The Crucifixion of Jesus and the Jews
Jesus was executed because he was a Jewish victim of Roman persecution. On this point, all documented authorities are in agreement. His execution was ordered by the Gentile Roman ruler, Pontius Pilate, who had him tortured and killed by Gentile Roman troops before he was executed. In fact, Jesus was one of thousands of Jews who were executed by the Romans. The New Testament not only attests to this fundamental reality, but it also provides for Jewish participation in two ways. A small group of high-ranking Jewish officials who owed their positions and authority to the Romans colluded with the Gentile leaders to have Jesus executed; they are claimed to have been envious of Jesus and to have regarded him as an existential danger to the status quo.
The number of individuals in this mob is not specified, nor is there any explanation provided for their actions (other than the fact that they had been “stirred up,” as stated in Mark 15:11).
As recorded in Matthew, the Roman ruler wipes his hands of Jesus’ blood, as the Jews exclaim, “His blood be upon us and upon our children!” (Matthew 27:25.) Throughout Jesus’ mission, the Jews are shown as desiring to murder him in John’s Gospel (John 5:18,John 7:1,John 8:37).
This shift in emphasis is not entirely clear, but one obvious possibility is that as the church spread throughout the world, Romans rather than Jews became the primary targets of evangelism; as a result, there may have been some motivation to “off-the-hook” the Romans and blame the Jews for Jesus’ death rather than the other way around.
However, by the middle of the second century, the apocryphal Gospel of Peter presents the Romans as Jesus’ supporters, and the Jews as those who crucify him, according to tradition.
As a result, anti-Semitism has fed such beliefs for ages, culminating in the crude demonization of Jews as “Christ-killers.” Christians have traditionally held, in opposition to such predictions, that the human actors responsible for Jesus’ execution are irrelevant: he offered his life voluntarily as a sacrifice for sin (Mark 10:45;John 18:11).
“Let his blood be upon us and upon our children!” cries out the congregation in most liturgical churches when Matthew’s PassionNarrativeis read during a worship service.
In most liturgical churches, when Matthew’s PassionNarrativeis read during a worship service, all members of the congregation are invited to echoMatt 27:25aloud, crying out, “Let his blood be upon us and upon our children!”
Mark Allan Powell is a professor of New Testament at Trinity Lutheran Seminary in St. Paul, Minnesota (Columbus, Ohio). He is the editor of the HarperCollins Bible Dictionary and the author of Introducing the New Testament (Baker, 2009) andJesus as a Figure in History (Westminster, 2009). He received his bachelor’s degree from Harvard University. John Knox Publishing Company, 2012). A gathering of individuals who are participating in religious services and are worshiping. The proclamation of “the good news” of Jesus Christ to the entire world.
- spurious gospel purporting to have been authored by the apostle Peter, but which was rejected by the early Roman Catholic Church as part of the canonical New Testament canon because of its apocryphal nature.
- A narrative that has been written, spoken, or recorded.
- God’s character and actions are discussed through writing, conversation, or contemplation.
- 15:1111 (Mark 15:1111) The leading priests, on the other hand, incited the mob to demand that Jesus release Barabbas for them instead.
27:2525 (KJV) Following that, the entire population exclaimed, “His blood be on us and on our children!” 5:1818 (John 5:1818) In order to assassinate him, the Jews increased their efforts even further, believing that he was not only violating the Sabbath but also referring to God as his own Father in the process.
- He did not want to travel about in Judea since the Jews were searching for an occasion to attack him and his family.
- 1 2:14-1514 (Thess 2:14-1514) Because you, brothers and sisters, were models for the churches of God in Christ Jesus that are located in Judea, because you experienced the same things from your own compa, you became imitators of those churches.
- Observe further information 10:45:45 (Mark 10:45:45) The Son of Man, after all, did not come to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” 18:1111 (John 18:1111) “Put your sword back into its sheath,” Jesus instructed Peter to do.
- God, on the other hand, demonstrates his love for us by sending Christ to die for us while we were still sinners.
- More details may be found at1 Tim 1:515 p.m.
When it comes to Christ Jesus coming into the world to help sinners—of which I am the foremost—the phrase is certain and deserving of complete acceptance. Matt. 27:2525 (KJV) Following that, the entire population exclaimed, “His blood be on us and on our children!”
Who Killed Jesus?
Trinity Lutheran Seminary’s Mark Allan Powell is a professor of New Testament (Columbus, Ohio). He is the editor of the HarperCollins Bible Dictionary and the author of Introducing the New Testament (Baker, 2009) andJesus as a Figure in History (Westminster, 2009). He received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. In 2012, John Knox published an article entitled There is a congregation of individuals who are worshiping at a religious service. Bringing “the good news” of Jesus Christ to the public attention.
