Who Painted Jesus?

10 Most Famous Jesus Paintings

  1. The depiction of Jesus Christ in art has played an important part in the development of the arts for about 1500 years.
  2. Many commissions by the affluent and powerful, all of whom are attempting to demonstrate their faith and gain influence with the church, utilize Jesus Christ as the principal character or topic of their work.
  3. Almost all of the renaissance masters have a number of their most renowned works of art representing either the crucifixion or another key biblical scenario in which Christ appears.
  4. These kind of commissions would have been extraordinarily expensive in their day, and only the very wealthy and powerful could afford to take on these types of projects.

Famous Paintings of Jesus

1.The Last Supper

  1. The Last Supper is without a doubt the most well-known picture of Jesus Christ.
  2. The Last Supper of Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, painted by none other than Leonardo da Vinci, is a masterpiece of Western art.
  3. This mural was painted on the walls of the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan in the late 15th century as a work of art.
  4. Fresco paintings are often formed by layering colour atop intonaco, which is a thin coating of wet lime plaster that has been dampened.
  5. Because this approach allows the fresco to deal with natural breathing or sweating that a wall produces when moisture goes out to the surface, it is typically the greatest technique to utilize.
  1. However, for the Last Supper, da Vinci decides to use oil paint instead of watercolour since it dries considerably more slowly and allows him to work on the painting in a much more detailed and slower manner.
  2. Leonardo was well aware that the natural moisture that seeps through most stone wall structures would have to be sealed if he wanted to use oil paintings on his walls, or else his work would be destroyed.
  3. In order to combat this, he used a second coat of gesso, mastic, and pitch.

Throughout its lengthy existence, the artwork has required several restorations.It is possible that very little of the original top layer of an oil painting has survived as a result of both environmental and purposeful destruction.

2.The Transfiguration

  1. Commissioned by Cardinal Giulio de Medici of the Medici banking dynasty, the transfiguration is the final work of the famous Renaissance artist Raphael and is considered his crowning achievement.
  2. It was initially intended to be installed as the major altarpiece for the Narbonne Cathedral in France, but it is currently on display at the Pinacoteca Vaticana in Vatican City, where it is on display until the end of the year.
  3. Following Raphael’s death, the picture was never shipped to France, and in 1523, it was put on the high altar of the Blessed Amadeo’s church of San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, where it remained until his death in 1526.
  4. In 1797, however, it was captured by French forces as part of Napoleon’s conquest at Italy, and it was later displayed in the Louvre Museum.
  5. At its most basic level, the painting can be seen as reflecting a dichotomy: the redemptive force of Christ, as symbolized by the purity and symmetry of the top half of the painting; as opposed to the shortcomings of Man, as symbolized by the gloomy, chaotic scenes in the bottom half of the painting.
  1. Raphael’s final picture, on which he would continue to work until his death in April 1520, would be his final masterpiece.
  2. Only a few of the bottom left figures were painted by helpers, according to the cleaning of the painting that took place between 1972 and 1976, indicating that Raphael completed the vast majority of the painting alone.

3.The Last Judgment

  1. The Last Judgment is a massive fresco painted by Michelangelo that occupies the whole alter wall of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City, and it is the most visited site in the world.
  2. In all, Michelangelo worked on it for nearly four years between 1536 and 1541, mostly due to the grandeur of the project, as well as the difficulty and amount of figures involved.
  3. He began working on it 25 years after the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel was completed, and by the time it was completed, he was 67 years old, making him the oldest person ever to complete it.
  4. At first glance, all of the guys appeared to be naked, but the addition of painted drapes eventually concealed them.
  5. The reaction was initially mixed, with both acclaim and criticism being expressed, with the nudity of the figures as well as how muscular a number of the figures appeared to be a major point of contention.
  1. Check out these other articles: Famous Fresco Paintings It is a mirror of Christ’s Second Coming as well as God’s final and eternal punishment on all of humanity, which will take place at the end of time.
  2. According to Christ, who is accompanied by notable saints, the dead rise from their graves and descend to their last resting place.
  3. In total, there are more than 300 illustrations.

While Pope Clement VII had initially commissioned the work, the last stages were finished under Pope Paul III, whose more reformist views definitely had an impact on the final outcome.Starting from the outset, the painting’s response was divided, with a great deal of acclaim but also harsh criticism, both religious and aesthetic in nature.There was debate on the quantity of nudity present as well as the muscular design of the body, and there was also disagreement over the overall composition.

4.Christ Carrying the Cross by El Greco

  1. During his long career in Spain, which began around 1580, El Greco produced a large number of paintings depicting Christ wearing the cross.
  2. For the first time since some of his earliest works, this picture does not depict a story; Christ is seen alone in the image, with no identifiable background or location.
  3. As he bears the cross to his death in a moment of profound reflection, the image depicts Christ as he completes the greatest sacrifice possible for all of mankind.
  4. It is as he begins his journey toward his crucifixion that Christ’s eyes are lifted up to the skies in the artwork.
  5. As a stormy night fills the background, his delicate hands curl around the cross in a tender embrace.
  1. Also see: Nativity Scenes in Paintings During the Renaissance period, in Italy’s Venice, El Greco lived and trained under Titian, one of the country’s most famous Renaissance painters.
  2. As his name implies, El Greco was of Greek descent and got the moniker while living there.
  3. He worked under the tutelage of Titian.

5.Christ Crucified by Diego Valazquez

  1. Diego Velazquez’s painting Christ Crucified was completed in 1632.
  2. Despite the fact that he completed a few religious paintings for the then king of Spain, Philip IV, Diego Velazquez is best known for his work on this, one of his most famous works of art, the Virgin and Child with Saints.
  3. If you compare it to some of his other paintings from the same time period, it portrays the crucifixion of Jesus in a much more subtle manner.
  4. The artist Velazquez created many nude studies while in Rome, which he later used in some of his later works, such as Apollo at the Forge of Vulcan and Joseph’s Tunic, to illustrate his point of view.
  5. Christ Crucified, on the other hand, is a lot more minimalistic image that has a very paired down and reverent vibe to it.
  1. A very raw and stark full front on near life size nude painting with no supporting scene or other individuals to draw attention to is all that is there to focus on.
  2. Although there were preparatory sittings done with live models, the real painting is assumed to have been completed back in Spain when he returned from Italy in around 1631, according to historical records.
  3. It is now on display at the Museo del Prado in Madrid….

