Where And When Was Jesus Born?

When and Where was Jesus Born?

Discover the date and location of Jesus’ birth as we examine significant biblical and historical evidence, as well as academic conjecture, about the miraculous birth of Christ. Explore if Jesus was indeed born on Christmas Day in the little village of Bethlehem by reading the Gospel of Luke.

When was Jesus Born?

This is a question for which the Bible does not provide a clear answer.According to historical evidence, the earliest Christians did not make a big deal out of the birth of Jesus Christ.Even if they were aware of the precise date of his birth, they did not make a big deal about it.The customary date of December 25 may be traced back to the first decades of the Christian period, according to certain sources.No proof exists that Christians ″took″ the date from a pagan celebration celebrating the sun, contrary to what some have said.

  1. However, according to William J.
  2. Tighe, the opposite is more likely to be true: ″Rather, Aurelian’s pagan festival of the ″Birth of the Unconquered Son,″ instituted on December 25, 274, was almost certainly an attempt to create a pagan alternative to a date that was already of significant significance to Roman Christians.″ Consequently, the ″pagan origins of Christmas″ are a myth without any historical foundation.″ Luke 2:8-9 states that there were shepherds living out in the fields, keeping watch over their flocks at night in the same country as Jesus’ birth, which indicates that Jesus was born during the month of December.
  3. When they looked up, they saw an angel of the Lord standing before them, and they were surrounded by the glory of the Lord, and they were terrified.″ According to biblical historian Adam Clarke, it was customary for the shepherds of that region to send their sheep out to pasture from the beginning of spring until the beginning of October to graze.
  4. As the darker winter months approached, the flocks would begin to return from their summer pastures in need of shelter and warmth.
  1. Because the shepherds were still tending their flocks in the pastures surrounding Bethlehem when the angels announced the birth of Jesus, it may be assumed that the word of Jesus’ birth was delivered no later than October.

John the Baptist and the Birth of Christ

Other Christian academics have utilized the birth of John the Baptist as a point of reference to comprehend a more specific timing of Jesus’ nativity, as has been done by other scholars.During his time of service in the temple, Zacharias and his wife, Elizabeth, became pregnant with John the Baptist, according to the narrative in Luke 1.In the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy, the angel Gabriel came to her and informed her that she would be the mother of Jesus, the Messiah.As a result, the alleged month of Jesus’ birth may be calculated by calculating the time between the date of Zacharias’ clerical duties and the date of Jesus’ birth.The month of Jesus’ birth, according to Luke 1:24-31, falls between mid-September and late September, which corresponds to the time of year when sheep herding is most prevalent, according to Clarke.

  1. This date can be calculated by starting at John the Baptist’s conception in June, moving forward six months to reach Gabriel’s announcement of Jesus’ conception, in December, and then moving forward nine more months, the time it takes for a human pregnancy to develop, until you arrive at September, when Jesus was almost certainly born.
  2. Despite the fact that we do not know the actual day of Jesus’ birth, we commemorate it on December 25th in accordance with Christian custom dating back millennia.
  3. When the Roman Emperor Constantine decreed that Christmas should be celebrated on December 25, 336 was the first known instance of Christmas being celebrated on that day (the first Christian Roman Emperor).
  4. However, at the time, it was not a recognized Roman state holiday.

Why is Christmas on December 25th?

Scholars believe the Roman Catholic Church chose December 25 as the date for the celebration for a variety of reasons, including the day’s association with the winter solstice and Saturnalia, a festival dedicated to the Roman god Saturn.According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, church authorities most likely chose the date ″to correspond with the pagan Roman celebration commemorating the birthday of the unconquered sun,″ which occurred around the time of the winter solstice in the year 2000.Many academics, according to The Encyclopedia Americana, feel that this was done ″in order to make Christianity more significant to pagan converts.″

Where was Jesus Born?

