Matthew 26:57 Those who had arrested Jesus led Him away to the house of Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and elders had gathered.
The letter is addressed to Caiaphas, the high priest.St.John is the only one who records the preliminary examination before Annas, most likely because of the specific facilities he possessed that were known to the high priest (John 18:13; John 18:19-24).It was undoubtedly meant to elicit anything from our Lord’s mouth that might be used as the foundation for an allegation against him.
It is important to recall that Caiaphas had already committed himself to the strategy of condemnation (John 11:49-50).The entire narrative that follows gives the sense that Judas’ betrayal accelerated the priests’ preparations in order to save the world.The place where the scribes and the elders had gathered.- It was against Jewish law to convene a session of the Sanhedrin, or Council, for the trial of death crimes during the night, according to Jewish tradition.Having such a gathering the night before the Paschal Supper must have been even more out of character, and the fact that it took place has been cited as evidence that the Last Supper was not properly regarded as a Passover meal.This meant that the meeting was casual, and it was most likely a crowded gathering of individuals who were involved in the scheme, such as Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathaea, as well as maybe a few others, such as the young ″ruler″ of Luke 18:18, who had not been invited to the meeting.As soon as they had completed their pretend trial and the sun began to rise (Luke 22:68), they turned themselves into a formal courtroom and proceeded to render their verdict….
- Christ in front of Caiaphas, who has informally sentenced him to death (verses 57-68).
- (See Mark 14:53-65, Luke 22:54, 63-65, and John 18:24 for examples.) Verse 57: He was taken away and brought before Caiaphas.
- The synoptists make no mention of the preparatory investigation that took place before Annas (John 18:13, 19-24).
- His palace was the closest to the site of the capture, and it appears that the troops were given orders to transport the Prisoner there, owing to Annas’ extensive political connections with the Romans and his role as the primary mover in the issue.
- Because none of the disciples were present for the examination, there is no record of what transpired before him.
The synoptists pick up the story at the point where Jesus is bound and delivered before Caiaphas, who, according to St.John (John 18:14), was the one who had demanded the judicial death of Jesus for political purposes.Exactly where (and in whose home) the scribes and the elders gathered is unknown.
- An informal gathering of the top Sanhedrists appears to have been organized in a room of Caiaphas’ palace, rather than their customary meeting site, according to the urgency with which it was convened.
- Some years before to this, the council had been stripped of the authority to pronounce capital sentences, and as a result, the requirement to convene in the Gazith hall (where only capital sentences could be given) was no longer necessary.
- Commentaries that run in parallel.
- Strong’s 3588: GreekThose (Hoi)Article – Nominative Masculine PluralStrong’s 3588: GreekThose (Hoi)Article – Nominative Masculine PluralStrong’s 3588: The article is capitalized like the definite article.
- Incorporating the feminine he, as well as the neuter to in all of their variations; the definite article; and the.who had arrestedv (kratsantes) Strong’s 2902: Verb – Aorist Participle Active – Nominative Masculine PluralStrong’s 2902: Verb – Aorist Participle Active – Nominative Masculine Plural From the Greek word kratos, which means ″to utilize power,″ as in ″to seize or keep.″ Strong’s 2424: Jesus (Isoun)Noun – Accusative Masculine SingularStrong’s 2424: Jesus Jesus, the name of our Lord, and two other Israelites are descended from the Hebrew language.
- ledaway (apgagon) is a slang term for ″leadaway.″ The Aorist Indicative Form of the Verb Active – 3rd Person PluralStrong’s 520: Active – 3rd Person PluralStrong’s 520: To lead, transport, or remove anything; met: To be duped or seduced is to be misled.
To take off, we need to travel from apo and ago.to be able to (pros) Strong’s 4314 is a preposition that means ″toward, with.″ It is a more developed version of pro; it is a preposition of direction; it means ″ahead to,″ or ″toward.″ Caiaphas The name Kaiaphan refers to Caiaphas, the Jewish high priest, who is shown in Strong’s 2533 as an accusative masculine singular.Originally from Chaldea, the dell; Caiaphas was an Israelite.Strong’s 3588:the, the definite article, the accusative masculine singular.This includes all of the inflections of the feminine he as well as the neuter to; the definite article; and the.
in the role of the high priest (archierea) High priest, chief priest is a noun in the accusative masculine singular, according to Strong’s 749.The high priest, descended from arche and hiereus, and hence, by extension, a leading priest.What is the location of (hopou)AdverbStrong’s 3699: where, whither, in what location From hos and pou; whatsoever(-ever) place, i.e.at whichever point you want.Nominative Masculine Article (the (hoi)Article) PluralStrong’s 3588:the, the definite article, is a definite article.This includes all of the inflections of the feminine he as well as the neuter to; the definite article; and the.
scribes (also spelled scribes) (grammateis) Noun – Nominative Masculine Form of Noun PluralStrong’s 1122: derived from the grama.A writer, sometimes known as a scribe or secretary.and as well as (kai) ConjunctionStrong’s 2532 is as follows: And, in addition, specifically.elders Masculine Adjective – Nominative Adjective – Nominative Adjective – Nominative Adjective – Nominative Adjective – Nominative Adjective – Nominative Adjective – Nominative Adjective – Nominative Adjective – Nominative Adjective – Nominative Adjective – Nominative Adjective – Nominative Adjective – Nominative Adjective – No PluralStrong’s 4245 is as follows: They had collected in the case of presbus, which means ″elder,″ ″senior″ and ″presbyter,″ which means ″presbyter″ in the case of an Israelite Sanhedrist or Christian ″presbyter.″ Synchthsan (synchthsan) is a Greek word that means ″synchthsan″ (synchthsan).The Aorist Indicative Form of the Verb 3rd Person Passive Voice Phrase PluralStrong’s 4863: From the sun and the past; to gather or meet, and especially, to entertain.
- Return to the previous page The Assembled Authority has been apprehended.
- Caiaphas Ca’iaphas Ca’iaphas Ca’iaphas High Hold House Jesus Laying Led Officers Chief Elders gathered in a high hold house.
- Priests and Scribes are taken prisoner and seized together.
- Continue to Next Page The Assembled Authority has been apprehended.
- Caiaphas Ca’iaphas Ca’iaphas Ca’iaphas High Hold House Jesus Laying Led Officers Chief Elders gathered in a high hold house.
- Priests and Scribes are taken prisoner and seized together.