6.Christ Carrying the Cross by Titian

  1. Tiziano Vicelli, often known as Titian, was one of the most well-known names in the history of painting during the early Renaissance era.
  2. He was born about 1488 and is credited with being the creator of the Venetian style of painting, having apprenticed under Giovani Bellini during his formative years (considered the greatest of his day).
  3. Also see Titian’s Paintings for further information.
  4. Christ is joined by his executioner in this picture, and we can also see a noose around his neck, which we will discuss later.
  5. At the period, close-up scenes with only one or two persons filling the entire canvas were the most popular form of painting.

7.Crucifixion by Francis Bacon

  1. A depiction of Jesus and the crucifixion that has sparked considerable controversy.
  2. Francis Bacon’s painting was completed while he was only 24 years old, making it one of his earliest works.
  3. Bacon, one of the few contemporary painters included on the list, devoted a significant portion of his time to the creation of religious works.
  4. It was his first piece to get significant notice, and the proceeds from the sale of following works enabled him to afford his first solo show, which unfortunately received a very unfavorable review in the Times.
  5. Bacon was compelled to trash several of his earlier works, some of which were also depictions of the crucifixion.
  1. The other crucifixion paintings were among the few that he would later admit that he regretted removing, and they were among the most important.
  2. Like a lot of abstract paintings, this style of work for the general public might be difficult to appreciate on its own; but, when seen in the context of Bacon’s previous work, it begins to reveal its true creativity and brilliance.

8.Christ of St John of the Cross

  1. Salvador Dali painted the Christ of Saint John of the Cross in 1951, and it is one of his most famous works.
  2. It depicts Jesus Christ on the crucifixion suspended above a body of water, replete with a boat and fishermen, against a backdrop of a darkening sky.
  3. Dali was convinced by a dream that nail holes, blood splattered on the ground below, and a crown of thorns would detract from his representation of Christ’s death, therefore he chose not to include them.
  4. Dali said that the artwork was inspired by a sketch by Saint John of the Cross, which is kept at the Convent of the Incarnation in Avila, Spain, and was done by the saint himself.
  5. Dali believes that he saw the drawing in 1950 and that he then had a series of dreams in which Chris encouraged him to paint what he had seen in the visions.
  1. Dali’s assertions are based on his own experiences.
  2. It differs from more standard crucifix images in that it is viewed from above and somewhat to the front, providing a strange position from which to view Jesus.

9.Christ Salvator Mundi

  1. Leonardo da Vinci is credited with painting Salvator Mundi in 1500, which is thought to be his last painting.
  2. A murky background has dogged the artwork, and many renowned Renaissance academics now believe it to be a forgery rather than a genuine da Vinci original painting.
  3. It is believed to be a duplicate of a long-lost original that has been over-painted in order to disguise its authenticity.
  4. Many people think that Leonardo only painted a tiny portion of the painting and that the rest of it was completed later by another artist after his death.
  5. The artwork, like many other paintings from that time period, has undergone considerable restoration.
  1. It is one of Leonardo’s less than twenty known works, and it is the only one of his paintings that has survived in a private collection to the present day.
  2. In November 2017, it was sold at auction by Christie’s in New York to Prince Badr bin Abdullah for $450.3 million, setting a new world record for the most expensive painting ever sold at a public auction.
  3. It was the most expensive painting ever sold at a public auction.

A portion of the reason that some researchers do not believe the picture is legitimate is because the orb does not refract light in the proper manner.Da Vinci had spent a significant amount of time researching optics and how light flows through glass, and the claim is that if the artwork was created by a genuine da Vinci, the artist would have painted this section of the picture correctly.

10.Christ on the Cross by Rubens

  1. Rubens painted a number of crucifixion scenes, including Chris on the Cross, which was one of his most famous works.
  2. It draws on a variety of ancient paniting methods, particularly in terms of how light and shadow are dealt with.
  3. Rubens was recognized for his religious works of art, and throughout his lifetime, he rose to become the most renowned painter in the Catholic Church.
  4. His voyage to Italy resulted in the creation of several Counter-Reformation altarpieces, as well as the receipt of other contracts for paintings.
  5. We hope you have liked our collection of notable paintings of Jesus; however, please keep in mind that this is only a portion of the many thousands of pieces that have been painted over the course of the previous 1,000 years.

The most famous paintings of Jesus

  1. Jesus has been represented in paintings and monuments all throughout history.
  2. There are a plethora of stories can be told about Jesus, and it’s fascinating to see how all of these various artists interpret a story via their work.
  3. It should come as no surprise that Jesus is a prominent figure in art history.
  4. Because art was extremely costly, only the most essential ideas were memorialized on canvas and in sculptures throughout this time period.
  5. As a result, religious art constitutes a significant portion of the history of art.
  1. Here are some of the most notable works of art representing Jesus, in no particular order.

Oldest painting

  1. The earliest known portrait of Jesus, which was discovered in Syria and dates to around 235 AD, depicts him as a beardless young man with an authoritative and dignified air about him.
  2. With close-cropped hair and a tunic and pallium, he is shown in the style of a young philosopher in Greco-Roman culture.
  3. He is also wearing a tunic and pallium, which are both symbols of good breeding in that era.
  4. Later on, you’ll see that Jesus is depicted with a full beard.
  5. Several of the extremely old paintings were discovered in the Catacombs, where Christians congregated for devotion, often in secrecy.
  1. Christ Heals the Paralytic — Dura-Europos, around the year 232.
See also:  How Did Jesus Say To Pray

Head of Christ by Rembrandt van Rijn

  1. Nobody has ever seen a photograph of Jesus.
  2. As a result, individuals frequently envisioned Jesus based on what they already knew.
  3. Rembrandt’s series of portraits, for example, is a well-known example of the genre of painting (and probably other artists from his circle).
  4. Based on a Jewish model, he created a few variants of the painting with the Head of Christ.
  5. A total of three distinct versions of the same painting have been created.

The last supper Da Vinci

  1. It should come as no surprise that The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci is the most renowned picture of Jesus Christ.
  2. Leonardo da Vinci attempted to portray Jesus Christ dining with his disciples for the final time before he was betrayed by Judas and captured by the Romans in his painting The Last Supper, which was completed in 1507.
  3. Although painted as a fresco, Leonardo’s The Last Supper has numerous hidden components, as does most of his work in general.
  4. More information on the history and significance of The Last Supper may be found here.