- A gospel is a written narrative of Jesus of Nazareth’s life that is passed down from generation to generation.
- A narrative told orally, in writing, or on tape or disc Along with the Old Testament, the Christian Bible is comprised of a collection of works from the first century by Jews and Christians.
- Known in Hebrew as Ketuvim, this portion of the Jewish canon is the third division.
- When all three divisions are combined, the acronym Tanakh is formed.
- A mob of people erupted in support of them, and he was forced to release Barabbas instead.
The Bible says in Matthew 27:2525 that Following that, the entire populace responded, “May his blood be on us and on our children!”
John 5:1818 (New International Version) In order to assassinate him, the Jews increased their efforts even further, believing that he was not only violating the Sabbath but also referring to God as his own Father, which was against the law of the land. Obtain further information In the book of John, verse one says, One of Jesus’ brothers does not believe in him. When Jesus returned to Galilee, he did not stop there. As a result, he did not want to travel across Judea since the Jews were searching for an opening.
1 2:14-1514 (Thessaloniki) In this way, brothers and sisters, you became imitators of the churches of God in Christ Jesus that are located in Judea, since you experienced the same things that the churches of God in Christ Jesus experienced from their own compa Obtain further information From Philippians 3:5 to 65, the Bible says Pharisee, a member of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew who was born of Hebrews; as to the law, a Pharisee;6 as to zeal, a Pharisee; as to zeal, a Pharisee Obtain further information Timings are 10:45 and 45.
- The Son of Man, after all, did not come to be served but to serve, and to sacrifice his life as a ransom for many.
- Is it not my responsibility to drink from the cup that the Father has given me?
- Although we were still sinners at the time, God demonstrates his compassion by sending his Son to die in our place.
- More details are available at 1 Tim 1:515 (in the morning) When it comes to Christ Jesus coming into the world to help sinners—of which I am the foremost—there is no doubt and no reason not to believe what is being spoken.
Jews Lacked A Motive for Killing Jesus
Indeed, most historians believe that it would have been more rational to place the responsibility for Jesus’ execution on the Romans. Crucifixion was a common form of punishment among the Romans, not among the Jews. At the time of Jesus’ execution, the Romans were enforcing a harsh and ruthless occupation on the Land of Israel, and the Jews had been rebellious at times throughout the occupation. The Romans would have had good cause to desire to silence Jesus, who had been dubbed “King of the Jews” by some of his disciples and was well-known as a Jewish upstart miracle worker at the time of his death.
The many factions of the Jewish society at the period — including the Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and others — had numerous differences with one another, but none of the organizations orchestrated the death of the leaders of the other purportedly heretical sects.
READ: The History of the Land of Israel Under Roman Control Nonetheless, the notion that Jews murdered Jesus can be found in Christian foundational literature dating back to the early days of the Jesus movement, and it is unlikely that it will be readily abandoned simply because of historians’ arguments.
The New Testament Account
It would seem more rational, according to the majority of historians, to lay the responsibility for Jesus’ execution on the Romans. Crucification was a common form of punishment in Rome, not among the Jewish people at that time. At the time of Jesus’ execution, the Romans were enforcing a harsh and ruthless occupation on the Land of Israel, and the Jews had been rebellious at times throughout this occupation. When some of Jesus’ supporters proclaimed him “King of the Jews,” the Romans would have had good cause to want to silence him.
When it came to assassinating Jesus, the Jews were lacking in motivation.
Thus, it is quite improbable that they would have chosen Jesus as a target.
However, the concept that Jews assassinated Jesus may be found in Christian foundational literature dating back to the early days of the Jesus movement, and it is unlikely to be readily disproved simply because of historical evidence.
Church Fathers and Thereafter
An etching from 1845 portraying King Herod and Pontius Pilate exchanging handshakes. (Photo by F.A. Ludy courtesy of Wellcome Images/Wikimedia Commons) With even more clarity and power, this allegation emerges in the works of the Church Fathers, who are considered to be the most authoritative Christian theologians who lived after the New Testament period. After explaining to his Jewish interlocutor why the Jews had experienced exile and the destruction of their Temple, Justin Martyr (mid-second century) concludes that these “tribulations were justly placed on you since you have assassinated the Just One” (Jesus Christ) (Dialogue with Trypho, chapter 16).
- A historical King Solomon addresses the Jews in “The Mystery of Adam,” a religious drama from the 12th century that prophesies that they would eventually slay the son of God, as depicted in the play.
- This statement is subject to verification.
- The masters of the law will be the ones who do this.
- They’ll descend from a tremendous height, and may they be comforted in their bereaved state of affairs.
