was humiliating, it was often reserved for slaves, lower-class offenders, or those who had committed very severe crimes.The nude guy was presented to a snobbish audience that took pleasure in such spectacles as he was stripped naked.They pelted him with stones, spit on him, and jeered at him.The executioners stretched the condemned man’s arms and tied them to a wooden beam, signaling the beginning of the end.They would also occasionally drive nails into the man’s wrists, where they would pierce the very sensitive median nerve.

For the initial hammer strike, the executioner relied on the element of surprise to complete the execution.It was quite improbable that the sufferer had ever experienced such agony before.Barbet determined that it was ″the most terrible suffering that a man could ever endure.″ A problem may arise if you try to nail the second arm since the nervous system will immediately react negatively to any replication of the pain you experienced with the first arm.

  • The executioner would have to fight against an arm that would be implacably hostile to his attempts.
  • All of this haggling, which was done against the victim’s will, would only exacerbate the anguish in the arm that had already been nailed.
  • Following that, the beam was fastened to a pole.
  • The pain in the median nerve was reactivated with each movement of the beam.
  • All of this, however, was only a precursor to the true pain that was to come: crucifixion.

Suddenly, the sufferer found himself hanging above the ground with his torso sagged forward, his knees bowed, and his feet placed as if he were standing on tiptoe.He was unconscious.With his body in that posture, it was nearly hard for him to take another breath.″When the body is stretched out by the cross, McKeating remarked, ″the diaphragm is pulled down and the lungs are maintained open by this pressure.″ It takes some work to take a breath in and much greater effort to exhale, since breathing is generally a very passive activity.″ In order to breathe in or out, the victim had to pull his body up by the nails in his wrists and push up on the nail in his feet, which caused him to lose consciousness.

  1. He could feel the harsh metal ripping at his nerves with every breath, so he held his breath.
  2. His limbs were increasingly constricted and weaker.
  3. As he became less able to raise himself up, he began to suffocate, one breath at a time.
  • During his ordeal, a crucifixion victim cycled between a frightened sensation of asphyxiation and the burning pain of nails embedded in his body.
  • The relief from one resulted in the occurrence of the other.
  • This might last for several hours or perhaps days in the case of a powerful man.
  • If the Romans wished to speed up the procedure, they would break the victim’s legs so that he would no longer be able to raise his head to take a breath.

Even before the cross

″Jesus was most likely a physically robust man,″ McKeating speculated.″He was still quite young, he put in a lot of effort, and he preferred to travel on foot.However, by the time He arrived to Calvary, He had already endured several hours of preparatory tortures, which may have been enough to kill him.″ ″His perspiration became like droplets of blood dripping to the ground″ in the Garden of Gethsemane, according to the Bible (Lk 22:44).Following Barbet’s lead, the JAMA paper connects this to a disorder known as hematidrosis or hemohidrosis, which involves hemorrhage into the sweat glands.This is an uncommon illness that affects people who are experiencing the most severe emotions possible.

It causes the skin to become very fragile and extremely sensitive to pain.As His captors ″mocked him and battered him,″ Jesus would have felt every stroke with great intensity (Lk 22:63).As the beatings proceeded over the course of many hours, He was also made to walk from one questioning in front of the Sanhedrin to another in front of Pilate to another in front of Herod to another in front of Pilate.According to the findings of the JAMA study, He walked around two and a half kilometers during that restless night.Pilate ordered that Jesus be flogged, and Roman whipping was capable of killing a man on its own.A traditional whip made of strands was studded with metal, sharp animal bones, or shards of pottery to give it a distinctive appearance.

It was created with the intent of bruising and tearing the skin.The torturers would whip a victim twice, once on each side, while he was tied to a stake or pillar.This was common practice.It was most likely at this location that Jesus experienced His greatest blood loss.