Ognissanti Madonna by Giotto

  1. Jesus is frequently shown as a child with his mother Mary, who is also known as the Mother of God.
  2. Known also as Madonna Enthroned, this artwork by the Italian painter Giotto di Bondone depicts the Virgin Mary with the Christ Child on her lap.
  3. It is a copy of a picture by Giotto di Bondone, also known as Madonna Enthroned.
  4. Angels and saints are gathered around the seat, which has the appearance of a throne.

THE TRANSFIGURATION BY RAPHAEL

  1. The Transfiguration is considered to be the final work of art by the renowned artist Raphael.
  2. Raphael has been hailed as one of the finest artists to have ever lived, and his works have been shown in museums across the world.
  3. Moses and Elijah accompany Jesus Christ as he ascends Mount Tabor in this highly detailed and meaningful artwork.
  4. The Transfiguration is one of the most important paintings in the world.
  5. Within the same artwork, the Apostles are depicted as seeking to treat a sick child, which is only possible because of the presence of Jesus Christ in the room where they are working.
  1. This artwork carries a great deal of significance and resonance, and it is a tour de force of creative skill and emotion.
  2. The artwork, which was present near Raphael’s bed at the time of his death, marks the pinnacle of the master’s technical ability and artistic vision.
  3. Transfiguration is a term used to describe the transformation of something (Raffaello)

CHRIST OF SAINT JOHN ON THE CROSS BY SALVADOR DALI

  1. Most likely, you are familiar with Salvador Dali because of his work on the Sagrada Familia, a famous cathedral in Barcelona.
  2. He is also the painter who created the painting of Jesus on the Cross.
  3. He picked an unusual point of view in which Jesus appears to be hovering between heaven and earth.
  4. Behind him, there’s a wall of black blackness.
  5. Dali intended to emphasize not the significance of the crucifixion in and of itself, but the significance of the man who was hanging from the cross.
  1. The artist said that he had a vision of the artwork.
  2. It was also influenced by the Crucifixion drawing by St.
  3. John of the Cross (ca.

1550), which served as an inspiration for Dali.Crucifixion sketch by St.John of the Cross (ca.

  1. 1550), which served as an inspiration for Dali

CHRIST PANTOCRATOR

  1. Christ Pantocrator is the term used to describe the way Christ is frequently represented in Eastern orthodox iconography.
  2. The icon style has always been quite flat, and it has remained essentially unchanged for at least the previous ten hundred years.
  3. Christ Pantocrator emphasizes Christ’s compassionate nature while still demonstrating his authority as the all-powerful judgment of humanity.
  4. The icon of St.
  5. Catherine’s Monastery in Sinai is one of the earliest known representations of the monastery.
  1. Because it dates back to the 6th century AD, it is considered to be one of the most important pieces of religious art in the history of Byzantium and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
  2. The Monastery of Saint Catherine

THE YELLOW AND THE GREEN CHRIST

  1. The Yellow Christ, painted by the artist Paul Gauguin in 1889, is a vibrant image of Jesus on the cross that is full of color.
  2. He painted it in the same year as his picture The Green Christ, which is considered to be his most outstanding work to date.
  3. It was drawn during a period when realism was becoming increasingly outmoded and more imaginative interpretations were becoming popular.
  4. Gauguin’s painting The Green Christ

The man who painted Jesus

It is the 127th birthday of an artist whose name you are unlikely to recognize, but whose work is often considered to be the most extensively circulated of the twentieth century.Despite the fact that he never left Chicago, Warner Sallman had an impact on how many Christians throughout the world perceived Jesus, for better or ill.It is held at Anderson University in Indiana, where Sallman’s collected works are housed.In their collection notes, they describe how photographs like Sallman’s might be objects of beauty, historical artifacts, keepsakes, items of devotion, or propaganda in the service of an ideology, depending on their context.

The fact is that religious pictures may be used to accomplish all of these goals.They can also make money by selling items.In churches of all kinds, as well as in confessional schools and hospitals on every continent, reproductions of Sallman’s warm, compassionate, Nordic, and decidedly non-historical ″Head of Christ″ may be seen on the walls.

In his book, Icons of American Protestantism, he discusses the figures who have shaped the country’s religious landscape.David Morgan of Valparaiso University in Indiana recounts how millions of pocket-sized ″Heads of Christ″ cards were distributed by the YMCA and Salvation Army during World War II, and how these cards were transported throughout Europe and Asia by American soldiers serving overseas.Sallman worked as a freelance illustrator and was a committed member of the Swedish Evangelical Covenant Church (Swedish Covenant Church).Sallman’s 1924 black and white sketches for the Covenant Companion magazine received such positive feedback that he decided to paint it in oils, resulting in the creation of the ″Christ,″ which went on to sell more than 500 million copies worldwide.When reproductions began to emerge on items such as clocks, lamps, buttons, laminated Bible verses, music boxes, and nightlights, the number of items increased by orders of magnitude.As soon as ″Christ at Heart’s Door″ became a smash, Sallman released two more albums, ″Christ our Pilot″ and ″Christ at Heart’s Door.″

Mass produced kitsch

Already in the 1930s, there had been a lengthy history of ″Caucasian Jesus pictures,″ just as there had been a long tradition of literary ″lives of Jesus″ since the mid-18th century.Generally speaking, these ″lives″ portrayed Christ as a representative of the finest of European (male) civilization.More information may be found at: Coca-Cola is more responsible for the success of ‘Paul, Apostle of Christ’ than the Bible.Visual portrayals of Jesus painted by Europeans mirrored the cultures of people who painted them; only on rare occasions, such as when Jesus was depicted as a red-headed boy, did historians express disapproval.

Since the time of the ancient Romans, Christians have always ″contextualized″ Jesus in order to make him more relatable to their own lives.What happened in the twentieth century, according to Sallman, was that pictures of Jesus were combined with American advertising and mass manufacturing.When prayer met plastic, it was a match made in heaven.

Is Sallman’s image of Jesus a parody of the biblical figure?It certainly wasn’t the case for the artist.Contrary to his beard, the ″Head of Christ″ is anything from ironic in his portrayal.The picture has become a little out of date.However, for many people, the high forehead, broad shoulders, and long nose are not disconcerting features.This is, very simply, what Jesus appears to look like in their eyes.