In recent times, passion plays — large-scale outdoor theater events that dramatize the end of Jesus’ life and frequently feature hundreds of actors — have continued to spread this notion, as have other forms of religious expression.
In the Talmud
It’s worth noting that the notion that the Jews assassinated Jesus may be found in Jewish religious literature as well. Against the evidence of theBabylonian Talmud, on folio 43a of tractateSanhedrin, aberaita (a doctrine dating back to before the year 200 C.E.) says that Jesus was executed by a Jewish tribunal for the crimes of sorcery and insurrection. For this reason, there is a blank area near the bottom of that folio in normal Talmuds from Eastern Europe — or in American Talmuds that simply copied from them — since the possibly offending text has been omitted.
- This section has been restored in a number of recent Talmudic versions.) When the Talmud claims that the incident occurred on the eve of Passover, it follows the timeline given in the gospel of John, which is supported by historical evidence.
- Responsibility for the killing of Jesus is also given to the Jews in Jewish folk literature, such as the popular scurrilous Jewish biography of Jesus,Toledot Yeshu (which may be as old as the fourth century), and in Christian folk fiction.
- From the first through the nineteenth century, the degree of hostility between Jews and Christians was such that both parties believed the accusation that the Jews were responsible for the death of Jesus.
- People who believe the tales of the New Testament (or of the Talmud) to be credible historical sources should not be shocked if this belief prevails.
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Christian Persecution of Jews over the Centuries — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Many contemporary Jews believe that the horrors of Hitler’s reign were just the culmination of generations of Judenhass persecution (“Jew Hate”). Is this, however, what happened? What if Hitler, Rosenberg, Göring, Himmler, and the rest of the Nazis had pounced on the baptized Christians of Europe when they were at their most vulnerable?
The Earliest Christians
The claim made by Jesus’ disciples that their Master was the one and only true interpretation of the Mosaic Law was not out of the ordinary at the time. The assertion that God had risen him from the dead was what distinguished his disciples from the rest. The majority of Jews were able to take this in humor and, in the early days, without retaliating violently. As Pharisee-oriented Jews were well aware, the resurrection of the just will take place on the Last Day once Elijah’s coming had been proclaimed by the angel Gabriel.
The Jesus Jews were certain that it had been predicted in their people’s sacred writings.
The writings in Greek by ethnic Jews, gathered around 135 AD and eventually known as the New Testament, are the only documented records of the disputes over Jesus that existed in various Jewish communities throughout history.
The Christian writings were produced between 50 and 125 years ago, and they came to be known by the name of the covenant to which they were believed to have testified: a “new” or, better yet, “renewed” covenant (in Latin, but a slightly inaccurate translation of B’rith: Novum Testamentum), which was believed to have been witnessed by them.
- He uses the term “faith” to refer to complete confidence in God as the One who resurrected Jesus from the grave.
- In the Gospel of John, “the Jews” are addressed in a manner that is similar to and much harsher than this.
- Religious discord among Jews after the Holocaust was not unfamiliar territory for hard fighting and harsh language.
- Over the course of a century, one of the two plaintiffs lost his or her Jewish ethnicity.
- Because many Judean Jews were unfamiliar with Jesus, and because most Jews living outside of Israel were unaware of the movement until more than a century had passed, the movement was mostly ignored.
Although this was true, it did not prevent the new, mostly gentile preachers of the Gospel from concluding that the Jews’ lack of reaction was a result of their failure to recognize what they should have learned from their scriptures.
The dramatic shift occurred in the year 380. At this point, Theodosius I declared Christianity to be the official state religion of the Roman Empire. Despite the fact that pagans outnumbered the preferred immigrant at the time, the prior disparity in population between Jews and Christians was a distant memory by that point. However, as a result of this pronouncement, the Jewish position became insecure. However, although no political steps against Jews were taken immediately, the situation did not augur well for Judaism or any other faith apart from Christianity in the long run.
The emperor was forced to back down by Ambrose after a public dispute in his cathedral.
Christ, whom they have crucified and denied, who do you worship?
Peaceful Coexistence and Papal Intervention
There is no existing popular writing that tells us what ordinary Christians in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa believed about Jews and how they behaved toward them throughout the first six hundred years of Christianity’s existence. Due to the fact that they had never rejected their actions, it is likely that it cemented in the common mind the belief that the Jews had crucified Jesus and that their descendants held inherited guilt for the atrocity. Given the fact that heathen worship was the shared adversary, it is reasonable to assume that Jews and Christians coexisted amicably on a local level during the Middle Ages.
- Unsurprisingly, he supports their conversion to Christianity, but he also insists that they be treated fairly under Roman law.
- The papal communication was, for the most part, supportive of Jewish rights, but still maintaining their subservient place in the society in which they lived.