Links Matthew 26:57 New International Version Matthew 26:57 New International Version Matthew 26:57 (New International Version) Matthew 26:57 New American Standard Bible Matthew 26:57 King James Version BibleApps.com has a translation of Matthew 26:57.Matthew 26:57 Biblia Paralela (Parallel Bible) Matthew 26:57 (KJV) The Chinese version of the Bible French translation of Matthew 26:57.Matthew 26:57 (KJV) The Bible according to Catholic tradition Gospels of the New Testament: In Matthew 26:57, they who had kidnapped Jesus were the ones who brought him away (Matt.Mat Mt)
Where was Jesus for the three days between His death and resurrection?
- Answer to the question He ″bowed his head and gave up his spirit″ on the cross after proclaiming, ″It is finished,″ according to the Bible (John 19:30).
- When Jesus died on the crucifixion, his corpse stayed there until it was brought down and laid in a neighboring tomb (John 19:40–42).
- His spirit, on the other hand, was somewhere else.
- Thirty-two hours later, He was raised from the dead by the reunification of his body and spirit (John 20).
- There has been some debate concerning where Jesus was during the three days between His death and resurrection—that is, where His spirit was during that time.
- When Jesus is on the cross, he has a discussion with one of the thieves who is crucified next to Him, and this dialogue provides the clearest clue in Scripture of where Jesus was between His death and resurrection.
- Jesus responds to the believing thief’s request to be remembered when He enters His kingdom (Luke 23:42), saying, ″Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise″ (verse 43).
- As a result, upon His death, Jesus was taken to the region of blessing where God resides—heaven.
- And it was there that the believing thief ended up as well.
- Another text is frequently cited in the debate of where Jesus was during the three days that elapsed between His death and His resurrection.
- ″Christ also suffered once for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive in the spirit, in which he went and proclaimed to the spirits in prison because they had previously refused to obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared,″ according to First Peter 3:18–20.
- Some interpret this to suggest that Jesus visited hell/Hades sometime between His death and resurrection and delivered a message of some sort to the ″spirits″ imprisoned there at the time of His death.
According to this understanding, the spirits Jesus addressed may have been either demonic or human in nature, but not both.It is possible that the spirits mentioned in 1 Peter 3:19 are fallen angels, in which case those spirits were likely imprisoned because they were involved in a grievous sin before the flood in Noah’s time—Peter specifically mentions Noah’s flood in verse 20, which indicates that they were imprisoned because they were involved in a grievous sin before the flood in Noah’s time.Peter does not tell us what Jesus said to the spirits that were imprisoned, but it could not have been a message of redemption since angels cannot be rescued, as we know from the Bible (Hebrews 2:16).The announcement that Jesus made was very certainly a declaration of His triumph over Satan and his forces if they were fallen angels (1 Peter 3:22; Colossians 2:15).However, there is another reading of the text from 1 Peter.According to this view, the ″spirits″ are actual individuals who are now in hell, but Peter is not implying that Jesus made a particular trip to Hades/hell to preach or declare anything specific.
- The fact that Jesus had ″in spirit″ taught to the people of Noah’s day while they were still alive on earth is provided by Peter as a footnote to the passage.
- After hearing the word, the wicked generation rejected it, and they died in the flood, they are now imprisoned.
- According to the Amplified Bible and the New American Standard Bibles of 1977 and 1995, the term now is used in 1 Peter 3:19 to offer clarity, and it contrasts with the words ″long ago″ (NIV) and ″previously″ (ESV) that appear in 1 Peter 3:20.
- When Noah preached to his condemned neighbors, Christ was in Noah (spiritually, according to this variant reading).
- To further understand, consider the following paraphrase of 1 Peter 3:18–20: When Jesus died in the flesh, He was raised to life in the Spirit (it was by means of this same Spirit that Jesus preached to those who are currently imprisoned—those souls who rebelled during the period of God’s great patience when Noah was constructing the ark).
- The prophet Noah was used by Jesus to teach spiritually to the people of Noah’s day, according to this viewpoint, in a manner similar to the way that God communicates through us now when we declare God’s Word.
- Another verse, Ephesians 4:8–10, is cited in the explanation of Jesus’ actions during the three days that elapsed between His death and resurrection.
- The apostle Paul states of Christ, quoting Psalm 68:18, that ″when [he] climbed on high, he took many captives″ (Ephesians 4:8).
- According to the English Standard Version, Christ ″led a multitude of prisoners.″ Some believe that phrase alludes to an occurrence that is not mentioned anywhere else in the Bible, namely, that Jesus gathered all of the saved who were in paradise and transported them to their eternal home in heaven.
- Following his death on the cross, Jesus ascended into heaven and appeared to all of those who had previously been justified by faith, escorting them from Hades (the general place of the dead) to their new spiritual home in the presence of the Father and the Holy Spirit.
- An alternative interpretation of Ephesians 4 is that the phrase ″ascended into the highest″ is a direct allusion to Jesus’ ascension.
- Christ triumphantly returned to heaven in the form of God.
- In His triumph, Jesus had beaten and captured our spiritual adversaries, including the devil, death, and the curse of sin, and He had taken them captive.
- All of this is to imply that the Bible provides very little information regarding what exactly Christ accomplished during the three days that separated His death and resurrection from the time of His death.
- The only thing we can be certain of is that, according to Jesus’ own statements on the cross, He was taken to be with God in paradise.
- As well as this, we may confidently state that because His work of salvation was completed, Jesus did not have to suffer in hell.
- Return to the previous page: Questions regarding Jesus Christ What happened to Jesus during the three days that elapsed between His death and resurrection?
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Arrest of Jesus – Wikipedia
- The arrest of Jesus, which was recounted in the canonical gospels, was a watershed moment in the history of Christianity.
- It is possible that Jesus was arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane by the Temple guards of the Sanhedrin (although this is questioned among historians).
- It is also possible that Jesus was arrested by a Roman speira in the Garden of Gethsemane (300 – 600 soldiers).
- It took place shortly after the Last Supper (at which Jesus delivered his last lecture) and immediately after Judas’ kiss, which is widely regarded as an act of treachery because Judas had formed a bargain with the chief priests to have Jesus arrested.
- According to the Gospel texts, the incident ultimately resulted in Jesus’ crucifixion.
- Next his capture, he was promptly brought before the Sanhedrin, where he was found guilty and sentenced to death, after which he was turned over to Pilate the following morning.