Masculine portrayal?

According to Sallman, he was striving to depict a Jesus who was more macho than previous images.It’s ironic that many people today consider his Jesus to be effeminate, indicating the extent to which cultural and flexible conceptions of ″masculine″ are more important than biological criteria.Even in Jesus’ own day, especially as a Jew living in the Roman Empire, masculinity was a contentious issue, just as it is today.Of course, the historical Jesus did not come from a Nordic or an American background.

The visual monoculture of the United States, which was relatively new at the time of Sallman’s writing, has since given way to the fragmented image-production of the twenty-first century, marking the end of a distinctive style of seeing that was taken for granted.The way Christians depict Jesus in art, whether in two- or three-dimensional form, reveals a great deal about their understanding of God.Jesus is represented by devout Christian artists as a Nigerian, a South Asian, a Korean, or an indigenous person.

Jesus has been carved as a homeless street person by Canadian Timothy Schmalz, and he has been shown by other artists as a crucified woman or even as a faceless figure, serving as a mirror to our anxieties.Whether something is considered kitsch or not is determined by the consumer’s attitude toward it.There are Jesus bobble-heads and inflatable Jesus pillows to choose from.The enduring popularity of Sallman’s 1940 Nordic ″Head of Christ″ tells us nothing about the first-century Mediterranean Jewish instructor who was shown in the work of the artist.Nonetheless, the attraction of Sallman’s picture conveys a great deal about both globalized Americana and popular religious sentiment—the type of unexpected devotion that might emerge when a ″Jesus image″ appears in a Tim Hortons in Cape Breton.Kitsch has always been difficult to define, and religious kitsch is particularly difficult to define.

  1. Sallman, if he were still alive, would most likely claim that his paintings were only a means of expressing his religious beliefs.
  2. They were obviously anti-elitist in their viewpoint.
  3. No matter how honest Sallman’s individual sentiments may have been, it is difficult to separate the circulation of his photos from the larger ideological program of mid-20th century America.
  4. The importance of remembering how profoundly formative sentiments may still be associated with a well-marketed picture is particularly poignant on this day.

The man who painted Jesus

Matthew Robert Anderson from Concordia University in Montreal It is the 127th birthday of an artist whose name you are unlikely to recognize, but whose work is often considered to be the most extensively circulated of the twentieth century.Despite the fact that he never left Chicago, Warner Sallman had an impact on how many Christians throughout the world perceived Jesus, for better or ill.It is held at Anderson University in Indiana, where Sallman’s collected works are housed.In their collection notes, they describe how photographs like Sallman’s might be objects of beauty, historical artifacts, keepsakes, items of devotion, or propaganda in the service of an ideology, depending on their context.

The fact is that religious pictures may be used to accomplish all of these goals.They can also make money by selling items.In churches of all kinds, as well as in confessional schools and hospitals on every continent, reproductions of Sallman’s warm, compassionate, Nordic, and decidedly non-historical ″Head of Christ″ may be seen on the walls.

In his book, Icons of American Protestantism, he discusses the figures who have shaped the country’s religious landscape.David Morgan of Valparaiso University in Indiana recounts how millions of pocket-sized ″Heads of Christ″ cards were distributed by the YMCA and Salvation Army during World War II, and how these cards were transported throughout Europe and Asia by American soldiers serving overseas.Sallman worked as a freelance illustrator and was a committed member of the Swedish Evangelical Covenant Church (Swedish Covenant Church).Sallman’s 1924 black and white sketches for the Covenant Companion magazine received such positive feedback that he decided to paint it in oils, resulting in the creation of the ″Christ,″ which went on to sell more than 500 million copies worldwide.When reproductions began to emerge on items such as clocks, lamps, buttons, laminated Bible verses, music boxes, and nightlights, the number of items increased by orders of magnitude.As soon as ″Christ at Heart’s Door″ became a smash, Sallman released two more albums, ″Christ our Pilot″ and ″Christ at Heart’s Door.″

Mass produced kitsch

Already in the 1930s, there had been a lengthy history of ″Caucasian Jesus pictures,″ just as there had been a long tradition of literary ″lives of Jesus″ since the mid-18th century.Generally speaking, these ″lives″ portrayed Christ as a representative of the finest of European (male) civilization.Visual portrayals of Jesus painted by Europeans mirrored the cultures of people who painted them; only on rare occasions, such as when Jesus was depicted as a red-headed boy, did historians express disapproval.Since the time of the ancient Romans, Christians have always ″contextualized″ Jesus in order to make him more relatable to their own lives.

What happened in the twentieth century, according to Sallman, was that pictures of Jesus were combined with American advertising and mass manufacturing.When prayer met plastic, it was a match made in heaven.Is Sallman’s image of Jesus a parody of the biblical figure?

It certainly wasn’t the case for the artist.Contrary to his beard, the ″Head of Christ″ is anything from ironic in his portrayal.The picture has become a little out of date.However, for many people, the high forehead, broad shoulders, and long nose are not disconcerting features.This is, very simply, what Jesus appears to look like in their eyes.

Masculine portrayal?

According to Sallman, he was striving to depict a Jesus who was more macho than previous images.Ironically, many people today consider his Jesus to be effeminate, indicating the extent to which cultural and flexible conceptions of ″masculine″ are more important than biological ones.Even in Jesus’ own day, especially as a Jew living in the Roman Empire, masculinity was a contentious issue, just as it is today.Of course, the historical Jesus did not come from a Nordic or an American background.

The visual monoculture of the United States, which was relatively new at the time of Sallman’s writing, has since given way to the fragmented image-production of the twenty-first century, marking the end of a distinctive style of seeing that was taken for granted.The way Christians depict Jesus in art, whether in two- or three-dimensional form, reveals a great deal about their understanding of God.Jesus is represented by devout Christian artists as a Nigerian, a South Asian, a Korean, or an indigenous person.