- Meanwhile, the expulsion of Jews from Europe was underway; it began in France under King Dagobert (626) and continued under the Spanish monarchy—with church collaboration—when the Jews were forced to choose between baptism and servitude in 694.
- The one-of-a-kind aspect was that the Christians came to the incorrect conclusion early on that the Jews were being divinely punished for not having converted to their way of thinking.
- From 500 to 1500, the Jews were a religious and cultural minority who were frequently preyed upon by the Christian majority, following a well-known sociological pattern during the time of their persecution.
- At the same time as severe infringements of Jewish rights are condemned, constraints on their ability to fully participate in society are imposed on them.
In spite of this, as many Jewish historians have pointed out, these infringements of civil and social liberty never reached the point of eradicating the Jewish people from the planet entirely—a scary first from the Nazi period, to say the least.
The Medieval Era
Once they had enjoyed a few decades of relative independence during the Carolingian period (800-1000), the Jews of western Europe began to experience fresh indignities as the Crusades progressed farther into history. In the attempted recovery of the holy sites in Palestine, the Muslims were designated as “infidels” by the Israelis. The looting and killing committed by Christian mobs against Jews along the road, on the other hand, will live on in Jewish memory for a long time. Several indignities were heaped upon the Jews of Germany following the Crusades, including charges of poisoning the wells and ritual murder, among other things.
- Many German Jews fled eastward, carrying with them a specific dialect (Jüdisch, ergo Yiddish), which was perhaps derived from Bavarians, which they brought with them.
- Lower or elementary school (heder) and Talmudic academy (yeshiva) were located everywhere in Poland, and autonomous systems of Jewish communal administration (the kahal) thrived there as well.
- The preceding centuries were unquestionably the pinnacle of Jewish intellectual life in Europe, which only served to highlight the tragedy of more recent Polish anti-Semitism in the country.
- Catherine the Great, who was born in Germany, reigned from 1725 to 1796 and was known as the “Great Empress.” Nevertheless, she relocated them to a piece of land as a means of keeping them out of economic jobs and the professions.
- Many an older Jew in the United States has heard vivid stories from grandparents about harsh measures in the old country, including the necessity of locking oneself in one’s house on Good Friday to protect one’s family from marauding ruffians during Passover.
- When nothing of the kind occurred, he slammed them in a series of pamphlets written in a vituperative rage that he distributed.
The early, positive “That Christ Was Born a Jew” was published in 1523, but after turning against this so-called “damned, rejected race,” he composed the works Against the Sabbatarians (1538) and On the Jews and Their Lies (1539). (1543).
European antiSemitism after 1800
It is common to hear anti-Semitism described in terms of theological motivations, such as those of Poles, Germans, Russians, and others, against Jews in the patristic and medieval tradition. Nevertheless, anti-Jewish feeling in Catholic and Protestant Europe, which was itself becoming progressively secularized from the early nineteenth century onward, had other, no less mythological, origins. Anti-Semitism is the right phrase for this type of behavior. Its intended audience was people of Jewish descent.
- Demagogues, on the other hand, were only too delighted to use the old Christian language of anti-Judaism to further their own political objectives.
- It also inherited the same heinous legacy of anti-Jewish feeling as the rest of Christian Europe.
- Hitler took advantage of the fact that Jews had been prominent supporters of the Republic and that a number of them had been among the authors of its constitution, a fact that Hitler exploited.
- However, while some prominent capitalist families, both gentile and Jewish, were able to avoid the worst of the consequences, the angered people focused its attention on Jews rather than on gentiles.
It has been speculated that there was a direct link between anti-Semitic texts in the New Testament and the death chambers at Auschwitz. Most likely not. The route was a long and winding one, commencing about 150 with gentile misinterpretations of the intense intra-Jewish debate contained within those books. Theological anti-Judaism on the part of the Church fathers, which was repeated repeatedly in medieval and Renaissance-Reformation preaching, was the much bigger perpetrator in the persecution of Jews.
However, because the Church’s preaching and catechizing had long affected the common mentality, a new phenomena, contemporary anti-Semitism, was able to emerge as a result of this influence.
According to Catholics, statements such as Section 4 of the Vatican II statement on non-Christian religions (Nostra Aetate, October 1965), which exonerated Jews throughout history of the charge of deicide (“killing God”) and warned Catholics against believing that anything in their scriptures taught that Jews were a people cursed or rejected, are examples of what they mean.
Such documentation is necessary, but it is ineffectual unless it is communicated from the pulpit as well as included in church publications and educational resources.
Visitors to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and other Nazi-era exhibitions frequently express surprise, asking, “Why hasn’t anybody told us about these things?” It is possible that decades of education and prayer will be required to undo the damage done by two millennia of human history.