- The events that took place between the Last Supper and Jesus’ crucifixion and resurrection are collectively referred to as the Passion in Christian theology.
- The New Testament’s four Gospels all close with a detailed account of Jesus’ arrest, trial, crucifixion, burial, and resurrection, which is the longest story in the world.
- It has been said that these five incidents in Jesus’ life are covered with greater intensity in each Gospel than any other element of that Gospel’s story.
- On page 91, scholars point out that the reader is given an almost hour-by-hour description of what is going on.
- In accordance with the canonical gospels, Jesus and his disciples walked out to Gethsemane, a garden located on the outskirts of the Kidron Valley, which academics believe was most likely an olive grove at the time of Jesus’ death.
- He is reported as departing the gathering after he arrives in order to pray quietly.
- According to the synoptics, Jesus begged God to relieve him of the weight of death by crucifixion in order to redeem mankind, while still leaving the final decision up to the will of God.
- According to Luke, an angel appeared to Jesus and strengthened him, after which he accepted God’s judgment and returned to the company of his followers.
- According to the synoptic accounts, the three disciples who were with Jesus had fallen asleep, and Jesus reprimanded them for failing to stay up even for an hour, urging that they pray so that they would not be tempted.
- At that time, Judas kissed Jesus on the lips as a pre-arranged signal to others who had followed Judas that Jesus was who he claimed to be.
- After identifying Jesus, the police arrested him, despite the fact that one of Jesus’ followers attempted to stop them with a sword, cutting off the ear of one of the arresting officers in the process.
- The Gospel of John says that it was Simon Peter, and the injured officer is identified as Malchus, a servant of Caiaphas, the High Priest of Israel, according to the Gospel of John.
- Luke also mentions that Jesus was able to cure the wound.
- As recorded in the Gospels of John, Matthew, and Luke, Jesus criticizes the violent conduct, demanding that they should not oppose Jesus’ arrest.
- According to the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus said, ″All who live by the sword will die by the sword.″ The story in the Gospel of John differs from the accounts in the other three gospels in that only in John do Roman troops assist in the execution of the arrest.
- However, rather than Judas guiding them in the direction of Jesus, John has Jesus himself ask them who they are searching for, and when they reply ″Jesus of Nazareth,″ he responds ″I am he,″ at which point all members of the arresting party retreated and fell to the ground in shock and disbelief.
- Interestingly, the only place where a fleeing naked young man is mentioned is in the oldest version of Jesus’ arrest, which appears in the Gospel of Mark 14:51-52.
Jesus’ arrest and Judas’ involvement in acting as a guide to those who were arresting him are both mentioned by Peter in Acts 1:16, who then goes on to explain what happened.
Gallery of art
- Chronology of Jesus
- Life of Jesus in the New Testament
- ″Bible Gateway passage: Matthew 26:14-16 – New International Version″. Bible Gateway.
- ″Bible Gateway passage: Mark 15 – New International Version″. Bible Gateway.
- ″Bible Gateway passage: Matthew 26:14-16 – New International Version″. Bible Gateway. A Brief Introduction to the New Testament. Powell, Mark A. A Brief Introduction to the New Testament. Published by Baker Academic in 2009 with the ISBN 978-0-8010-2868-7. The Synoptic Gospels are Matthew, Mark, and Luke. ISBN 1-931018-31-6 page 169 by Ján Majernk, Joseph Ponessa, and Laurie Watson Manhardt 2005 ISBN 1-931018-31-6 John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck edited The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament, which appeared in 1983 and was published under the ISBN 978-0-88207-812-0. 487-500 in Craig A. Evans’ The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: Matthew-Luke, Volume 1 (ISBN 0-7814-3868-3), page 487-500
- Take note that the term ″he″ is given by the translators
- the Greek equivalent for ″I am″ is Ego eimi, which explains why the arresting party is taken aback by the situation. John 18:4 (KJV)
- In An Introduction to the New Testament, by Raymond E. Brown, p. The Doubleday paperback edition (ISBN 0-385-24767-2) was published in 1997. Brown, Raymond E. and colleagues The New Jerome Biblical Commentary Prentice Hall 1990 ISBN 0-13-614934-0
- Kilgallen, John J. A Brief Commentary on the Gospel of Mark Paulist Press 1989 ISBN 0-8091-3059-9
- Miller, Robert J. Editor The Complete Gospels Polebridge Press 1994 ISBN 0-06-065587-9
- Kilgallen, John J. A Brief Commentary on the Gospel of Mark Paulist Press 1989 ISBN 0-8091-3059-9
- Kilgallen, John J. A Brief
Where was Jesus tried?
- NOTE FROM THE EDITOR: Baptist Press will publish further stories on Easter the following day (April 2).
- PADUCAH, Ky.
- (BP) – The town of Paducah, Kentucky, is a popular tourist destination.
- Among all of human history, the trial of Jesus Christ before the Roman ruler Pontius Pilate is unquestionably the most renowned.
- Unsolved mystery surrounds one of the event’s most intriguing aspects: where exactly was it hosted in the holy city?
- Three of the four Gospels provide some useful indications as to the location of the trial, but none of them refer to a specific spot in Jerusalem that can be easily identified.
- For example, when Jesus was carried to Pilate’s courtroom — known as the Praetorium — (Matthew 27:27; Mark 15:16; John 18:28).
- In this context, a Praetorium was the governor’s official residence, complete with a military encampment and bodyguard to protect the governor.
- For the most part, Roman troops serving in the governor’s service were housed at two places in Jerusalem: the King Herod’s Palace/Fortress Antonia, on the Temple Mount, and an encampment within or near the Herod’s Palace Complex, at or near the western boundary of the city.
- The Praetorium appears to be located within one of these palace complexes, according to the Gospel of Mark (Mark 15:16).
- Aside from that, the Gospel of John says that Pilate takes Jesus outside the palace walls, places him on a stone pavement (perhaps in the courtyard or just outside it), and conducts the remainder of the trial in front of a group of Jewish leaders who had refused to enter the palace walls (John 18:28; 19:13).
- Some believe that the stone pavement (″gabbatha″ in Aramaic) might provide a valuable hint as to the site of the trial, and others disagree.
- So, which of King Herod’s palace complexes in Jerusalem served as the setting for Jesus’ trial and punishment?