  • The answer to the question of where Jesus was born is frequently given as a city – Bethlehem. We know this because of biblical prophecies and narrative records such as those found in Luke 2:4 and Matthew 2:1. Bible experts, on the other hand, are less certain about more particular elements pertaining to the place. As previously said, we know from Luke’s narrative where Jesus was not born – an inn since there was not enough place for his parents (Luke 2:7). Isaiah 5:2 and Jewish tradition both predict that the Messiah (the Christ) will be born at Bethlehem, a tiny village near Jerusalem, on the 25th of December. According to Luke 2, Mary and Joseph journeyed to the town in order to take a census before to the birth of Jesus, thereby fulfilling the prophesy. Although Bethlehem and Ephrathah are small towns among the thousands of Judah, out of them will come forth the One who will be ruler over Israel, whose goings forth are from the beginning, from the beginning of time.″ Micah 5:2, ″However, you, Bethlehem and Ephrathah, though you are small among the thousands of Judah,″ says the prophet. The Bible says in Matthew 2:1-2, ″Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem during the reign of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem and asked, ‘Where is He who has been born King of the Jews?’″ (King James Version) We have come because we have seen His star in the east and have come to worship Him.″
  • Luke 2:4-7, ″Joseph also traveled up from Galilee, leaving the city of Nazareth and entering Judea, to the city of David, which is named Bethlehem because he was of the family and lineage of David. As a result, she delivered her firstborn Son, wrapped Him in swaddling clothes, and lay Him in a manger since there was no room for them at the inn.″

Find out more about the history and significance of Bethlehem, the birthplace of Jesus, by reading the following articles.

True Significance of Jesus’ Birth

The fact that Jesus was born is far more important than knowing where and when He was born in the first place.Jesus came to earth in order to exist alongside us and to be one of us.The angel Gabriel announced to Mary that she would become the mother of a boy, whose name would be ″Immanuel,″ which means ″God with us″ in Hebrew (Matthew 1:23).″For God so loved the world that He gave His only born Son, that whomever believes in Him should not perish but have eternal life,″ said the disciple John in his letter to the Romans (John 3:16).In the beginning, the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as if He were the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:14).

  1. This is the revelation of what took place in Bethlehem and the actual significance of Jesus’ birth on Christmas Day.
  2. Extracts from this article are taken from the following articles: Was Jesus Really Born on December 25th?, Was There Really a Consensus When Jesus Was Born?, and Was Jesus Really Born in a Cave?
  3. on the website Christianity.com Photograph courtesy of Thinkstock/Kevron2001

When Was Jesus Born?

Traditionally, Christmas is celebrated on December 25, but ″approximately 37 percent of Orthodox Christians, primarily in Egypt and Russia, celebrate Christmas on January 7,″ as a result of the way their calendars were created.(Source: Egypt Today.) Both dates are unlikely to be valid in light of various historical indicators as well as facts included within the Bible itself.The biblical story does not specify the year in which Jesus was born (Luke 2).What factors went into determining the date of Christmas, and when was Jesus actually born?

What Year Was Jesus Born?

Confusion in Historical Calendars

When determining the year of Christ’s birth, a number of elements must be considered.At the time of Julius Caesar, in 44 BC, there were two different dating methods in use.He used two calendars: one based on the Julian calendar he created, and the other based on the year Rome was founded, which was 753 BC.According to BibleStudyTools.com, Julius Caesar also decreed that a year would be counted from the day of ″the acquisition of total authority by the then emperor.″ This further complicated matters.Following that, ″a mathematically-minded monk…Dionysius Exiguus invented the concept of AD,″ according to BibleStudyTools.com, which was founded in 2003.

  1. In order to determine when Easter should be celebrated, he needed to go backwards through a sophisticated procedure that he devised on his own.
  2. He came at the conclusion that Christ was born in the year 1, and his system was eventually embraced by Europe roughly 200 years later.

Evidence in the Bible

Bible scholars base their conclusions on what the Bible says about the life and times of Jesus.The events took happened during the writers’ or their families’ lifetimes, such as the reign of Herod, during which Matthew tells us Christ was born, and were thus still fresh in their minds.We know there was a celestial occurrence that triggered the Magi’s attention, and we can also put a date on it.It was during ″the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius″ that John the Baptist delivered his preaching (Luke 3:1).In addition, the book of Luke provides an estimate of Jesus’ age at the beginning of His career (30), allowing us to conclude that Christ was most likely born in the year 2 or 3 BC.