  • His back, which had been ripped open by the Romans, was then forced to endure the rough wood of the crossbeam, which weighed between 75 and 125 pounds.
  • He had to carry the weight for a third of a mile, through a difficult path from Pilate’s praetorium to the hill of Calvary.
  • He must have fallen on his face a lot.
  • ″Some people believe that Jesus’ suffering was made easier by the fact that he was God,″ McKeating explained.
  • ″However, this is not the case.
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Many theologians think that He suffered in a more severe manner because He was fully aware of what was taking place around Him.Furthermore, His senses would have been more keen and sensitive to pain since they were not dulled in the least by sin and self-indulgence, as ours are.″

Cause of death

What was it that murdered Jesus?″I believe it is a combination of factors,″ McKeating added.″I believe that suffocating asphyxia was the most likely cause of death in this case.However, I believe that the end occurred quite quickly, in just three lengthy hours, because our Lord was undoubtedly in shock when He was crucified in the first place.″ He was most likely in Class 3 shock, out of a potential 4 after the exposure, the mental duress, the brutal beating, and finally the scourging.″ Physiologists have long characterized shock as the abrupt unhinging of the cellular machinery that keeps our bodies running smoothly.″According to the technical definition,″ McKeating explained ″The reason for this is that our body’s tissues are not receiving appropriate blood flow.

Our bodies have a typical blood volume of five liters.A regular Roman scourging, according to McKeating, would have resulted in a man losing one and a half liters of blood.He would have been weaker and nervous and disoriented as a result of the shock, hastening his demise.McKeating believes that the Gospels point to further reasons.″Following Jesus’ death, the soldier’s lance thrust resulted in the release of blood and water (Jn 19:34).I’m curious as to where the water came from.

It’s most likely a pericardial effusion.Internal injuries, pulmonary contusions, bruising, and beatings would have caused fluid to accumulate in His chest cavity or the sac around His heart, which would have caused it to fill with fluid.Every time the heart beat, it couldn’t grow as much as it needed to, and it couldn’t fill up as much as it should have.It would eventually come to an end.″ According to forensic experts, the better we understand what killed someone, the more probable it is that we will be able to determine who killed him.

  • Who was responsible for Jesus’ death?
  • McKeating doesn’t dither when asked about his research, which has spanned over two decades and a half.
  • ″I did,″ he confessed.
  • ″It was my misdeeds that caused it.″

Who Killed Jesus?

Who was responsible for Jesus’ death? It is unclear if it was the Jews who delivered Him up to the Romans, or whether it was the Romans or even us. You might be surprised by the response.

The Romans

It is fair to think that the Romans were responsible for Jesus’ death.The authority to murder Him and the authority to free Him were both in their hands.When the Jews brought Jesus before Pontius Pilate, Pilate recognized that the man was innocent and, thus, not deserving of execution by crucifixion on the cross.″I see no evidence of guilt in him,″ Pilate informed the Jews (John 19:6).Because Pilate had sent Jesus to Herod, presumably in an attempt to get Jesus off Herod’s hands and avoid being held responsible for His murder, ″Pilate then gathered the top priests and the rulers and the people, and said to them, ″You have sent me this man as one who is deceiving the people.

″ And, after questioning him in front of you, I can tell you that I did not find this man guilty of any of the allegations you brought against him.Herod didn’t like him either, as evidenced by the fact that he was returned to us.Look, he hasn’t done anything that deserves to be executed.As a result, I shall punish him and then release him″ (Luke 23:13-17).After all that, Pilate tried a third time and asked, ″Why?″ What heinous deed has he committed?″I have found no evidence of guilt deserving of death in him″ (Luke 23:22).

Additionally, keep in mind that Pilate had the authority to free Jesus (John 19:1).Pilate was well aware that Jesus had broken no Roman rules and was thus not deserving of death.Furthermore, Jesus was never given a fair trial, he was condemned based on the evidence of false witnesses, and he was put to death despite the fact that He was fully innocent and without guilt at the time.The Romans, or at the very least Pontius Pilate, are to blame for bowing in to the pressure of the multitude.

  • When ″a disturbance began to erupt, he stood in front of the mob and washed his hands, declaring, ″I am innocent of this man’s blood; see to it yourselves″ (Matt 27:24).
  • In actuality, the blood on Pontius Pilate’s hands never dried up and dried up.
  • Responsibility cannot be washed away by water.

The Jews

Did the Jews assassinate Jesus?Sure, they were the ones who handed Jesus over to Pontius Pilate, but according to Pilate, it was because they envied Him (Matt 27:18).As a result, Pilate must have suspected the Jews were attempting to get Jesus out of the way.″Look, the whole world has gone after him,″ they said more than once (John 12:19), and as a result, the Jews wanted to assassinate Jesus during His earthly mission and were always attempting to trip Him up in order to discourage others from following Him.Their true motivation was to have Him killed because the more people who followed Him, the less people who followed them, and therefore their motivation was totally selfish.