Both sites have a lengthy history of supporters that dates back to the time when Jerusalem became a Christian city under the reign of Constantine in the early fourth century.Christians began mapping out the route Jesus travelled from the trial to His death at Golgotha (the Via Dolorosa — ″the Way of Sorrows″) in the first century AD, and several itineraries arose throughout time that included the two palace locations.The Fortress Antonia is the location of the trial.Today, there is hardly no part of the stronghold that is above ground level.To be sure, today’s official path for the Via Dolorosa begins outside the Sisters of Zion Convent, where visitors are shown a ″stone pavement″ that is believed to be the paving stones of the Fortress Antonia, where Pilate delivered his verdict on Jesus.Among the arguments in favor of this location has been the notion that Pilate wanted his headquarters near the Temple during the extremely frequented Passover week.
- Nervous Roman officials were concerned that the large number of people visiting the city at this period might increase the likelihood of civil disturbance.
- However, the site looks to be an improbable location for Jesus’ trial, as evidenced by the following: While the Via Dolorosa road begins here today, this particular route goes back to to the 18th century, when it was first established (although other previous routes have included this trial site from time to time).
- ″The Stations of the Cross,″ a book written by author Herbert Thurston, chronicles the evolution of the numerous Via Dolorosa itineraries throughout the course of history.
- Furthermore, archeologists have proven that the fabled ″paving stones″ at the site really date back to the second century AD, when the Roman Emperor Hadrian built a pavement for the purpose of transporting goods.
- Hadrian covered over the Struthion Pool in order to construct a forum in this location.
- Archaeologist Pierre Benoit said in his book ″Antonia Fortress″ that although if this location was near to the Fortress Antonia at the time of Pilate’s rule of Judea, it would have been submerged during Pilate’s reign.
- In the Jewish War, 5,238-247, Josephus indicates that Roman troops were stationed in the Antonia; nevertheless, no ancient sources have clearly claimed that Roman rulers had their headquarters at this precise location.
- There is little trustworthy evidence to support the Fortress Antonia’s role as the site of Jesus’ trial, according to historians.
- The Herod’s Western Palace is the location of the trial.
- The most likely location for Jesus’ trial before Pilate was at King Herod’s splendid Palace Complex on the western outskirts of the city, rather than the city itself.
- At contrast to their customary residence in the seaside city of Caesarea, the Roman rulers of Judea chose to remain and do business in this palace when they visited the city of Jerusalem (Josephus, Jewish War, 2,301-8; Philo, Embassy to Gaius, 306).
- In comparison to the palace within the Fortress Antonia, this palace was larger and more richly equipped, making it a more appropriate dwelling for a Roman governor.
- Aside from that, the large courtyards of the palace complex and adjoining fortified towers with their apartments gave room for troops to encamp throughout their stay (Jewish War, 2,329).
- Other information concerning the site has been unearthed as a result of recent archaeological digs.
- During an archaeological dig near the ruins of Herod’s Western Palace in 2009, archaeologist Shimon Gibson discovered several elevated pavement stones that were supposed to have been the ″gabbatha″ referenced in the fourth Gospel.
- In a recent interview, Gibson expressed his support for the theory that Jesus was tried at Herod’s Western Palace (WORLD News Service, Jan.
- 9, 2015).
This palace has been the subject of years of excavations by Israeli archaeologist Amit Re’em, who disclosed the results of his findings in January.Foundational stones from Herod’s palace have been discovered beneath an ancient Ottoman (Turkish) jail, together with an enormous sewage system and accompanying waterworks that were originally a component of the palace’s water system.Excursion tours of the excavations have been made available to the general public, and Tower of David Museum director Eilat Lieber hopes that Christian visitors would include the site on their itinerary while traveling to the Holy Land.It’s possible that the sole impediment to fully recognizing this place as the site of Jesus’ trial before Pilate is the fact that the four Gospels are absolutely silent on the particular location of the trial.
- Both of Herod’s stronghold castles in Jerusalem were destroyed during the Jewish Revolt less than 40 years after the trial, during a period when early manuscripts of portions of the Gospels were being disseminated.
- People who read or heard these written works were no longer able to connect what they heard or read with the tangible above-ground ruins of the city that had been destroyed by fire.
- Consequently, to some extent, some doubt about the location of Jesus’ trial has persisted to this day regarding the exact location.
The Arrest of Jesus
- What was it that constituted Jesus’ arrest, which took place after midnight on Wednesday, April 5th, illegal under the laws of the land?
- The elders, chief priests, the high priest, the whole Sanhedrin (most of whom despised him), and the entire Sanhedrin were responsible with upholding Biblical and Jewish legal rules.
- What made what occurred to him in contravention of these statutes?
- The formal arrest took place in the middle of the night.
- Judas, who had betrayed Jesus to Jewish religious authorities who despised him, arrived at the garden of Gethsemane with an armed gang of men, according to tradition.
- As soon as he kissed Christ on the cheek (a signal intended to signify who should be brought into prison), our Savior was arrested and transported to the Jewish authorities for questioning and what would turn out to be at least two trials.
- Due to the fact that no official accusations were ever filed against Jesus, there was no legal basis for his detention.
- Furthermore, no evidence of criminal action, provided by credible witnesses, was ever presented to justify his being brought into custody to address claims leveled against him and his family (Matthew 26:59 – 60, Mark 14:55).
- To put it bluntly, he was just brought under arrest and taken into jail at the demand of religious authorities who desired his death.
- At Jesus’ first interrogation, which took place in front of a prior High Priest called Annas (John 18:13), not a single witness came who accused Jesus of any crime (verses 19 – 24).
- In the early hours of the morning, he appeared before religious officials for the second time (his first true trial).
- The Sanhedrin, or more correctly the Great Sanhedrin, was the top council of the Jews, consisting of seventy elders plus the high priest.
- It was the highest authority in the Jewish community.
They possessed authority over religious problems at the period, and they gathered in a room within Jerusalem’s temple known as the chamber of hewn stones, where they discussed them.It was discovered throughout the trial that no witnesses had been called to testify in support of Jesus’ arrest or attendance in court (Mark 14:53, 55).Jesus’ arrest took place at night.Hans the Younger Holbein lived from 1524 to 1525.What took place was plainly in violation of Biblical law, particularly the requirement in Deuteronomy 19 prohibiting being accused with a crime for which one is not guilty.The Bible declares in Deuteronomy 19:15 that a person must be convicted of disobedience and punished if at least TWO witnesses testify against him or her.