When Is Jesus’ Birthday?

December 25 – Pagan or Christian Roots?

It is much more difficult to determine the exact day and month of Christ’s conception.Theologians generally agree that the date of December 25 is extremely unlikely.According to this Christianity.com article, some believe that the creation of ″the pagan celebration of the ‘Birth of the Unconquered Son’″ was ″an attempt to provide a pagan alternative to a date that was already of considerable significance to Roman Christians.″ Another point of view is that the opposite is true.It was simpler for the newly created church to reuse the pagan celebration of the winter solstice, which took place between December 17th and December 25th, when the Roman Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity since inhabitants were already prepared to commemorate the day.″This holiday was a time of merriment, during which relatives and friends would exchange presents,″ according to the website History.com.These customs would be carried out during the Christmas season.

  • Another story holds that Sextus Julius Africanus, who reigned from AD 221 to AD 220, was the one who established December 25 as Christmas Day.
  • BibleStudyTools.com reports that he established this date on detailed computations, beginning with the ″creation of the world, which he placed in 5499 BC,″ according to the website.

Evidence in the Bible

Shepherds, on the other hand, would not have been tending their flocks in December, when the weather was frigid; they would have stopped shepherding no later than October, if they had been shepherding at all.Bible scholars have also attempted to determine the date of Christ’s birth by comparing the birth of his cousin John to the limited information concerning Zechariah, Elizabeth, and Mary provided in the book of Luke.Elizabeth was six months pregnant when Mary arrived, and she gave birth to a child three months after Mary left.According to BibleInfo.com: ″We can roughly estimate the month of Jesus’ birth to be around the time of Tishri (September)″ (mid to late September).Begin with the conception of John the Baptist in Sivan (June), count forward six months to the announcement of Jesus’ conception by the archangel Gabriel in Kislev (December), then count forward nine more months, the length of a human pregnancy, to arrive at Tishri (September), the date of Jesus’ birth.This is presuming that each mother’s pregnancy was completed to term.

  • Other narratives use data regarding Zechariah’s temple responsibilities to arrive at the conclusion that Christ was born in the spring.
  • There is no conclusive solution to this question.
  • It is necessary to obtain the advice of the most respected academics on this subject.

Does the Date of Jesus’ Birth Matter?

  • It would be quite difficult for the entire Christian community to come to a unanimous decision that Christ was born on a different day, and altering the date of Christmas throughout the world would create several difficulties. Selecting a new date for the celebration of Christ’s birth would necessitate significant changes at the commercial and institutional levels, respectively. Calendars for schools and public holidays have been arranged to correspond with this period
  • the economies of industrialized countries rely on the cash boost offered by the Christmas season
  • churches conduct special activities around this time
  • and families utilize this day as an excuse to be together.

Even if the date for Christmas day appears to be arbitrary, there is a benefit to deciding on one.With ″our fast-moving lifestyles having played havoc on our relationships,″ as Rick Warren put it, and with us feeling detached from one another, commemorating Jesus’ birth brings the church body together, both locally and globally.Furthermore, Christmas celebrations provide an opportunity to engage members of the community who might not otherwise be able to attend church functions.Unbelievers’ hearts and minds are also set apart for this special occasion on May 1.Even though associating Christmas with light-hearted festivities may appear to be disrespectful in light of the holiday’s true meaning, the joy of singing familiar carols and lighting candles, along with a sense of belonging and love that is associated with the holiday, encourages many unbelievers to attend Christmas services where they may hear the gospel message Take advantage of a FREE 25 Days to a Joyful Christmas Prayer Guide to celebrate the birth of Christ!Candice Lucey lives in Salmon Arm, British Columbia, Canada, with her husband and two kids in a (usually) quiet setting.

  • When she is not working or participating in ministry activities, she can be found here digging into God’s word.
  • Image courtesy of Getty/Lukbar

Where Was Jesus Born?

The birthplace and hometown of Jesus Megan Sauter is a model and actress.109713 views and 46 comments on June 26, 2021.What city was the site of Jesus’ birth?Bethlehem is the location where Jesus was born according to the Bible.The Italian artist Giotto painted this picture in the Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel in Padua, depicting Mary, Joseph, and Jesus in the Bethlehem stable.It is one of his best-known works.