The Jews fabricated fake witnesses, staged an unlawful trial in the middle of the night with some members of the court absent, and were ultimately responsible for handing Jesus over to the Romans to be executed.It is important to note that the Jews did not approach Herod initially, but rather Pilate.Furthermore, it is remarkable that they did not take Jesus to Herod first, as Herod would have preferred, but instead went straight to Pilate, presumably under the impression that Pilate would be more willing to execute Jesus than Herod would have been.Herod may have been hesitant to do so because he had a soft spot for Jesus and believed that he was a prophet of God, according to tradition.So, even though they did not physically nail Jesus to the crucifixion, did the Jews murder Him in their hearts and minds?Does this make them liable for delivering Him over to be captured by the Romans?

The majority of the world appears to believe this, which has resulted in enormous misery for the Jews and unjustified responsibility for Jesus’ murder throughout history, to say nothing of the injustice.″However, he was pierced for our trespasses, and he was crushed for our iniquities,″ says the Scripture.Isaiah 53:5 (KJV)

Was it Us?

Several of us think that Jesus died as a result of our sins, leading others to proclaim, ″Our sins murdered Jesus.″ But is this statement truthful or even true?Were we not murdered by our sins when Jesus died, or were we killed by our sins when Jesus died?Our sins did not inevitably result in Jesus’ death, because He freely surrendered His life as a ransom for the sins of the world (Mark 10:45).Please do not misunderstand me.Ultimately, Jesus’ death was necessary, but the plan from before time was for Jesus to take on human flesh (John 1:1-14), live a spotless life, suffer and die on the cross before rising on the third day to complete our salvation.

It was necessary for Jesus to die, and therefore our sins appeared to have resulted in His death; however, this is all part of God’s sovereign plan, which began before the foundation of the world, and I believe we have finally discovered the One who murdered Jesus.

Who Killed Jesus?

Isaiah the Prophet, and in particular, Isaiah 53, will likely remind you that Jesus is the suffering servant, and that ″he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities″ (Isaiah 53:5), which means that Jesus had to die for our sins because ″we, like sheep, have gone astray; we have turned—each to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all.″ If you’ve ever read (Isaiah 53:6).The Jews, too, desired to see Jesus crucified, but we would never have wanted Jesus to die, and if we had our way, we’d all perish in our sins without a Savior, but we know that this would never have happened if it had not been the Father’s will, and we can rest assured that ″it was the will of the LORD to crush him; he has put him to grief″ (Isaiah 53:10).He died for us, but not as a result of our actions.It was the Father’s desire that this happen.When Peter attempted to persuade Jesus to abstain from going to the crucifixion, which we may have done as well, Jesus scolded Peter, saying, ″Get behind me, Satan!

You are a stumbling block for me.Because you are not focusing your thoughts on the things of God, but rather on the things of man″ (Matt 16:23).″Jesus answered to Peter, ″Put your sword into its sheath; should I not drink the cup that the Father has given me?″ (John 18:11) to put the exclamation point on the truth that the Father murdered Jesus and that it was done for our sakes.This is the cup that Jesus was given by the Father.It was for this purpose that He came into the earth.Despite the fact that Jesus asked three times for the cup to be taken, He recognized that it was the Father’s decision and bowed entirely to it.


Oh, saints of God, praise and thank God for everything that you have done.We should give thanks to God that it was Father’s plan for Jesus to ″pour out his soul to death and be numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors″ (Isaiah 53:12), and that all Three Persons of the Trinity were in complete agreement on this.Their wills were completely aligned with one another.Isn’t it true that even now Jesus prays for us, as He stated in John 17:20-21, ″I do not ask for these only, but also for those who will believe in me through their word,″ that they may all be one, just as you, Father, are in me and I am in you, that they may also be in us, so that the world may believe that you have sent me?″He had to be made like his brothers in every regard″ in order for him to ″become a compassionate and loyal high priest in the service of God, making propitiation for the sins of the people,″ as the Apostle Paul explains.