An accomplice is involved
- As previously said, Judas Iscariot, one of the disciples, was the one who prompted authorities to initiate an arrest and bring him before the court (Mark 14:43 – 44).
- The difficulty is that, because of his close contact with the individual who was arrested and brought into jail, Judas might easily be accused of being an accomplice to the crime.
- An accomplice is a person who knowingly assists another in committing a crime or engaging in wrongdoing.
- The twelve disciples (including Judas Iscariot) would be considered collaborators in Jesus’ ″illegal″ acts if he were perceived to be a criminal by the public.
- A person’s arrest or conviction cannot be achieved without the assistance of an accomplice, according to Jewish (Hebrew) law (Walter Chandler, The Trial of Jesus, Volume 1, pages 228 – 229).
In the middle of the night
- An agreement between the chief priests and Judas, to have him deliver them to Jesus during the night, set the wheels in motion for the arrest of Jesus (Matthew 26:14 – 16).
- If the religious leaders were only hunting for any chance to kidnap the Son of God, Judas would not have been required to participate.
- According to Mark 14:48 – 49, Jesus lectured publicly in the temple of Jerusalem and might have been kidnapped at any point during his public teaching.
- The council, on the other hand, want to remain anonymous in order to conceal their nefarious deeds!
- They were attempting to pervert the whole legal system in order to ″legally″ murder him!
- The Bible expressly forbids perverting the course of justice (see Exodus 23:2, Deuteronomy 16:19 and Leviticus 19:15 – 16).
- In order to ensure that Jesus would be executed, his opponents orchestrated his arrest in order to disrupt and pervert the whole judicial procedure.
- His treatment was the most heinous miscarriage of justice the world has ever witnessed.
The NEW Prison of Christ KishlaThe Trial of Jesus Video Tour
In today’s Video Tour to the NEW Prison of Christ Kishla, we will be visiting a new location that, based on recent archaeological discoveries, can be recognized as the location where Jesus was imprisoned and eventually put on trial — the Palace of Herod the Great.
The Tower of David
- A ancient castle known as the ″Tower of David,″ Jerusalem’s Citadel is located near the Jaffa Gate, which served as and continues to serve as the major entry to the old city of Jerusalem for centuries.
- Approximately 15 years ago, construction work on the Tower of David began in order to incorporate a children’s museum into an abandoned structure adjacent to the tower.
- During the time when the Ottoman Turks governed Jerusalem, this edifice was utilized as a PRISON by them, and then afterwards by the British.
- As a result of an unique excavation being conducted, several remarkable archaeological discoveries have been made, including the presumed remnants of a palace where one of the most famous incidents from the New Testament – the trial of Jesus – may have taken place.
- The tower of David was erected immediately close to Herod’s Place, according to archaeologists, who presumed this for many years.
- They have discovered evidence to support this idea throughout their excavation operations.
- We may still see the remains of a long and strait wall from the period of the Hashmonaim here in this location.
- The unique thing about this wall is that it was supported on both sides by buildings that were erected during Herod’s reign in order to hold the platform for his temple, which was constructed precisely here.
- Herod utilized the Hashmonaim wall as a supporting wall for his fortifications, as shown in the following illustration.
- The western wall of the temple mount serves as one of the supporting walls for the structure.
- The structure that we know today as the Tower of David was one of three towers that were constructed on this site to protect Herod’s palace from attack.
Prison of Christ Kishla and The Trial of Jesus
- What does this have to do with Jesus’ trial, you might wonder.
- Many think that the trial of Jesus by Pontius Pilate took place at Herod’s palace, which was located on the western side of the city, rather than at the Antonia stronghold, which was located on the northeastern side of the city, near the temple mount, as others believe it did.
- The latest archeological discovery has reignited the argument over the exact site of the Trial of Jesus, the Prison of Christ Kishla, and, consequently, the orientation of the Via Dolorosa, which was previously dormant.
- So, what is the correct answer?
- That is something we should leave to the archeologists to discuss.
- In the words of Rev.
- David Pileggi, vicar of Christ Church, an Anglican congregation near the Tower of David: ″What makes a location holy is that people have gone there for hundreds of years and prayed, wept and even rejoiced there; I do not expect that the path will be changed any time soon.″ However, the jail does provide a more comprehensive overview of Jerusalem’s past.″
The Trial of Jesus – places in Jerusalem
- Today, a pilgrim who travels to Jerusalem can visit three separate locations that are thought to be the site of Jesus’ trial: Most people think that this is the location of the Antonia Fortress, which once secured the Temple Mount.
- This is the most well-known landmark, and it is also where the entire procession of the way Dolorosa begins.
- The Praetorium Monastery, which is located immediately behind station2, as well as the beginning of the Via Dolorosa, which was, according to Orthodox tradition, the site of Jesus’ trial by the Roman ruler of Judea at the time of Jesus’ death.
- A unique film has been created to commemorate the fact that it is believed that Jesus was imprisoned here before going on trial.
- Furthermore, there is the Kishla jail in the Tower of David, where Herod’s palace once stood and where it is possible that the Trial of Jesus took place.
- Let’s all live the Jerusalem Experience till we meet again in our next video, shall we?
The Prisoner of Christ Jesus
- Philippians 3:15–17 For this reason, I, Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ for the Gentiles, am writing to you…
- Paul writes from his Roman jail, where he is continually surrounded by the aggravating confinement that he is subjected to.
- There is a pathos to the situation that must elicit sympathy from the reader, and yet there is a dignity and even a glory to it that causes us to believe that the apostle’s occasional reference to his bonds is primarily intended to serve as a motivation for giving greater weight and solemnity to his persuasive arguments.
- The faithful servant of Christ may become a prisoner of Christ’s cause in the first place.
- Paul was called to the apostleship from a position of considerable authority and promising future in the world of his day.
- It is said that he was the most brilliant and most committed man in the history of the Christian Church.
- No one worked harder or achieved more results than he did, and no one was as successful as he was.
- However, it has all come to this: the famous and revered apostle is now imprisoned in a Roman jail, his life in the hands of the ″crazy kid″ Nero, who has no regard for human life.
- In this style, it’s possible that the conclusion was foreshadowed.
- ″Neither a student nor a servant is superior to his master, nor a lord superior to his servant.″ Should we be shocked that the servant has been imprisoned, given that the Lord was crucified?