  • All of the wise men, as well as their caravan and angels, had gathered around the young child.
  • Haley’s comet is streaking through the sky over the stable, illuminating the scene.
  • The comet known as Haley’s was discovered in 1301, three years before Giotto painted this image.
  • The Nativity narrative is retold in churches and homes all across the world as the Christmas season approaches each year.
  • Passages from Matthew 1–2 and Luke 1–2, the Gospels’ infancy narratives, are read and sung in Christmas pageants, and they are even acted out in live performances.
  • What city was the site of Jesus’ birth?
  1. In the Bible, the answer appears to be straightforward: Bethlehem is the location.
  2. Both Matthew 2 and Luke 2 indicate that Jesus was born in the city of Bethlehem in the Judean region of Israel.
  3. However, Biblical scholarship has recently called into question the identification of Bethlehem as Jesus’ birthplace, asking why he is referred to as a Nazorean and a Galilean throughout the New Testament, and why Bethlehem is not mentioned as Jesus’ birthplace outside of the infancy narratives in the Gospels.
  4. Some have speculated that Jesus was actually born in Nazareth as a result of this.
  5. In his Biblical Views column ″Jesus’ Birthplace and Jesus’ Home,″ published in the November/December 2014 edition of BAR, Philip J.
  6. King explores the topic of where Jesus was born in his Biblical Views column.

He examines in detail what the Bible says about the towns of Bethlehem, traditionally known as Jesus’ birthplace, and Nazareth, traditionally known as Jesus’ home.You might be interested in knowing more about Jesus’ birth.More information on the history of Christmas and the date of Jesus’ birth may be found in the free eBook The First Christmas: The Story of Jesus’ Birth in History and Tradition, which can be downloaded here.

In contrast to Bethlehem in Judea, which was revered in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament as the birthplace of King David and the birthplace of the future messiah, the small Galilean village of Nazareth was far less well-known, receiving no mention in the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, or the writings of Josephus, despite its historical significance.According to King, ″Nazareth’s significance stems wholly from its connection to the life and teachings of Jesus.″ Clearly, there is a contrast between Bethlehem, which is the birthplace of King David, and Nazareth, which is a modest farming community.Despite this, both locations were essential in Jesus’ life.

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So, if Jesus was born in Bethlehem, as the Gospels of Matthew and Luke indicate, why was he referred to as a Nazorean in the first place?Read the complete essay ″Jesus’ Birthplace and Jesus’ Home″ in the November/December 2014 issue of BAR to find out what Philip J.King believes about the Biblical towns of Bethlehem and Nazareth, as well as further facts about the Biblical towns of Bethlehem and Nazareth.—————— Subscribers: For more information, please see the complete editorial by Philip J.King in the November/December 2014 edition of Biblical Archaeology Review, titled ″Jesus’ Birthplace and Jesus’ Home.″ Are you a new subscriber?

Become a member today.You might be interested in knowing more about Jesus’ birth.More information on the history of Christmas and the date of Jesus’ birth may be found in the free eBook The First Christmas: The Story of Jesus’ Birth in History and Tradition, which can be downloaded here.

Related reading in Bible History Daily:

Was Jesus a real person?Lawrence Mykytiuk’s main piece from the January/February 2015 issue of BAR, which includes extensive endnotes, is entitled ″Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible.″ Andrew McGowan’s full article from the December 2002 issue of Bible Review on how December 25 became Christmas can be found here.Tony Burke’s Christmas Stories from the Christian Apocrypha is available online.The Death of Herod, the Birth of Jesus, and a Lunar Eclipse are all happening at the same time.Who Was Jesus’ biological father, and how did he come to be?What Was the Purpose of the Magi Bringing Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh?

  • Has the location of Jesus’ childhood home been discovered?
  • This piece of Bible History Daily was first published on November 17, 2014, and has been updated.

Where and When Was Jesus Born?