Jesus has been carved as a homeless street person by Canadian Timothy Schmalz, and he has been shown by other artists as a crucified woman or even as a faceless figure, serving as a mirror to our anxieties.Whether something is considered kitsch or not is determined by the consumer’s attitude toward it.There are Jesus bobble-heads and inflatable Jesus pillows to choose from.The enduring popularity of Sallman’s 1940 Nordic ″Head of Christ″ tells us nothing about the first-century Mediterranean Jewish instructor who was shown in the work of the artist.Nonetheless, the popularity of Sallman’s painting provides valuable insight into both globalized Americana and popular religious sensibility – the type of unexpected devotion that might emerge when a ″Jesus picture″ appears at a Tim Hortons in Cape Breton.Kitsch has always been difficult to define, and religious kitsch is particularly difficult to define.

  1. Sallman, if he were still alive, would most likely claim that his paintings were only a means of expressing his religious beliefs.
  2. They were obviously anti-elitist in their viewpoint.
  3. No matter how honest Sallman’s individual sentiments may have been, it is difficult to separate the circulation of his photos from the larger ideological program of mid-20th century America.
  4. The importance of remembering how profoundly formative sentiments may still be associated with a well-marketed picture is particularly poignant on this day.
See also:  Why Did Jesus Pray To Himself

Matthew Robert Anderson is an Affiliate Professor of Theological Studies at Loyola College for Diversity and Sustainability, as well as a Teaching Affiliate at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom and Concordia University in Canada.According to the terms of a Creative Commons license, this article has been reprinted from The Conversation.See the source article for more information.

  1. Keep up to date with all of the latest developments.
  2. Navigate the news, and send one email every day.
  3. Subscribe to Qrius’s newsletter.

Girl Who Painted Jesus?

What is the girl painting in the beginning of heaven is for real?

Based on the real-life Akiane Kramarik (born on July 9, 1994, in Mount Morris, Illinois), a girl who claimed to have had an NDE and to have met Jesus in heaven. The Lithuanian painting girl who appears at the beginning and end of the film, played by Ursula Clark, is based on the Lithuanian painting girl who appears at the beginning and end of the film.

Is there an actual painting of Jesus?

In addition to being a clear representation of Christ, ″The Healing of the Paralytic″ is thought to be the world’s earliest picture of Jesus that is still in existence. The picture may be located on a wall of the Dura-Europos church in Syria, which is considered to be one of the world’s earliest surviving Christian churches, according to historians.

What did Akiane Kramarik see in heaven?

Akiane claims to have witnessed some of the most awe-inspiring scenes in Heaven, which she claims to have witnessed through divine insights. When asked to describe Heaven in words, Akiane replied: ″Plants, animals, and all beings talked not via words, but through color, vibration, and ideas.″ Everything seemed to flow effortlessly.

Who painted crucifixion of Jesus?

Diego Velázquez

What happened Colton Burpo?

He was 4 years old when he had a ruptured appendix and was sent to the hospital where he underwent emergency surgery. Colton was hospitalized for a lot of issues, and even his physicians were concerned that he would not survive, yet he miraculously survived.

Did Colton Burpo see Jesus?

During emergency surgery for a ruptured appendix in 2003, Colton, then 4 years old, reported sitting on Jesus’ lap while being serenaded by angels, seeing Jesus riding a rainbow-colored horse, and witnessing Mary bowing before God’s throne.

Did Jesus have a wife?

King stated in a news statement that ″Christian tradition has long claimed that Jesus was not married, even though no trustworthy historical evidence exists to support that assertion.″

What is Jesus real name?

Yeshua A result of the countless translations that the Bible has undergone, ″Jesus″ has become the popular name for the Son of God in the modern day. His given name in Hebrew is Yeshua, which is a shortened form of the word yehshu’a. According to Dr., it can be interpreted as ‘Joshua.’ 24th of December, 2018

How does art show Jesus?

In sculpture, Jesus was generally shown in two ways: on the crucifixion and on his judgment bench, both of which were common. The crucifix (a representation of the figure of Jesus on the crucifixion) was created as a result of his portrayal on the crucified, and it has since become the most important iconographic symbol of Jesus in the Roman Catholic Church.

Where is akiane now?

Akiane has written and published two novels to far, the first of which was released when she was just ten years old. She is presently working on her third book and preparing for an art exhibition in Chicago, which she hopes to open this fall.

What is the story behind the Prince of Peace painting?

Painting by the Prince of Peace It was her memories of dreams about Jesus, as well as a chance encounter with a carpenter who looked similar to the Jesus of her fantasies, that provided inspiration for the painting’s face characteristics…. Akiane eventually tracked out the person who had acquired the picture, but they were hesitant to sell it to her.

What is the oldest image of Jesus?

The earliest known portrait of Jesus, which was discovered in Syria and dates to around 235 AD, depicts him as a beardless young man with an authoritative and dignified air about him.With close-cropped hair and a tunic and pallium, he is shown in the manner of a young philosopher in Greco-Roman culture.He is also wearing a tunic and pallium, which were considered to be evidence of excellent breeding at the time.

Who painted the famous painting of Jesus?

It is the 127th birthday of an artist whose name you are unlikely to recognize, but whose work is often considered to be the most extensively circulated of the twentieth century. Despite the fact that he never left Chicago, Warner Sallman had an impact on how many Christians throughout the world perceived Jesus, for better or ill.

Who was the first person crucified?

Herodotus mentions a post-mortem crucifixion as being the earliest known crucifixion. Polycrates, the tyrant of Samos, was put to death by the Persians in 522 BC, and his corpse was subsequently crucified.

Who painted the most famous picture of Jesus?

Head of Christ
Artist Warner Sallman
Year 1940

What happened to Alex Malarkey?

A automobile collision on a roadway in Rushsylvania, Ohio, on November 14, 2006, resulted in the death of six-year-old Alex Malarkey and the injury of his father Kevin. A number of injuries were sustained in the collision, including a serious spinal injury, severe neck injuries, and brain damage. He was rendered quadriplegic and was hospitalized for two months after the tragedy.

How old was Colton Burpo when he went to heaven?

Prince of Peace was created by eight-year-old Akiane Kramarik in 2003. The little Colton Burpo was able to fly to heaven on the wings of criminally inadequate medical treatment, then.

How old is Connor Corum?

14 years (2007)

What happened in the book Heaven is for real?

During emergency surgery, a four-year-old son of a small town Nebraska pastor loses consciousness and enters paradise. The genuine narrative is told in Heaven Is for Real, which is based on true events. He survives and begins to speak of being able to look down and see the doctor working as his father prays in the waiting room, as well as other things.

Does Jesus have a son?