- Some people, however, are bewildered and dissatisfied, not because they are enduring such huge afflictions, but because they are being forced to shoulder any burden for Christ.
Christianity is a religion of the cross, both for the Christian and for Christ in its truest sense.It is possible that liberal Christianity may endanger the liberties of those who support it.St.Paul was imprisoned ″on your account, Gentiles,″ as he put it.Because of Jewish enmity, we know that the apostle was brought before the Roman government and that this enmity was roused by their feelings of jealousy toward him for preaching the gospel to Gentiles and advocating the right of Gentiles to be treated on an equal footing with Jews.We also know that the apostle was brought before the Roman government because of his enmity toward Jews.
- Paul was the preacher of the more liberal Christianity of his day, and as a result, he was the most misunderstood and most vehemently opposed figure in the whole Christian community.
- Anyone feeling called to preach more liberal views than are sanctioned by the prevailing opinions of the day should expect opposition, but should recognize the importance of courage and fidelity to truth in the face of such opposition, and should be encouraged by the memories of those who have suffered alone in the same cause during earlier times, when the larger views and liberating doctrines have been much more vigorously opposed than they can be now.
- Throughout history, from St.
- Paul to Pope Maurice, the heroic advocates of liberal Christianity have achieved significant wins that have benefited us.
- It is preferable to be imprisoned for the sake of Christ and liberal truth than to be at liberty without Christ and in uncharitable narrowness, as stated in Romans 8:1.
- As a result, the prisoner in Rome is a person to be envied rather than despised.
- He was Christ’s prisoner, and Christ was present with him during his confinement.
- His was the true blessing that comes to those who are persecuted for the cause of virtue.
- When compared to Judaism’s restrictions, St.
- Paul was the defender of freedom, and this genuine, spiritual freedom could not be destroyed by bolts and bars.
- ″Stone walls do not constitute a jail, and iron bars do not make a cage.″ When the eternal dreamer got to the Beulah heights and almost as far as the gates of the celestial city, he had a great deal of freedom in Bedford prison.
- THE PRISONER WHO SUFFERS FOR A GOOD CAUSE IMPOSES LARGE OBLIGATIONS ON ALL THOSE WHO BENEFIT FROM HIS OR HER PERSONAL PERIL.
- Paul gently refers to his incarceration as a source of prayer (verse 14) and encouragement (verses 15-18).
- (Ephesians 4:1).
The sufferings of the great martyrs of liberty in the past inspire us, who have inherited the heritage won through their toil and death, to be faithful to such a great trust, to walk worthy of it by using our liberty as an opportunity to perform the highest acts of love, and to preserve it from all encroachment and pass it down to our children without being fettered by new restrictions of theological dogma or official domination in the modern world.- W.F.A.Parallel VerseKJV: Parallel verses For this reason, I Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ for the Gentiles, am writing to you.
Ritual bath unearthed at site where Judas betrayed Jesus
- The ruins of a 2,000-year-old ritual bath and a 1,500-year-old church were discovered at the location of Gethsemane, a region outside Jerusalem where the Bible claims Jesus was betrayed by Judas and jailed.
- The church and the ritual bath were discovered at the same time.
- AEF SAFADI/POOL/AFP via Getty Images contributed to this image.
- ) An ancient ritual bath church has been unearthed in Gethsemane, a location near Jerusalem where the Bible claims that Jesus was betrayed and jailed by Judas Iscariot.
- According to archaeologists from the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) and the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, who worked together to dig the site, the 2,000-year-old ceremonial bath, known as a ″mikveh,″ is the only known archaeological find in Gethsemane that dates to the period when Jesus lived.
- ″The finding of this spa, which was not accompanied by any other structures, most likely attests to the presence of an agricultural business in this area 2,000 years ago, which may have produced oil or wine.
- Workers in the oil and wine industries were required to purify themselves in accordance with Jewish rules of purity ″The statement was issued by Amit Re’em, an archaeologist with the Israel Antiquities Authority who works in the Jerusalem area.
- He went on to explain that the name Gethsemane is derived from the Hebrew word for ″oil press.″ Related: 7 incredible archaeological discoveries in the Holy Land Archaeologists claimed in a statement that a 1,500-year-old church discovered at the site was likely erected while the Byzantine Empire governed the area, though people continued to use it after the Muslims took over the area about A.D.
- The church, which is made of finely carved stone, bears a Greek inscription that reads (in translation): ″I am the Savior of the world.″ ″In remembrance of and for the repose of the Christ-followers.
- God, who has accepted Abraham’s sacrifice, now accept the offering of your slaves and grant them forgiveness of their sins as well.
- Amen″ ) (Translation provided by Leah Di Segni and Rosario Pierri).
- According to the Bible, Jesus was captured by a mob that included Judas, who recognized Jesus by kissing him after he was taken into custody.
- In the next days, Jesus was taken before Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect of Judea, who tried Jesus and condemned him to death on the cross.
- As a result, many modern-day Christians consider Gethsemane, the location of his arrest and betrayal by Judas, to be extremely significant.
- As Br.
- Francesco Patton, Custos of the Holy Land, stated in a statement, ″Gethsemane is one of the most important sanctuaries in the Holy Land because it is here that the tradition remembers Jesus’ confident prayer and betrayal, as well as because every year millions of pilgrims come to this place to visit and pray,″ he added.
- In his position as Custos of the Holy Land, which is appointed by the Pope, the Custos is one of the most senior church authorities in the Middle East.
- New finds at Gethsemane will be visible to future pilgrims who visit the site, according to experts.
- In addition, the ″recently found archaeological relics will be included into the visitors’ center that is now under construction at the site and will be presented to tourists and pilgrims, who we hope will soon be coming to visit Jerusalem,″ added Re’em.
- The original version of this article appeared on Live Science.
- Owen Jarus is a writer for Live Science who specializes in archaeology and all topics relating to the history of mankind.
- A bachelor of arts degree from the University of Toronto and a journalism degree from Ryerson University are among Owen’s qualifications.
- He loves learning about fresh research and is always on the lookout for an interesting historical story.
Why Did Pontius Pilate Have Jesus Executed?
- ″What is truth?″ Pontius Pilate asks Jesus of Nazareth in the Gospel of John, and Jesus responds with a question.
- It’s a question that may be raised regarding Pilate’s own personal background as well.
- As told in the New Testament of the Christian Bible, the Roman ruler of Judea appeared to be a shaky judge who originally exonerated Jesus before bowing to public pressure and executing him on the orders of the mob.