At the very least, the Christian communions have made a start. The full text of Gerald S. Sloyan’s essay is available for download (PDF)
Romans are to blame for death of Jesus
Among religious specialists and laypeople alike, the soon-to-be-released Mel Gibson film “The Passion of the Christ” is causing quite a commotion in the media. Many people believe the film contains anti-Semitic implications. Although the Jews are often believed to have been involved in Jesus’ death, according to Dr. Frank K. Flinn of Washington University in St. Louis’ department of religious studies, the Romans are truly to blame for the death of Jesus. Frank Flinn is a songwriter and musician from the United Kingdom.
“Crucifications could only be authorized by the Roman authorities, and they frequently did so on a brutal, mass scale.” In the opinion of Flinn, an expert on Catholicism, Gibson’s film appears to merge all of the gospel stories about the Passion into one epic, a made-for-the-big-screen story that fails to show how opinions about the Jews’ role in the crucifixion have changed dramatically over time, as has been shown in other films about the Passion.
- The author points out that our oldest accounts of the crucifixion, such as the Gospel of Mark, which was written about 60-70 C.E., make it apparent that Pilate was the one who ordered Christ’s execution.
- “Matthew, most likely as a result of inter-Jewish competition, places the ultimate responsibility fully on the shoulders of the Jewish leadership,” Flinn explained.
- When it came to Jewish persecution and murder throughout the Middle Ages, the label “Christ-killers” became a rhetorical club to legitimize the ghettoization, persecution, and slaughter of Jews.
- A Guide to Taking in the Show Mel Gibson’s next film Written by Frank K.
- In his books The Jewish War and Jewish Antiquities, Josephus, the Jewish historian, records several incidents.
- Only the Roman authorities had the authority to order crucifixions, and they did it on a brutal and enormous scale on a regular basis.
- The first Galilean disciples of Jesus regarded him as a prophet similar to Elijah, who wandered the Galilean hills healing the sick and reviving the dead, as did the prophet Elijah.
- Sadducees and Pharisees were among the Jewish leaders who owed their positions to their patron-client relationship with the Roman rulers (notice the word “some”).
- In addition to the teachers and prophets in rural Galilee and the Dead Sea Scrolls community at Qumran, other Jewish groups and individuals either rejected or rebelled against the corrupt relationship between Jerusalem and Rome.
- Along with the Temple tax, this tax was collected for Rome by the Temple officials, who distributed it to tax farmers.
- Due to the annual ordinance of Jubilee, it should have been possible for the rich in Jerusalem to restore this territory to the original tribes, but they failed to do so.
According to Leviticus 19:4, “render unto Caesar” means “return to Caesar” his own coin with Caesar’s image on it (a blasphemy to the pious Jew!) and “return to God” what is God’s, which is the land itself, which God ultimately owns and which God gave directly to Israel in the covenant (Joshua 24:13)!” The message of Jesus was both spiritually and politically dangerous, first to the Roman rulers and then, secondary, to their client appointees in Jerusalem, who were first threatened by it.
- The Gospel of Mark, the earliest Gospel we know, was written between 60 and 70 CE.
- Matthew and Luke were written considerably later, in the year 80-95, and show a wide range of interests and points of view.
- Aside from his status as a Jewish disciple of Jesus (Antioch being the site of the first use of the term “Christian”), Matthew also comments on the era following the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE, when tensions broke out between rabbinic Yavneh Jews and Jewish followers of Jesus.
- It’s possible that the rabbis weren’t all that successful.
- (I constantly point out to my pupils that a Christian may attend any Jewish Sabbath service and participate fully in all of the prayers with complete religious commitment.) Matthew goes to great lengths to disassociate himself from the actions of the Roman authority.
- Perhaps as a result of intra-Jewish competition, the phrase “His blood be upon us and our offspring” is added to place the ultimate responsibility squarely on the shoulders of the Jewish leadership (Matthew 24:25).
- The Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts should be read together as a single piece of literature.
We can now use the name “Christian,” which appears for the first time in Acts 11:26, but the term was probably definitely coined as a derogatory slur in its original context.
Against the backdrop of Roman criticism, Luke is attempting to defend Christianity against the charge of “superstition” leveled against it.
The paragraphs about Jesus being crowned with thorns and being mocked have been omitted.
“But Jesus hedelivered over to theirwill,” says Luke, elaborating on Pilate’s guilt (Luke 23:26).
In its present form (ca.
100-110 CE) is that John does not place the blame for Jesus’ death solely on Pilate, or Pilate’s Jewish authorities, or even the Jewish authorities alone, but on “Jews” collectively (John 19:12).
The stage is laid for the later, tragic accusation that “the Jews murdered Jesus,” despite the fact that John does not state so explicitly.