″Therefore, brethren, because we have confidence to enter the holy places by the blood of Jesus,″ says the Bible (Heb 2:17).(Heb 10:19).Every one of these things happened because it was the Father’s will that Jesus would die for sinners, and because nothing happens outside of God’s sovereign will, it was the Father’s will that Jesus be bruised and pierced, but even more importantly, that He be ″poured out his soul to death″ in order that He might bear ″the sins of many.″ Thank you, Father, and thank you, Jesus, and thank you, Holy Spirit.I appreciate everything.Here’s some connected reading material for your consideration: Resource: Why Did Jesus Say On The Cross That God Had Forsaken Him?In this section, Scripture quotes are taken from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version (ESV®), published by Crossway Bibles (2007).

The ESV is an abbreviation for English Standard Version.Crossway Bibles are published in Wheaton, Illinois.Permission has been granted to use.All intellectual property rights are retained.

  • Tagged as: Calvary, Cross, and Crucifixion

Who Killed Jesus? – Questions And Answers

The Gospels paint a vivid picture of Jesus Christ’s final twenty-four hours, which includes his death, in great detail (Matthew 26-27, Mark 14-15, Luke 22-23 and John 18-20).Scholars are practically agreed in their conclusion that the Synoptic Gospels suggest that a Roman death squad slew Jesus on the eve of Passover in Jerusalem somewhere around the year 30 AD.A plan to arrest Jesus, according to Matthew 26:3-4, involved several Jewish officials in Jerusalem, as well as at least one of Jesus’ own disciples, Judas Iscariot (Matthew 26:14-16), as well as Pontus Pilate, the Roman governor, according to the Gospels.Pilate’s role in the events of the New Testament is further documented in the New Testament (see Acts 3:13; 4:27: 13:28; 1 Timothy 6:13).Beginning with His arrest in Gethsemane, the Gospels recount how Jesus was repeatedly turned over to different parties, until he was finally turned over to those who would bodily put him to death.

From at least the Middle Ages forward, European Christians, who were now nearly one hundred percent non-Jewish, began to blame the murder of Jesus on all Jews, past and present, as a result of a few specific passages in the New Testament that they saw as anti-Jewish, if not anti-Semitic.Apparently, these interpreters had forgotten that Jesus, like all of his disciples, was a devout Jew.While the New Testament text does not provide a consistent reaction to Jesus by His own people to His mission, it does reflect a nuanced response by His own people to His mission; some thought He was the long-promised Messiah, while others embraced him as a holy man, a prophet, healer, and teacher.Some others were hesitant about his message, while others were outright hostile.However, this relatively tiny, but strong minority was frequently terrified of the ″people″ (Matthew 26:5), indicating that the majority of Jews living in Jewish-Palestine were at least partially sympathetic to Jesus’ cause.Other Jews, particularly those residing in the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East, evidently had little or no knowledge of His actions and the events surrounding His arrest and execution until a long time after the events took place.

Although it appears that no single individual or group was solely and completely responsible for Jesus Christ’s death, it appears that many individuals and various groups were involved in the terrible events that transpired on that fateful Passover night, which culminated in the cruel crucifixion of the Messiah.″Following a messianic entry into Jerusalem just before Pesah in 30 CE, he was arrested as a potential revolutionary and executed (by crucifixion) by order of the Roman procurator Pontius Pilate, most likely at the instigation of Jewish circles fearful of the Roman reactions to messianic agitation,″ according to the author.Three hundred and sixty-eighth page of the The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), edited by R.J.

  • Zwi Weblowsky and Geoffrey Widoder, page 368.
  • ‘Even if the Jews killed Jesus (as recounted in the gospel of John), it is often argued that this was a positive thing because it resulted in the resurrection.
  • However, regardless of whether the crucifixion had a positive or negative effect, the blame for its inception must be examined honestly.
  • Furthermore, it is possible that post-Vatican II Catholics and liberal Protestants may see ‘the Jews’ as standing in for ‘us all.’ There is a great deal of truth in that view of corporate responsibility, as we will see further below, but that interpretation can never be used to justify incarnating such widespread culpability in any one group, and especially not in ″the Jews.″ John Dominic Crossan, emeritus professor at DePaul University and a founding member of the Jesus Seminar, is a Christian theologian and author.
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Who Killed Jesus? (List of Conspirators)