It is the opinion of Jacobovici and Pellegrino that the Aramaic inscriptions reading ″Judah, son of Jesus,″ ″Jesus, son of Joseph,″ and ″Mariamne,″ a name they believe to be that of Mary Magdalene, collectively preserve the record of a family group that included Jesus, his wife Mary Magdalene, and son Judah.

Is Jesus a vegetarian?

Many biblical historians think that Jesus was a vegetarian during his lifetime. The message of Jesus is one of love and compassion, while industrial farms and slaughterhouses, where billions of animals live terrible lives and die violent, gory ends, are anything but kind or compassionate.

Did Jesus have a twin?

Another new discovery is that Jesus had a twin brother, who is also known as the apostle Thomas, and that it was Thomas, rather than Christ, who was seen after the purported resurrection, according to the newest evidence.

Is Jesus a Jojo?

… And yes, in the Steel Ball Run/Jojolion reality, Jesus did indeed have a Stand… Due to the possibility that Jesus’ name may be anglicized to Joshua, Son of Joseph… He is, in fact, a Jojo, and he is most likely the first Jojo.

What is Jesus favorite color?

God’s favorite color is the color blue.

Does Jesus have a brother?

The brothers and sisters of Jesus The brothers (Greek adelphoi) of Jesus are identified in the New Testament by the names James the Just, Joses, Simon, and Jude (Mark 6:3, Matthew 13:55, John 7:3, Acts 1:13, 1 Corinthians 9:5).

Who painted the Last Supper?

Leonardo da Vinci

What is Prodigy art?

Prodigies are extremely rare. Artistic precociousness is characterized by strong visual recall, extraordinary attention to detail, and the ability to draw realistically and create the sense of depth years before their contemporaries.

Why is akiane Kramarik famous?

Acknowledging that her skill ″comes from God,″ Akiane Kramarik received national attention in 2003 when she was nine years old for painting a gorgeous, green-eyed Jesus Christ who she said appeared to her during supernatural visions, telling Oprah Winfrey that her gift ″comes from God.″ The painting ″Prince of Peace″ continues to be one of the most well-known representations of Jesus in the world.

Who painted Jesus Prince of Peace?

The original Prince of Peace, created by then-8-year-old painting prodigy Akiane Kramarik, was revealed for the first time in more than 15 years in November of this year. Instantaneously, it was acquired for $850,000 by an unidentified art buyer from the United States.

Who painted the prince renaissance?

Raphael’s reputation as the ″prince of painters″ was cemented by the sequence of masterpieces he made in these four chambers, including ″The Disputation of the Holy Sacrament″ and ″The School of Athens,″ which helped establish him as the ″prince of painters.″ His ability to communicate a clear story using intricate grouping, gesture, and color was recognized by Catholic orthodoxy, pagan rites, and other traditions.

”Painting The Impossible” by Akiane Kramarik

Child Prodigy Paints Visions from God | SuperHuman Geniuses | Only Human

Akiane Kramarik said this about Jesus

The Amazing True Story of Akiane Kramarik

A little girl creates fantasies of heaven via painting. the narrative of akiane kramarik Aciana Kramarik’s artwork is available for purchase. Today’s featured artist is Sakiane Kramarik. the disappearance of akiane kramarik What was it like for Akiane Kramarik to see Jesus? akiane kramarik is a 2020 presidential candidate.

About The Author

How Jesus came to resemble a white man

When it comes to portraying Jesus as a white, European guy, there has been heightened scrutiny during this era of reflection on the history of racism in our culture.At a time when demonstrators in the United States demanded for the destruction of Confederate monuments, activist Shaun King went even farther, stating that paintings and artwork representing ″white Jesus″ should be ″demolished.″ His worries regarding the image of Christ and how it is used to promote conceptions of racial supremacy are not unique to him or to the church.Prominent scholars, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, have urged for a reexamination of Jesus’ image as a white man in Christian literature.The developing image of Jesus Christ from A.D.

1350 to 1600 is the subject of my research as a European Renaissance art historian.During this time period, some of the most well-known images of Christ were created, from Leonardo da Vinci’s ″Last Supper″ in the Sistine Chapel to Michelangelo’s ″Last Judgment″ in the Vatican Museum.However, the image of Jesus that has been replicated the most is from a different historical period.

It is Warner Sallman’s ″Head of Christ,″ a light-eyed, light-haired sculpture from 1940.Sallman, a former commercial artist who specialized in creating artwork for advertising campaigns, was successful in marketing this photograph across the world.In collaboration with two Christian publishing houses, one Protestant and the other Catholic, Sallman was able to get Jesus’ head depicted on a variety of items, including prayer cards, stained glass, imitation oil paintings, calendars, hymnals, and nightlights.Sallman’s painting is the culmination of a lengthy tradition of white Europeans who have created and disseminated images of Christ that are in their own image.

In search of the holy face

Historically, the actual Jesus most likely had brown eyes and complexion similar to those of other first-century Jews from Galilee, which is a location in biblical Israel No one, however, is certain about Jesus’ physical appearance.In addition, there are no known photos of Jesus during his lifetime, and whereas the Old Testament kings Saul and David are specifically described in the Bible as ″tall and attractive,″ there is no evidence of Jesus’ physical appearance in either the Old or New Testaments.Even these passages are in conflict with one another: The prophet Isaiah writes that the coming savior ″had neither beauty nor majesty,″ whereas the Book of Psalms states that he was ″fairer than the children of mankind,″ with the term ″fair″ alluding to physical attractiveness.It was around the first through third century A.D.

that the earliest representations of Jesus Christ appeared, amidst worries about idolatry.They were less concerned with accurately portraying Christ’s physical appearance than they were with establishing his function as a ruler or as a savior.Early Christian painters frequently used syncretism, which is the combination of visual formats from other civilizations, in order to clearly show their functions.

A common syncretic picture is Christ as the Good Shepherd, a beardless, young figure based on pagan images of Orpheus, Hermes, and Apollo that is perhaps the most widely recognized.In some popular portrayals, Christ is depicted as wearing the toga or other qualities associated with the emperor.One interpretation is that the adult bearded Christ with long hair done in the ″Syrian″ style combines traits of the Greek god Zeus with the Old Testament hero Samson, among others.The theologian Richard Viladesau disagrees.