- Non-Biblical sources, on the other hand, present him as a barbaric commander who wilfully rejected the traditions of the Jewish people under his command.
- Which version of the truth was correct?
- WATCH: JESUS: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Vault
Pilate’s early life is a mystery.
- Before his time as Roman governor of Judea, from 26 and 36 A.D., nothing is known about Pilate’s early life and career.
- It is believed that he was born into an equestrian family in Italy, however some tales indicate that he was actually born in Scotland, rather than Italy.
- From the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria emerges one of the earliest—and most damning—accounts of Pilate’s reign as governor.
- Around the year 50 A.D., he denounced the prefect for ″briberies, insults, robberies, outrages and wanton injuries, executions without trial, constantly repeated, endless and extremely severe brutality,″ among other things.
- The early Christian historian Stephen J.
- Patterson, who teaches early Christianity at Willamette University and is the author of several books including The Forgotten Creed: Christianity’s Original Struggle Against Bigotry, Slavery, and Sexism, says that Philo describes Pilate’s rule as ″corrupt and full of bribery.″ Although such behavior would not have been out of the norm in the case of a Roman emperor, Pilate appears to have done so with greater ruthlessness than usual.″ But, as Helen Bond, dean of the University of Edinburgh’s School of Divinity and author of Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation, points out, it’s difficult to determine how historically accurate Philo’s tale truly was in the first place.
- ″Philo is a really dramatic writer,″ she observes, ″and one who has very apparent biases: persons who maintain Jewish rules are documented in highly favorable ways, whereas people who do not uphold Jewish laws are represented in quite bad ways.
- Given Pilate’s resistance to Jewish law, Philo depicts him as ″very severe″ in his description.
- READ MORE: The Bible Claims That Jesus Was a Real Person.
- Is there any further evidence?
Pilate clashed with the Jewish population in Jerusalem.
- As part of his account, Philo claims that Pilate allowed a pair of golden shields emblazoned with the name of the Roman Emperor Tiberius to be brought into King Herod’s former residence in Jerusalem, in defiance of Jewish tradition.
- Writing more than a half-century later, the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus related a similar story, claiming that Pilate let troops bearing military standards with the likeness of the emperor into Jerusalem, despite Jewish law prohibiting the carrying of images in the holy city.
- A large number of people journeyed to the Judean city of Caesarea to express their displeasure, and they laid prostrate outside Pilate’s palace for five days until he finally yielded.
- Because Josephus was born in Jerusalem the year Pilate resigned, Bond believes he would have had ″pretty good information,″ according to the historian.
- This account has the ring of a rookie governor experimenting with his powers and entirely underestimating the depth of local opposition to graven images.
- However, Bond points out that the incident demonstrates his readiness to back down and to heed public opinion in the long run.
- Josephus related another event, this one with a bloodier conclusion, in which Pilate used cash from the Temple treasury to construct an aqueduct to provide water to Jerusalem.
- When demonstrators gathered again, Pilate despatched plain-clothed soldiers to enter the mob.
- They were successful.
- When he gave the signal, they withdrew clubs disguised in their clothing and beat many of the demonstrators to death with the clubs they had removed.
- More information may be found at Where is the Head of Saint John the Baptist?
The Gospels portray an indecisive Pilate.
- Josephus also referred to Pilate’s well-known role in agreeing to Jesus’ death, which he had played previously.
- After being profoundly concerned about the danger that Jesus’ teachings posed to the Jewish people, the Sanhedrin, an elite council of priestly and lay elders imprisoned him during the Jewish holiday of Passover, according to the Gospels.
- They hauled Jesus before Pilate to be prosecuted for blasphemy, accusing him of claiming to be the King of the Jews, which they said was false.
- And they exerted pressure on Pilate, the only person who had the authority to sentence someone to death, to order his crucifixion.
- In contrast to Philo and Josephus’ portrayals of Pilate as a ruthless dictator, the four Gospels show him as a vacillating judge who is unable to make a decision.
- According to the Gospel of Mark, Pilate intervened on Jesus’ behalf before caving in to the demands of the mob.
- Because he wrote the Gospel during the failed Jewish Revolt against Roman rule, which took place between 66 and 70 A.D., Patterson theorizes that Mark had an ulterior motive, given that the Christian sect was undergoing a bitter break with Judaism at the same time as it was seeking to attract Roman converts.
- MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Discovering the Early Christian Church’s Conversion Tactics from Within ″Mark’s goal isn’t truly historical in nature,″ Patterson explains.
- ″Its purpose is to throw a specific light on the Jewish War.
- Mark blamed the Jewish rulers in Jerusalem for the city’s collapse since the high priests and officials had turned their backs on Jesus when he had arrived in the city.
- It is less about Pilate in Mark’s portrayal of the tale of Jesus’ trial than it is about transferring responsibility on the Jewish leaders.″ Following this, according to the Gospel of Matthew, Pilate washed his hands in front of the assembled throng before declaring, ″I am innocent of this man’s blood; take care of yourself.″ When the Jewish people heard this, they yelled out, ″His blood be on us and our children.″ For millennia, it would be used to punish the Jewish people, and it is still being utilized now.
- As Bond explains, ″Matthew claims that, while Romans were accountable for carrying out the action, the Jews were liable—a line of thought that, of course, has had fatal ramifications ever since.″ When Jesus was making problems during a gathering like Passover, when the city was packed to capacity, I don’t believe Pilate would have spent much time worrying about what to do with him.
- What happened next was totally up to the governor, and after hearing the evidence, he no probably concluded that removing Jesus from the picture was the wisest course of action.″ The offer by Pilate to commute the death sentence of a prisoner by popular vote, which according to the Gospel writers was an annual Passover practice, is yet another part of the New Testament tale that has not been proven historically accurate to the present day.
According to the Gospels, the people preferred the criminal Barabbas than Jesus.The so-called custom of freeing a prisoner on Passover has been investigated by scholars, but so far, according to Patterson, ″they have not discovered anything in regard to this so-called ritual.″ READ MORE: New research demonstrates that early Christians did not always interpret the Bible literally.
Pilate disappears from history after his rule.
- After employing disproportionate force to quell a possible Samaritan uprising, according to Josephus and the Roman historian Tacitus, Pilate was dismissed from office and exiled to the city of Rome.
- Pilate vanished from the historical record as soon as he arrived in Rome.