It was not until after Constantine established a complete break with Judaism as such that the term “Christ-killers” was coined to describe these individuals.
Bishop John Chrysostom of Constantinople (ca.
By the Middle Ages, the label “Christ-killers” had evolved into a linguistic club used to legitimize the ghettoization, persecution, and death of Jews around the world, particularly in Europe.
My argument establishes a chronological order for determining who was responsible for Jesus’ killing, as well as the appropriate terminology for each stage: Romans Leaders of the Romans and Jews The High Priest, the Scribes, and the Elders/Romans Chief Priest, Scribes, Elders, and the general populace/Pilate (sort of) Jews are a group of people who live in a community that is surrounded by other Jews (in general) “Stiff-necked Individuals” “Christ-killers.” According to what I’ve read about Mel Gibson’s movie in published accounts, it appears to be similar to many other films about Jesus in that it combines all of the gospel tales about the passion into a single narrative.
As I’ve demonstrated above, the multiple gospels express quite different messages.
This makes it seem eerily similar to the infamous traditional Catholic Oberammergau Passion Play in Germany, which was in its original form grossly stereotyped and anti-Semitic in its content.
But, to be fair, we’ll have to wait until the film is released before we can find out.
Belief that Jews were Responsible for Christ’s Death Increases
A increasing number of Americans think that Jews were responsible for the killing of Jesus Christ, according to recent polling. Approximately a quarter of the general population (26 percent) currently holds such point of view. When compared to a study conducted by ABC News in 1997, which revealed that 19 percent of respondents had this viewpoint, this reflects a tiny but statistically significant rise in the percentage of people who share this viewpoint. However, a large majority of Americans, both then and now (60 percent), believe that Jews were not guilty for the murder of Jesus Christ.
- Today, 34 percent of individuals under the age of 30 and 42 percent of blacks believe Jews were responsible for Christ’s killing, a significant increase from 1997 levels of perception (10 percent and 21 percent , respectively).
- Although certain organizations are increasingly convinced that Jews were guilty for Christ’s killing, other studies have revealed that only a small fraction feels that Jews today should carry culpability for what occurred to Christ 2000 years ago.
- The growing belief among some organizations that Jews were responsible for Christ’s killing occurs at a time when the Mel Gibson film “The Passion of the Christ” is causing controversy.
- However, this is also true among those who intend to see the film (29 percent), suggesting that those who are drawn to this film may be more inclined to this viewpoint than others.
- American adults have already seen “The Passion of the Christ,” according to a recent poll, and many more (49 percent) say they plan to see it.
- In addition, there has been a great deal of public interest in news coverage of the film 37 percent of Americans said they paid careful attention to these reports.
- Approximately nine out of 10 Americans (92 percent) believe that Jesus Christ died on the cross, and 83 percent believe that Jesus Christ resurrected from the dead, according to Gallup polling.
- (91 percent and 84 percent , respectively).
- According to current polling, four out of ten Americans hold that viewpoint, while nearly as many (42 percent) believe that the Bible is God’s word, but that not everything in it should be accepted literally.
- The Bible, according to a large majority of white and black evangelical Protestants, is actually the world of God, according to a recent poll (70 percent and 71 percent , respectively).
These are the beliefs of just around a quarter of white non-evangelical Protestants (24 percent) and white Catholics (25 percent).
Seeing the ‘Passion’
Those who have watched “The Passion of the Christ” are mostly between the ages of 18 and 24, with just a few exceptions: those over the age of 65 (who normally attend movies at a lesser rate than younger people) and people under the age of 18. African-Americans are more likely than whites to have seen the film (30 percent of blacks vs. 18 percent of whites). More than twice as many evangelical Protestants than non-evangelical Protestants claim to have seen “The Passion of the Christ” when it comes to white people (25 percent vs.
One out of every five white Catholics claims to have watched the film.
Young People and the ‘Passion’
Even while fewer persons aged 65 and older (who normally attend movies at a lesser rate than younger people) report viewing “The Passion of the Christ,” there are only minor disparities in age among those who have watched it. Approximately twice as many African-Americans as whites claim to have seen the film in question (30 percent of blacks vs. 18 percent of whites). “The Passion of the Christ” has been watched by more than twice as many evangelical Protestants than non-evangelicals, according to a recent survey of whites (25 percent vs.
It is estimated that one in every five white Catholics has watched the film.
Why Did Pontius Pilate Have Jesus Executed?
“What is truth?” Pontius Pilate asks Jesus of Nazareth in the Gospel of John, and Jesus responds with a question. It’s a question that could be raised about Pilate’s own personal history as well. According to the New Testament of the Christian Bible, the Roman governor of Judea was a shaky judge who initially exonerated Jesus before bowing to the will of the crowd and condemning him to death as a result of his actions. Non-Biblical sources, on the other hand, portray him as a barbarous leader who willfully defied the traditions of the Jewish people under his command.