All citizens of the Roman Empire are required to be registered, according to Caesar Augustus, the empire’s ruler.As a result, Joseph and Mary must travel to the city of Joseph’s birth, Bethlehem, which is located south of Jerusalem.A large number of people have gathered in Bethlehem to register.The only place that Joseph and Mary can find to stay is in a stable, which is also where donkeys and other animals are kept for breeding purposes.It is there where Jesus is born.His mother Mary wraps him in strips of cloth and places him in a manger, which is a container used to store food for the animals.

  • Caesar Augustus’ registration law must have been enacted as a result of divine intervention.
  • Why?
  • Because it made it possible for Jesus to be born in Bethlehem, the hometown of his ancestor King David, as a result of this event.
  • The Scriptures had long predicted that this would be the city where the promised Ruler would be born, and they had done so hundreds of years before.
  • ​— Micah 5:2 is a passage from the Bible.
  • This is an extremely important night!
  1. A bright light gleams around a group of shepherds who are working in the fields.
  2. It is the splendor of Jehovah!
  3. ″Do not be scared, for look!″ says one of God’s angels to the shepherds.
  4. ″Do not be afraid, for look!″ I am announcing to you wonderful news of tremendous joy that will be experienced by all of the people.
  5. Because today, in the city of David, a Savior was born to you, and his name is Christ the Lord.
  6. In addition, here’s a hint: you’ll come across a newborn wrapped in strips of fabric and resting in a manger.″ Many more angels come at once and proclaim: ″Glory to God in the heights above, and on earth peace among men of goodwill,″ before disappearing.

Scripture reference: Luke 2:10-14.In their conversation after the angels have gone, the shepherds agree that they should journey to Bethlehem and see what has happened, which Jehovah has made known to them.(See Luke 2:15 for more information.) They rush off and discover the newborn Jesus exactly where the angel had predicted they would find him.

When the shepherds tell their story of what the angel told them, everyone who hears it is taken aback.Mary treasures all of these quotations and draws conclusions from them in her heart.Many people currently believe that Jesus was born on December 25, which is the Feast of the Nativity.

However, December is a wet and chilly month in the Bethlehem area.It has even snowed on a few occasions.At that time of the year, shepherds would scarcely be out in the fields overnight with their flocks.Furthermore, it is unlikely that the Roman emperor would have required a people who were already inclined to revolt against him to travel for days in the middle of winter in order to register their opposition.According to tradition, Jesus was born sometime in October.

The Bible’s answer

  • According to these reference works, the Bible does not provide a specific date for the birth of Jesus Christ, indicating that ″the true birth date of Christ is unknown.″ —From the New Catholic Encyclopedia. According to the Bible, ″the exact date of Christ’s birth is unknown.″ Early Christian Encyclopedia
  • Encyclopedia of Early Christianity

While the Bible does not directly answer the question, ″When was Jesus born?″ it does describe two events that occurred around his birth that have led many to believe that he was not born on December 25, as is commonly believed.

Not in winter

  1. The registration process. Caesar Augustus issued a decree shortly before Jesus’ birth, ordering ″the registration of all the inhabited earth.″ This was shortly before the birth of Jesus. To register, everyone had to travel to ″his own city,″ which could take a week or more if they were not already there. (See Luke 2:1-3 for more information.) That order, which was most likely issued to support taxation and military conscription, would have been unpopular at any time of year, but it is unlikely that Augustus would have provoked his subjects even further by requiring many of them to travel long distances during the cold winter months. The sheep, of course. Shepherds ″were forced to live outside and keep watch over their flocks at all hours of the day and night.″ (See Luke 2:8 for more information.) According to the book Daily Life in the Time of Jesus, flocks were forced to dwell in the open air from ″the week before the Passover″ to the middle of October. This is followed by the statement, ″They spent the winter under cover
  2. therefore from this alone it may be concluded that the conventional date for Christmas, which occurs in the winter, is unlikely to be correct, since the Gospel states that the shepherds were in the fields.″

In early fall

We can determine the date of Jesus’ birth by counting backward from his death on Nisan 14, which occurred in the spring of the year 33 C.E., which occurred on Passover (John 19:14-16) According to Luke 3:23, Jesus was around 30 years old when he began his three-and-a-half-year ministry, which means he was born in the early fall of 2 B.C.E.

Why is Christmas on December 25?