Christ as self-portraitist

Historically, the first portraits of Christ, in the sense of authorized likenesses, were thought to be self-portraits: the miraculous ″picture not formed by human hands,″ also known as the ″acheiropoietos,″ or ″image not made by human hands.″ This belief dates back to the seventh century A.D., and it is based on a legend that Christ healed King Abgar of Edessa in modern-day Urfa, Turkey, through a miraculous image of his face, now known as the Mandylion.The Mandylion is a miraculous image of Christ’s face that was created by the Holy Spirit.Between the 11th and 14th centuries, a similar legend spread throughout Western Christianity, telling how, before his crucifixion, Christ left an impression of his face on the veil of Saint Veronica, an image known as the volto santo, or ″Holy Face,″ which became known as the volto santo, or ″Holy Face.″ Together with other comparable relics, these two portraits have served as the foundation for iconic legends regarding the ″real image″ of Christ.If we look at it from the standpoint of art history, these objects served to strengthen an already established picture of a bearded Christ with shoulder-length, black hair.

Around the time of Christ’s death, European painters began to merge iconography with portraiture, creating Christ in their own likeness.Some people did this to express their identification with Christ’s human suffering, while others did it to make a statement about their own creative potential.One of the most famous examples is the work of the 15th-century Sicilian painter Antonello da Messina, who painted small portraits of the suffering Christ that were formatted exactly like his portraits of ordinary people, with the subject placed between an imaginary parapet and a plain black background, and signed ″Antonello da Messina painted me.″ Albrecht Dürer, a 16th-century German artist, blurred the boundaries between the holy face and his own image in a renowned self-portrait from 1500 that became known as the Holy Face of Christ.

In this, he posed in front of the camera as if he were an icon, his beard and luxurious shoulder-length hair evoking Christ’s own.The monogram ″AD″ might stand for either ″Albrecht Dürer″ or ″Anno Domini″ – ″in the year of our Lord,″ depending on who you ask.

In whose image?

Interestingly, this phenomena was not limited to Europe: there are 16th- and 17th-century paintings of Jesus that have Ethiopian and Indian traits, among other things.The image of a light-skinned European Christ, on the other hand, began to spread throughout the world as a result of European commerce and colonization in the early centuries.The ″Adoration of the Magi,″ painted by the Italian painter Andrea Mantegna in A.D.1505, depicts three separate magi, who, according to one contemporaneous story, came from Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.

They display valuable goods made of porcelain, agate, and brass that would have been treasured imports from China, the Persian and Ottoman empires, and other countries.However, Jesus’ fair complexion and blue eyes show that he was not born in the Middle East, but rather in Europe.Furthermore, the faux-Hebrew writing embroidered on Mary’s cuffs and hemline hints at a difficult relationship between the Holy Family’s Judaism and their Catholic faith.

Anti-Semitic beliefs were already common among the majority Christian population in Mantegna’s Italy, and Jewish people were frequently divided into their own sections of large cities, as a result of this.In order to remove Jesus and his parents from their Jewishness, artists created works of art.Even seemingly insignificant characteristics such as pierced ears — earrings were linked with Jewish women, and their removal with a conversion to Christianity – might symbolize a move toward the Christianity represented by Jesus and his apostles and disciples.Long afterward, anti-Semitic groups in Europe, especially the Nazis, would strive to completely separate Jesus from his Judaism in order to promote an Aryan caricature of the Messiah.

White Jesus abroad

As Europeans conquered ever-more-distant regions, they carried a European Jesus with them to share with the people.Jesuit missionaries developed painting schools where new converts might learn about Christian art in the European tradition.It is believed that this small altarpiece was created in the school of Giovanni Niccol, an Italian Jesuit who founded the ″Seminary of Painters″ in the Japanese city of Kumamoto around 1590.It combines a traditional Japanese gilt and mother-of-pearl shrine with a painting of a distinctly white European Madonna and Child.

Images of a white Jesus in colonial Latin America – which European colonists dubbed ″New Spain″ – helped to reinforce a caste system in which white, Christian Europeans occupied the top tier and those with darker skin as a result of perceived intermixing with native populations ranked significantly lower on the social ladder.Saint Rose of Lima, the first Catholic saint to be born in ″New Spain,″ is shown in a picture by artist Nicolas Correa from 1695, in which she is seen metaphorically married to a blond, light-skinned Christ.

Legacies of likeness

In their paper, Edward J.Blum and Paul Harvey claim that, in the centuries following European colonization of the Americas, images of a white Christ were connected with the logic of empire, and that this association could be used to justify the oppression of Native and African American people.Although America is a mixed and uneven society, the media portrayal of a white Jesus was disproportionately prominent.A huge majority of performers who have represented Jesus on television and in films have been white with blue eyes, and this is not limited to Warner Sallman’s Head of Christ.

See also:  Jesus Teach Us How To Pray

How Early Church Leaders Downplayed Mary Magdalene’s Influence by Calling Her a Whore

She was Mary of Magdala, one of Jesus of Nazareth’s early disciples, and she was one of the most famous women in the world.It is said that she journeyed with him, witnessed his Crucifixion, and was one of those who were informed of his Resurrection, all according to the Scriptures.Everybody, from early church officials and historians to authors and filmmakers, has contributed to the revision and expansion of the tale of Mary Magdalene throughout history.On the one hand, they downplayed her significance by stating she was a prostitute, a wrecked woman who repented and was rescued by Christ’s teachings.

On the other hand, they emphasized her value by claiming she was a prostitute, a ruined woman who repented and was saved by Christ’s teachings.Mary Magdalene, on the other hand, is represented in several early Christian scriptures as more than just a mere follower; she is also depicted as Jesus’ close companion—which some have taken to suggest his wife.Which begs the question: is there any truth to either of these tales?

What exactly do we know about Mary Magdalene, the lady who is considered to be the most intriguing woman in the Bible?WATCH: Jesus: A Biography on the HISTORY Vault

What the Bible Says About Mary Magdalene

However, only the Gospel of Luke discussed Mary Magdalene’s role in Jesus’ life and ministry, listing her among ″some women who had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities″ (Luke 8:1–3).All four canonical gospels of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) noted Mary Magdalene’s presence at Jesus’ Crucifixion, but only the Gospel of Luke discussed her role in his life and ministry.According to Luke, when Jesus drove out seven devils from her, Mary joined a group of women who went with him and his twelve disciples/apostles, ″proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God.″ They were ″proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God.″ However, although Magdalene is not a surname, it is associated with the city of Magdala, which is located in Galilee, in the northernmost area of ancient Palestine, and from whence Mary hailed (now northern Israel).In the words of Robert Cargill, an associate professor of classical and religious studies at the University of Iowa who is also the editor of the Biblical Archaeology Review, ″Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus’ early supporters.″ ″She was mentioned in the Gospels, which indicates that she was significant.