WATCH: JESUS: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE VaultJesus before Pilate, just before he was crucified.
Pilate’s early life is a mystery.
Before his time as Roman governor of Judea, from 26 and 36 A.D., nothing is known about Pilate’s early life and career. While most believe he was born into an equestrian family in Italy, certain tales indicate that he was actually born in the Scottish Highlands. From the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria emerges one of the earliest—and most damning—accounts of Pilate’s reign as governor. Around the year 50 A.D., he denounced the prefect for “briberies, insults, robberies, outrages and wanton injuries, executions without trial, constantly repeated, endless and extremely severe brutality,” among other things.
Patterson describes Pilate’s rule as “corrupt and full of bribery.” Patterson is an early Christianity historian at Willamette University and the author of several books, including The Forgotten Creed: Christianity’s Original Struggle Against Bigotry, Slavery, and Sexism.
“Philo is a really dramatic writer,” she observes, “and one who has very apparent biases: persons who maintain Jewish rules are documented in highly favorable ways, whereas people who do not uphold Jewish laws are represented in quite bad ways.
MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: The Bible asserts that Jesus was a real person. Is there any further evidence? Prior to his crucifixion, Jesus had been tortured, and this was the culmination of that suffering. courtesy of DeAgostini/Getty Images
Pilate clashed with the Jewish population in Jerusalem.
A pair of golden shields emblazoned with the name of the Roman Emperor Tiberius were allowed into King Herod’s ancient residence in Jerusalem, according to Philo, despite Jewish tradition. Writing more than a half-century later, the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus related a similar story, claiming that Pilate let troops bearing military standards with the likeness of the emperor into Jerusalem, despite Jewish law prohibiting the carrying of images in the holy city. A large number of people journeyed to the Judean city of Caesarea to express their displeasure, and they laid prostrate outside Pilate’s palace for five days until he finally yielded.
- This account has the ring of a rookie governor experimenting with his powers and entirely underestimating the depth of local opposition to graven images.
- Josephus related another event, this one with a bloodier conclusion, in which Pilate used cash from the Temple treasury to construct an aqueduct to provide water to Jerusalem.
- They were successful.
- More information may be found at: Where Is the Head of Saint John the Baptist?
The Gospels portray an indecisive Pilate.
Josephus also referred to Pilate’s well-known role in agreeing to Jesus’ death, which he had played previously. After being gravely concerned by his teachings, the Sanhedrin (an elite council of priestly and lay elders) arrested Jesus while he was celebrating the Jewish festival of Passover, according to the Gospels. They dragged him before Pilate to be tried for blasphemy, accusing him of claiming to be the King of the Jews, which they claimed was false. And they exerted pressure on Pilate, the only person who had the authority to sentence someone to death, to order his crucifixion.
According to the Gospel of Mark, Pilate intervened on Jesus’ behalf before caving in to the demands of the mob.
MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Discovering the Early Christian Church’s Conversion Tactics from Within “Mark’s goal isn’t truly historical in nature,” Patterson explains.
Mark blamed the Jewish rulers in Jerusalem for the city’s collapse since the high priests and officials had turned their backs on Jesus when he had arrived in the city.
courtesy of DeAgostini/Getty Images Following this, according to the Gospel of Matthew, Pilate washed his hands in front of the assembled throng before declaring, “I am innocent of this man’s blood; take care of yourself.” When the Jewish people heard this, they yelled out, “His blood be on us and our children.” For millennia, it would be used to punish the Jewish people, and it is still being utilized now.
As Bond explains, “Matthew claims that, while Romans were accountable for carrying out the action, the Jews were liable—a line of thought that, of course, has had fatal ramifications ever since.” When Jesus was making problems during a gathering like Passover, when the city was packed to capacity, I don’t believe Pilate would have spent much time worrying about what to do with him.
According to the Gospels, the people preferred the criminal Barabbas than Jesus.
The so-called custom of freeing a prisoner on Passover has been investigated by scholars, but so far, according to Patterson, “they have not discovered anything in regard to this so-called ritual.” More information may be found at: Early Christians Didn’t Always Take the Bible Literally (Discovery).
Pilate disappears from history after his rule.
Following the use of disproportionate force to quell a suspected Samaritan rebellion, Pilate was dismissed from office and transported back to Rome, according to Josephus and the Roman historian Tacitus. Pilate vanished from the historical record as soon as he arrived in Rome. According to various legends, he was either executed by Emperor Caligula or committed suicide, with his remains being thrown into the Tiber River after his death. In fact, the early Christian author Tertullian said that Pilate had become a disciple of Jesus and had attempted to convert the emperor to Christian beliefs.