The topic of who killed Jesus is one that multitudes of people all across the world have questioned themselves. The crucifixion of Jesus Christ was orchestrated by a group of six individuals. The six (6) conspirators who conspired to assassinate Jesus were as follows:

  1. Judas Iscariot, Pontius Pilate, an unknown Roman Centurion, Herod Antipas, Joseph Caiaphas, and the Sanhedrin – the Jewish High Council

Each of the conspirators contributed to the advancement of the process in his or her own way.The conspirators’ motivations varied from animosity to money to a sense of obligation.Many years ago, the prophets of the Old Testament predicted that the messiah would be carried to the slaughterhouse like a sacrifice lamb ready to be slaughtered.It was the only means by which the world might be redeemed from the effects of sin that remained.The following article recounts the part performed by each conspirator in the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, and it is considered to be the most significant trial in history because of its significance.

History of Crucifixion

After carrying the crucifixion cross of Jesus Christ for a long time, it is believed that Simon of Cyrene was the man who carried the cross after Jesus himself collapsed from exhaustion.It was because of this episode that the term ″Jesus bears his own cross″ became well-known.Read |The Apocalypse: Its Meaning, Folklore, and Synonyms from the Bible When Jesus addressed the audience, he specifically addressed the ladies there as ″Daughters of Jerusalem″ who were grieving for him before to his crucifixion, a distinction that distinguished them from the women who accompanied Jesus to his execution.The Via Dolorosa is the name given to the path that was used to transport Jesus Christ to the site of his crucifixion on the cross.

It has a physical presence on the streets of Jerusalem’s old city.″Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves and your children,″ Jesus Christ said to the women who were weeping in the crowd just before his crucifixion.Remember that the days are coming when they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, and blessed are those who never bore children, and blessed are those who never nursed their children!’ Then they’ll start calling out to the mountains, telling them to ″fall on us,″ and to the hills, telling them to ″cover us.″ If they do these things when the wood is still young, imagine what will happen when the wood dries.″

List of the Conspirators (Who Killed Jesus?)

The killing of Jesus Christ was a collaborative effort involving many individuals.However, the accurate solution to the issue of who killed Jesus has just six names in the list of possible candidates.One hundred and sixty-six persons were involved in the execution of Jesus Christ, the majority of them were Roman centurions.They included Pontius Pilate, Judas Iscariot, Caiaphas, the Sanhedrin, Herod Antipas, and an unknown Roman centurion.

1. The Sanhedrin – Jewish High Council

The Sanhedrin was the Jewish High Council for Israel’s High Court, and it was responsible for enforcing mosaic law in the country.The president of this specific Court was the high priest Joseph Caiaphas, who presided over the proceedings.He was the one who assassinated Jesus and allowed the accusations of blasphemy against Christ to be brought against him.Despite the fact that Jesus Christ was innocent, this particular Court voted in favor of convicting him.Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea were the only ones who did not participate in this.

From A to Z, 100+ Biblical Animal Names may be found on this page.Although Jesus Christ had died as a result of his punishment, this specific court did not have the authority to order his death.They require the assistance of Pontius Pilate, the Roman Governor who has been assigned to this special jurisdiction.As a result, it was this specific Court that issued the order for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

2. Pontius Pilate

Pontius Pilate was the Roman governor of Judea at the time of Jesus Christ’s crucifixion, and he is also the guy who provides the answer to the issue of who was responsible for Jesus’ death.In ancient Israel, he was the only one who has the ability to give someone life or death at will.He was the only one who could put an end to the lives of any criminals who happened to be present in that specific location.When Jesus Christ was brought before him for trial, the Governor determined that there was no justification for putting him to death.He ordered that Jesus Christ be mercilessly flogged and then sent him to Herod, who would return him to the cross.

However, the court of Israel and the Pharisees were not at all pleased, and they demanded more investigation.As the one who murdered Jesus, he was sentenced to a cruel death, a punishment reserved by the court for only the most vicious offenders existing in the region at the time.Having always been a politician throughout his life, Governor Agrippa wiped his hands clean and then gave Jesus Christ to one of his centurions in exchange for carrying out the death sentence.As a result of the court’s decision and the decree of the ruler of Judea, Jesus Christ was crucified.