- His execution by the Emperor Caligula or his suicide, with his body being thrown into the Tiber River, are two theories that have been floated around.
- In fact, the early Christian author Tertullian said that Pilate had become a disciple of Jesus and had attempted to convert the emperor to Christian beliefs.
- Archaeologists in Caesarea uncovered concrete proof of Pilate’s presence in 1961, according to the Associated Press.
- A portion of a carved stone with Pilate’s name and title etched in Latin on it was discovered face down in an antique theater, where it had been used as a stair.
- According to the evidence available, the ″Pilate Stone″ was initially intended to be used as a dedication plaque for another construction.
- According to a November 2018 article in the Israel Exploration Journal, improved photography showed Pilate’s name engraved in Greek on a 2,000-year-old copper alloy ring found at Herodium, which was previously thought to be a Roman coin.
Denial of Peter – Wikipedia
- According to the four Gospels of the New Testament, the Apostle Peter committed three acts of denial against Jesus, collectively known as the Denial of Peter (also known as Peter’s Denial).
- As recorded in all four of the Canonical Gospels, at Jesus’ Last Supper with his followers, he predicts that Peter would deny knowledge of him, claiming that Peter will reject him before the rooster crows the next morning.
- As a result of Jesus’ imprisonment, Peter denied knowing him three times.
- However, after the third denial, Peter heard the rooster crow and remembered the prophecy as Jesus turned to gaze directly at him.
- Peter then burst into tears of frustration.
- The Repentance of Peter is the name given to this final occurrence.
- For ages, important works of art have shown the tumultuous emotions that accompanied Peter’s rejection and subsequent remorse.
- For example, Caravaggio’s Denial of Saint Peter, which is now on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, is a good example.
- This episode has inspired sequences in different films about the life and death of Jesus Christ (for example, when Francesco De Vito played Peter in The Passion of the Christ) and references in musical compositions, both religious and secular, that have been inspired by the occurrence.
- When Jesus predicted during the Last Supper that Peter would deny and disown him, he was referring to the events recorded in the Gospel of Matthew 26:33–35, the Gospel of Mark 14:29–31, the Gospel of Luke 22:33–34, and, most recently, the Gospel of John 18:15–27.
- The narratives of Jesus’ denial in the Gospels are distinct from one another.
- According to the Gospel of Matthew, Peter said, ″Even though the whole world turns against you because of you, I will never abandon you.″ If you don’t disavow me three times this evening, you will disown me three times the next morning, Jesus said.
- ″I tell you the truth,″ Jesus said in response.
- Nevertheless, Peter stated, ″Even if it means dying with you, I would never abandon you.″ All of the other disciples agreed with this statement.
- Jesus was taken into custody later that night.
- The following is the text of the first rejection to a servant girl in Luke 22:54–57: Then they apprehended him and took him away, taking him into the residence of the high priest.
- Peter kept a safe distance between them, and after they had built a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter joined them in their seated position.
- A servant girl happened to see him sitting there in the dim light of the fireplace.
- ″This man was with him,″ she stated after taking a good look at him.
- ″This man was with him.″ He, on the other hand, disputed it.
- ″Woman, I’m not familiar with him,″ he said.
- According to Mark 14:69–70, the second denial to the same girl is as follows: ″When the servant girl noticed him there, she exclaimed again to others standing about, ″This person is one of them.″ He denied it once more.
According to Matthew 26:73–75, the third rejection to a number of individuals is forceful, and he swears as he does so: After a short while, others who were still waiting there approached Peter and stated, ″Surely you are one of them, because your accent reveals your identity.″ Then he began calling down curses on himself, and he vowed to them, ″I don’t know the man!″ He then began to curse himself.Immediately, a rooster began to crow.That’s when Peter remembered the words Jesus had said to him earlier: ″You will repudiate me three times before the rooster crows.″ And then he walked outside and sobbed uncontrollably.The following is how the Gospel of Luke recounts the time of the last denial: Luke 22:59–62 A few minutes after that, another person stated, ″Certainly this man was with him, for he is a Galilean.″ ″Man, I haven’t got a clue what you’re talking about!″ Peter said.The rooster crows right as he finishes his sentence.In a sudden turn, the Lord fixed Peter with his gaze.
- ″You will repudiate me three times before the rooster crows today,″ the Lord had spoken to Peter earlier.
- Peter remembered what the Lord had said to him.
- And then he walked outside and sobbed uncontrollably.
- The story of the three rejections is given in the Gospel of John 18:13–27, which is as follows: In the company of another disciple, Simon Peter followed Jesus.
- Because this disciple was well-known to the high priest, he was permitted to accompany Jesus inside the high priest’s courtyard, but Peter was required to remain outside at the entrance, waiting for Jesus.
- The other disciple, who was well-known to the high priest, returned, talked with the girl who was on duty at the time, and led Peter inside the temple.
- ″You aren’t one of his disciples, are you?″ the young lady who answered the door said of Peter.
- Then he clarified, ″I’m not.″ … ″You are not one of his disciples, are you?″ the question was posed to Simon Peter as he stood warming himself.
- He categorically rejected it, stating, ″I am not.″ ″Didn’t I see you with him in the olive grove?″ he was asked by one of the high priest’s slaves, who happened to be a relative of the guy whose ear Peter had cut off.
- At that point, a rooster began to call out again, and Peter rejected it once more.
- Following Jesus’ resurrection, the Gospel of John 21:15–17 recounts how Jesus questioned Peter three times whether he loved him, implying that Peter was rehabilitated as a result of his confession of sin.
Context and traditions
- For the most of the three years that Jesus spent in ministry, recruiting and instructing disciples, he was observed, criticized, and harassed by intellectuals and priests who were interested in his teachings.
- In certain circles, his beliefs were seen as heretical, and his efforts in collecting a community of disciples were interpreted as having political motivations.
- The capture and trial of Jesus were the pinnacle of this hostility toward him.
- Peter was one of the twelve disciples who were most intimately acquainted with Jesus.
- He was also one of the most devoted to Jesus.
- His denials come in the face of the charge that he was ″with Jesus,″ a word that refers to the connection of discipleship that binds them together.
- According to the Gospel of Matthew, Peter rejected Jesus ″in front of everyone,″ so giving a public witness and validating his denial with an oath of allegiance.
- Matthew emphasizes the importance of public witness as an essential element of discipleship throughout his Gospel,