A portion of a carved stone with Pilate’s name and title etched in Latin on it was discovered face down in an antique theater, where it had been used as a stair.
According to a November 2018 article in Israel Exploration Journal, improved photography showed Pilate’s name engraved in Greek on a 2,000-year-old copper alloy ring recovered at Herodium, which was previously thought to be a Roman coin.
Antisemitism Uncovered: Myth – Jews Killed Jesus
For generations, the belief that Jews conspired to murder Jesus, sometimes known as “deicide,” has been used to justify violence against Jewish people. Historiologists, along with Christian leaders, all agree that the allegation is without foundation. Sometime in the year 30 CE, Jesus was crucified in Jerusalem. 1 The following is an excerpt from Philip A. Cunningham’s chapter “Jews and Christians from the Time of Christ to Constantine’s Reign,” which appears in Albert S. Lindemann and Richard S.
- Also present at both the trial and the death of Jesus was Pontius Pilate, who at the time was serving as the prefect (or governor) of Judaea for the Roman province of Syria and Iraq.
- Bond, Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
- These events took place within a complex social environment in which religion and politics were inextricably intertwined.
- These conditions have been claimed as evidence of Jewish deicide on several occasions throughout history.
- When Pontius Pilate had second thoughts about his intention to crucify Jesus, the Jews are shown as a violent lynch mob.
- 1 (January 2008): 82.
- In spite of the fact that certain leaders in the local Jewish community believed that Jesus’ teachings were politically disruptive, scholars have concluded that Jesus was not viewed as particularly threatening or enraging by the Jews in his immediate vicinity.
- The Romans were the only non-Jews who were present at the tale of Jesus’ crucifixion.
- A 15th-century German woodcut depicting Jews being burnt alive for alleged desecration of the host is available on Wikimedia Commons.
The Declaration of Independence declares unequivocally that the execution of Jesus “cannot be brought against all Jews, without distinction, who were then alive, nor against all Jews living today.” 5The Vatican’s “Declaration on the Relationship of the Church to Non-Christian Religions” is a document that outlines the Church’s relationship with non-Christian religions.
Furthermore, it has spawned a number of derivative myths throughout the years, such as charges that Jews profane the Eucharist or poison wells in order to murder Christian peasants.
Only a few elements of Jesus’ crucifixion have been proven as historical truth, and even fewer remain to be validated.
The Passion of the Christ (2004), a billboard for Mel Gibson’s controversial film “The Passion of the Christ,” which some have hailed as a religious masterpiece, while others have argued it promotes antisemitism.
- Throughout Mel Gibson’s film, The Passion of the Christ, Pontius Pilate is depicted as being completely apprehensive about sentencing Jesus. Only after being pressured into submission by Jewish officials does he carry out the sentence
- “It was the whole throng in front of Pilate, who were poised to riot.that forced Pilate to give way by bringing down upon themselves and their generations the burden for the deicide” (death of God in His human nature). As it turned out, the majority of the audience was Jewish, and the group declared themselves as such (“Us and our children” in Hebrew). Because of this, those descendants have responsibility for the deicide until and unless they recognize and worship their own genuine Messiah, which according to Scripture will only occur at the end of the world.” The Most Reverend Bishop Richard Williamson on April 13, 2019 6 “Eleison Comments,” a weekly email published by Bishop Williamson, states that “Catholics have lost every single fight in the cultural wars because they cannot bring themselves to pronounce the term Jew.” They are unable to identify the adversary because they are unable to utter the term Jew. Is it fair to declare that Jews are our adversaries? Yes, the Jews are the ones who assassinated Jesus Christ. It is true that they are the enemy of the entire human species.” A orthodox Catholic antisemitic ideologue by the name of E. Michael Jones 7 Culture Wars (vol. 37, no. 6), May 2018, p. 17
- E. Michael Jones, “Catholics and the Jewish Taboo,” Culture Wars (vol. 37, no. 6), May 2018, p. 17
- And E. Michael Jones, “Catholics and the Jewish Taboo,” Culture Wars (vol. 37, no. 6), May 2018, p. 17
Duccio’s 14th-century painting of Jesus before Pontius Pilate may be seen on an altarpiece at Siena, which was dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Christ before Pilate (Duccio, 1308-1311), altarpiece, Musée du Luxembourg Photographs courtesy of Getty Images
Jesus is seen before Pontius Pilate in a 14th-century altarpiece in Siena, painted by Duccio da Sangallo. altarpiece by Duccio, Christ before Pilate (1308-1311), The Getty Images collection contains a variety of images that are available for licensing.
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