3. Judas Iscariot

In the New Testament, Judas Iscariot was one of the twelve disciples who were personally chosen by Jesus Christ.The group’s treasurer, he also oversaw the group’s common money bag, which he kept in his possession.Despite the fact that he is referenced in certain religious scriptures and sacred books as having had no part in the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, other literary works claim that he was the one who betrayed his master for the sum of thirty pieces of silver.Read More |The Folklore and Importance of the Kingdom of God This was the regular sum that had to be paid in order to purchase a Slave from the market.

Nevertheless, as some academics have claimed, he may have done this particular act out of avarice or in order to force the messiah to overturn the Roman government.During his lifetime, he moved from being one of Jesus Christ’s closest friends to being listed first on the list of the conspirators responsible for the killing of Jesus Christ.

4. Centurion

One day, a court order and a governor issued to an obscure commander in the ancient Roman Army, which drastically transformed his life.As punishment for crucifying Jesus Christ of Nazareth, he was ordered by the court.Despite the fact that he is referenced in the Bible, his precise name and other information are not known.He was acting under the direct commands of the Governor and the guy who was under the specific Centurion’s command for the purpose of carrying out the crucifixion, and he was doing it in a cold and professional manner.Take a look at this |

What are the Holy Days of Obligation in the Catholic Church?

5. Herod Antipas

His title was Herod Antipas, and he was assigned by the Romans to be the tetrarch, or ruler, of Perea and Galilee.Because Jesus Christ was both a Galilean and a subject of Herod’s jurisdiction, the governor of Judea dispatched Jesus Christ to him on his behalf.He had previously assassinated the famous Prophet John the Baptist, who was a companion of Jesus Christ as well as a Kinsman of the Messiah.So, rather than speak his mind and tell the truth, he ordered Jesus Christ to perform a miracle in his presence.Read more about 15 Best Christian Easter Songs with Lyrics.

When the man remained deafeningly silent, Jesus Christ ordered him to be returned to the Governor for death.

6. Joseph Caiaphas

From the 18th through the 37th centuries AD, Joseph Caiaphas served as the most senior priest in the temple of Jerusalem.In ancient Israel, he was the most powerful man alive, and his position was endangered by the popularity of the Jewish Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth.He had a significant part in the death of Jesus Christ because he believed that Jesus Christ would instigate an uprising that would result in a clampdown by the Roman authorities.Read more about Why Do People Wave Palm Leaves on Palm Sundays?

Crucifixion Method

History has it that Jesus Christ was executed on a traditional two-crossbeam scaffold, according to historians. It was decided to use nails to link the two beams together. After that, Jesus Christ was crucified on the cross with the help of two nails (one in each palm) and two nails in the feet (one in each knee). Randy Travis’s Glory Train Songs are worth reading.

Crucifixion of Jesus

The crucifixion of Jesus Christ is said to have taken place between the years AD 30 and AD 33, approximately.The canonical gospels include a comprehensive account of the events surrounding Jesus’ crucifixion and death.However, there are no precise dates or times given for this episode, and the question of how old Jesus was when he died has long been a source of contention among historians, both Christians and non-Christians, about the circumstances surrounding his death.Read Top Famous Christian Female Singers Who Have Made Their Mark


Who was responsible for the death of Jesus Christ is a question that arises not just in the thoughts of Christians, but also in the minds of non-Christians all around the world.As a result, it has been determined that the six conspirators and their efforts were responsible for the killing of Jesus, based on recorded pieces of evidence found in the holy writings.Pontius Pilate, Judas Iscariot, Caiaphas, the Sanhedrin, Herod Antipas, and an unknown Roman centurion were among those who conspired against Jesus.

People Also Ask (FAQs)

Why is Judas Iscariot considered to be the main culprit behind the death of Jesus Christ?

Judas Iscariot is widely regarded as the primary traitor and perpetrator of the death of Jesus Christ, owing to the fact that he went from being the closest friend of Jesus Christ to being his adversary and backstabber in a matter of days.

Who was the man who carried the crossbeam on which Jesus Christ was crucified?

Simon of Cyrene is widely thought to have been the man who carried the crossbeam on which Jesus Christ was crucified, according to tradition. He was driven to do so by the Romans since he had done the same.