Why is Christmas celebrated on December 25 since there is no proof that Jesus Christ was born on that day?What is the significance of this day in the Christian calendar?According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, church officials most likely picked the date ″to correspond with the pagan Roman celebration celebrating the ‘birthday of the unconquered sun,’″ which occurred around the time of the winter solstice.Numerous experts, according to The Encyclopedia Americana, feel that this was done ″in order to make Christianity more significant to pagans who had become Christians.″

Where was Jesus born?

The events described in Matthew 2:1-2 and Luke 2:1-7 take place when Joseph and Mary leave Nazareth and go to Bethlehem in response to a census imposed by Caesar Augustus. The prophet Micah even foresaw the location of Jesus’ birth hundreds of years before the event really occurred (Micah 5:2).

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The significance of the birth of Jesus Information on the city of Bethlehem

Jesus was born in Bethlehem

  • ‘Where is He who has been born King of the Jews?’ asked the wise men from the East when they arrived in Jerusalem following Jesus’ birth in Bethlehem during the reign of Herod the king, according to Matthew 2:1, 2. ″Because we have seen His star in the East and have come to adore Him,″ says the author. Secondly, in Luke 2:4-7, it says, ″Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he belonged to the house and lineage of David. As a result, she delivered her firstborn Son, wrapped Him in swaddling clothes, and lay Him in a manger since there was no room for them at the inn.″ 3. The Bible says in Micah 5:2, ″But you, Bethlehem, and Ephrathah, though you be but a small town among the thousands of Judah, yet out of you shall come forth to Me the One to be Ruler in Israel, whose goings forth are from of old, from everlasting. Maps and links provided by Google: Map of Bethlehem (courtesy of Google Maps)
  • map of Joseph and Mary’s journey (if they were to walk it today)
  • and a list of resources.

The importance of Jesus’ birth

However, the fact that Jesus was born is far more important than the location of His birth.Jesus came to earth in order to dwell among us and to become one of our own.The angel announced to Mary that she would become the mother of a boy, whose given name would be ″Immanuel,″ which means ″God with us″ (Matthew 1:23).Those who believe in Jesus Christ will not perish but will have everlasting life, as the apostle John wrote: ″For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life″ (John 3:16).In the beginning, the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as if He were the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:14).What happened in Bethlehem was a miracle in and of itself.

Other Information About Bethlehem

Today, the little town of Bethlehem is located in the limestone hill area of the Holy Land, some six miles south of Jerusalem.It is a popular tourist destination.In the traditional location of Jesus’ birth, stands the Church of the Nativity, the oldest Christian church still in continuous use.It is regarded one of the holiest sites in all of Christendom and is the oldest church still in continuous use in the world.Every year, around 2 million people come to see the birthplace of Jesus.The number of tourists is particularly high during the holiday season.

  • There are enormous lines, and hotels and other accommodations are all sold out.
  • Locals joke that if Joseph and Mary showed up in Bethlehem today, they would find that there would still be no room at the inn for them.
  • Despite its tiny size, Bethlehem has a long and illustrious history in the Bible.
  • It is referred to as ″the city of David″ (Luke 2:4) because it was the birthplace of Israel’s renowned king, King David.
  • The town of Bethlehem is the site of Jacob’s burial of his beloved wife, Rachel, who died during childbirth (Genesis 35:19, 20).
  • Ruth gathered weeds in the fields of Boaz, which is located in Bethlehem (Ruth 1:22; 2:4).
  1. When the prophet Samuel anointed David as king of Israel, it was at Bethlehem that the event took place (1 Samuel 16).

When Was Jesus Born, and When Did He Die?

While Christians commemorate Christmas and Easter on an annual basis, few are aware of the dates on which Jesus was born and when he was crucified.Not that any significant theology is founded on the calculations presented here, but it is comforting to know that we may have fair confidence in the dates of Jesus’ birth and death, which can be determined from a mix of biblical and extrabiblical historical facts, as demonstrated below.I may not be willing to put my life on the line for the accuracy of the information provided below, but I am confident enough in my calculations to have my van’s license plate displayed as follows: 5BC–AD33.So here’s what you need to know: Jesus’ birth most likely occurred in late November of the year 5 B.C.(the most authoritative treatment of this topic that I am aware of is Paul L.Maier’s ″The Date of the Nativity and the Chronology of Jesus’ Life,″ in Chronos, karios, Christos: Nativity and Chronological Studies Presented to Jack Finegan, 113–30; see also Paul L.