There were hundreds, if not thousands, of followers of Jesus, but we don’t know the names of the majority of them, according to what we know.As a result, the fact that she has been identified is significant.″ Mary Magdalene had an important role in the tale of the Resurrection, which took place after Jesus’ crucifixion, which she observed from the foot of the cross with many other women, and after all of Jesus’ male disciples had fled from the scene.In accordance with the gospels, Mary went to Jesus’ tomb on Easter Sunday, either alone herself (according to the Gospel of John) or in company with several women, and discovered that the tomb was vacant.

The ladies are the ones who go to the disciples and inform them what has happened, as Cargill points out.That’s crucial since they were the ones who found that Jesus had resurrected from the dead.According to the Gospel of John, Jesus personally comes to Mary Magdalene after his Resurrection and urges her to inform his followers of his appearance (John 20:1-13).READ MORE: What Did Jesus Look Like When He Was Alive?

Mary Magdalene as sinner

Because of Mary Magdalene’s obvious significance in the Bible—or maybe because of it—some early Western church leaders attempted to minimize her power by presenting her as a sinner, notably as a prostitute, according to the Bible.In Cargill’s words, ″There are many academics who think that because Jesus empowered women to such a great extent early in his career, it made some of the males who would govern the early church uncomfortable later on.″ In response to this, there were two different reactions.She was to be turned into a prostitute, for example.″ Early church leaders conflated Mary with other women mentioned in the Bible in order to portray her as the original repentant whore.These women included an unnamed woman, identified in the Gospel of Luke as a sinner, who bathes Jesus’ feet with her tears, dries them, and applies ointment to them (Luke 7:37-38), as well as another Mary, Mary of Bethany, who also appears in Luke.

Pope Gregory the Great clarified this confusion in a sermon in 591 A.D., saying, ″We think that the Mary, whom Luke names the wicked woman and whom John calls Mary, is the Mary from whom seven demons were evicted according to Mark.″ ‘By becoming a prostitute, she has diminished in importance.’ It has a negative impact on her in some manner.Look at what she did for a job, and you can see why she couldn’t have been a leader,″ Cargill adds.″Of course, the second option was to advance Mary to the next level.

Some believe she was actually Jesus’ wife or friend, rather than his mother.″She had a particular place in the world.″ READ MORE: The Bible Claims That Jesus Was a Real Person.Is there any further evidence?

Mary Magdalene as Jesus’s wife

While some early Christians wanted to downplay Mary’s influence, others sought to emphasize her as a source of inspiration.Several centuries after Jesus’ death, the Gospel of Mary, a document dating from the second century A.D.that was discovered in Egypt in 1896, ranked Mary Magdalene higher in wisdom and influence than Jesus’ male disciples.She was also extensively featured in the so-called Gnostic Gospels, a collection of books thought to have been authored by early Christians as far back as the second century A.D.

but which were not discovered until 1945, near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi, and which were written in Greek.According to one of these manuscripts, referred to Mary Magdalene as Jesus’ friend and said that Jesus loved her more than the other disciples.This document is known as the Gospel of Philip.

Possibly the most contentious statement in the scripture was that Jesus used to kiss Mary ″frequently on her.″ Damage to the writing rendered the final word illegible, while some scholars have substituted the word ″mouth″ for the unreadable term.In the years after its publication, Dan Brown’s enormously popular mystery The Da Vinci Code has been consumed by tens of millions of readers worldwide.The premise of the novel revolves around the long-held belief that Jesus and Mary Magdalene had children together.This concept was also at the heart of The Last Temptation of Christ, a novel written by Greek writer Nikos Kazantzakis in 1955 that was subsequently made into a film directed by Martin Scorsese, as well as the cinematic adaptation of the novel.And then there was the discovery of a previously unknown papyrus fragment in 2012 that was considered to be a copy of a second-century narrative in which Jesus refers to Mary Magdalene as ″my wife,″ according to Karen King, a professor at Harvard Divinity School.She ultimately changed her mind after being bombarded with criticism and concluded that the so-called ″Gospel of Jesus’s Wife″ was most likely a fake after defending the document’s validity.

Mary Magdalene as trusted disciple

The Bible, on the other hand, provided no indication that Mary Magdalene was Jesus’ wife.One can’t get a sense of that type of connection from any of the four canonical gospels, despite the fact that they include the women who travel with Jesus and, in some cases, their husbands’ names as well.The depiction of Mary Magdalene as a prostitute endured for decades after Pope Gregory the Great declared it official in his sixth-century sermon, though neither Orthodoxy nor Protestantism embraced it once their respective religions separated from the Catholic Church later in the sixth century.At long last, in 1969, the Church acknowledged that the text of the Bible did not support such interpretation..

Mary Magdalene is now venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, and her feast day is observed on July 22nd in all four of these denominations.According to Cargill’s conclusion, ″Mary appears to have been a disciple of Jesus.″ ″What’s noteworthy is that Jesus had both male and female disciples in his ministry, which was not often the case at the time,″ says the author.He notes that while the prostitute and wife hypotheses have been around for centuries, they are tales and customs that have developed long after the fact: ″Neither of them is anchored in the Bible itself.″ MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: The Evolution of Christian Thought

‘The Lost Leonardo’ Proves A Painting is Worth What the Rich and Powerful Says it’s Worth

Allow me to pose a question to you: how many paintings by Leonardo da Vinci are there in the world?Is it a dozen?Fifty?Maybe a hundred people?

People’s responses to this question are almost always one of two extreme, and diametrically opposed, options: either something ridiculously low, such as ″There are what, three?″ or something crazily high, such as ″I have no idea.″ 500?” The answer is really closer to the impossibly low end of the spectrum than it is to the impossible high end.It is known that the master painted eight pieces, and there are another nine or ten works that experts are quite certain he made but whose provenance—the documents th

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.