When did Jesus Christ Die?

On the 3rd of April in the year AD 33, at 3 p.m., it is mentioned in the much-honored scripture and religious sources that Jesus Christ passed away.

The case against Caiaphas


It is believed that no trial or death in history has had such a dramatic effect as Jesus’ trial and execution in Roman-occupied Jerusalem two thousand years ago.But, more importantly, was it an execution or a judicial murder, and who was to blame?Jesus, a Galilean renegade, comes into Jerusalem on a donkey, purposefully fulfilling a prophesy in the Hebrew Bible concerning the advent of the Messiah, and the narrative begins there.He’s surrounded by a throng of admirers.The following day, Jesus storms the Temple, which serves as the focal point of Jewish religious life, and confronts money-changers for defiling a sacred space.

It is recognized by the Jewish elite and by the Romans that Jesus possesses the charisma necessary to lead a guerilla movement against Imperial Rome, and they are both concerned about his authority.Jesus is captured in the Garden of Gethsemane and brought before Caiaphas before being judged by the Roman Governor.He has been sentenced to death and will be executed.


Caiaphas was in an advantageous position.Caiaphas was a master political manipulator and one of the most powerful men in Jerusalem at the time of Jesus’ death.As High Priest of the Temple, he’d already lived 18 years (the average High Priest only lasts 4), and he’d formed a solid alliance with the Roman forces in control of the temple complex.Caiaphas was well-connected to everyone who mattered.At the time, he was the de-facto king of the whole Jewish community around the world, and he intended to maintain it that way.

The argument against Caiaphas is that he arrested Jesus, tried him in a kangaroo court, and condemned him on a religious charge that bore the death sentence.This is the basis for the death penalty.

What were Caiaphas’ motives?

Caiaphas’ power was threatened by Jesus.Caiaphas could not afford to allow any upstart preacher to get away with challenging his authority, especially at such a sensitive time of year as Passover was approaching.This was the most important Jewish holiday, and academics estimate that over two and a half million Jews would have gathered in Jerusalem to celebrate the occasion.Caiaphas did not want to be seen as a fool.

Jesus threatened Caiaphas’ relationship with Rome

Caiaphas’ power foundation was the Sanhedrin, the ultimate Jewish council that ruled over both civil and religious law in the time of Jesus.It was comprised of 71 members, the majority of whom were chief priests, and Caiaphas presided over its proceedings.There were enormous benefits for the effort, since contemporary archaeologists have revealed that Caiaphas and his companions lived luxurious lives in homes that were vast and elaborately adorned.However, the Sanhedrin was only able to rule because the Romans granted them permission, and the only way to keep the Romans pleased was to maintain order in society.

  • The fact that Caiaphas was a Roman appointee meant that he needed to have a close relationship with the governor, Pilate, in order to maintain his position of power and maintain his opulent lifestyle.
  • In other words, if Jesus was causing difficulty, it was causing trouble for both Caiaphas and Pilate – and trouble for Pilate was still trouble for Caiaphas, as well.
  • Jesus was unquestionably a danger; the general public admired him, and it is possible that they paid more attention to him than they did to the priests; and the general public listened attentively to his criticism of what he perceived to be wrong with the religious system.

Jesus threatened the Temple’s income

Jesus was also posing a danger to a valuable source of revenue for the Temple’s priests.When it came to simple concerns like cleansing and the remission of sins, the Temple equipment brought in tremendous sums of money.Archaeologists have unearthed 150 mikvehs in the area surrounding the Temple of Solomon.Mikvehs are ceremonial baths that Jews take to cleanse themselves before participating in any religious activity.

  • People who were ritually unclean could not enter the Temple, and practically everyone who arrived in Jerusalem for Passover was regarded to be ritually unclean.
  • Before they could fulfill their religious requirements, they had to go to a mikveh and purify themselves.
  • The mikvehs were under the supervision of the priests, who charged people to use them.
  • Because there were so many restrictions concerning ritual cleansing, controlling the mikvehs was a viable means of collecting money for some.
  • Jesus felt the whole thing was a load of nonsense.
  • He preached that the intricate purity ceremonies were superfluous since the Kingdom of God was accessible to everyone and that they did not need to go through these rituals or pay the money in order to enter

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