  • Maier, ″The Date of the Nativity and the Chronology of Jesus’ Life,″ in As a side note, this would give Herod (who died in 4 B.C.) enough time to prepare his campaign to have all the boys two years old and under in Bethlehem and the surrounding area killed, as well as for Jesus to be born (see Matt 2:16, 19).
  • The crucifixion of Jesus most likely took place on Friday, April 3, A.D.
  • 33.
  • According to Luke 3:1–3, John the Baptist, Jesus’ forerunner, began his ministry ″in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar’s reign,″ which means ″in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar’s reign.″ Tacitus (Annales 4:4) and Suetonius (Tiberius 73:1) both place the beginning of Tiberius’ rule at A.D.
  • 14 (the actual date is August 19, the day of Emperor Augustus’ death) and state that Tiberius was the first Roman emperor.
  • As a result, dating from August 19, A.D.
  1. 14, the 15th year of Tiberius’ rule gets us to the year A.D.
  2. 29 (14 plus 15 = 29).
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According to the Gospels

The Bible states that Jesus was ″around 30 years old″ when he began his public ministry in Luke 3:23.If Jesus was born in 5 B.C.(as argued above) and began his public ministry shortly after the death of John the Baptist (that is, in the latter part of the year A.D.29), as indicated by all four Gospels, this would mean that Jesus was approximately 33 years old when he began his public ministry (see H.W.Hoehner, Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ, 31–37; and B.

  • Messner, ″’In the Fifteenth According to John’s Gospel, Jesus appeared during at least three Passovers: (1) in Jerusalem (2:13, 23); (2) in Galilee (6:4); and (3) once again in Jerusalem (2:13, 23).
  • (11:55; 12:1).
  • There’s also a good chance he went to a fourth Passover that wasn’t recorded in John but was recorded in the Synoptics (Matt 12:1 pars.?
  • This comes up to a total of around 3 12 years for Jesus’ public ministry.
  • If Jesus began his preaching in late A.D.
  • 29, the crucifixion would take place in A.D.
  1. 33, according to the calendar.
  2. It just so happens that, due to astronomical calculations, the years A.D.
  3. 30 and 33 are the only possible dates for Jesus’ crucifixion in terms of the date of Passover in these two years (for more information on the dating of the four Passovers in question, see, for example, C.
  4. J.
  5. Humphreys and W.
  6. G.

Waddington, ″The Jewish Calendar, a Lunar Eclipse, and the Date of Christ’s Crucifixion,″ Tyndale Bulletin The temple was built 46 years ago according to John 2:20 (see A.J.Köstenberger, John, 109–10 for a translation of this verse).

In accordance with Josephus’s account, the renovation of the temple building proper began in 20/19 B.C.(Antiquities 15.11.1 380) and was completed eighteen months later in 18/17 B.C.(Antiquities 15.11.6 421).

Again, counting backwards from 18/17 B.C.and adding 46 years brings us to A.D.29 (there was no year zero)—a great way to double-check our math from earlier.Consider the chart in A.J.

Köstenberger, John (BECNT; Grand Rapids: Baker, 2004), 11–13, as well as the comments at 1:19 and 2:20 in that book, as well as the prior article on Johannine chronology here.For more information, see H.W.Hoehner, ″Chronology,″ in Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (eds J.

  1. B.
  2. Green and S.
  3. McKnight; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1992), pp.
  4. 118–22 (also available in print).
  1. Also,

When Was Jesus Really Born? Not Dec. 25

Christians all around the world are looking forward to the approach of Christmas, a wonderful day in which to commemorate the birth of Jesus.Even Christians, however, are unable to agree on the date of Jesus’ birth, more than two millennia after his historic mission.Catholic and Protestant traditions celebrate Christmas on December 25, whereas Orthodox Christians in nations such as Russia, Greece, and Egypt celebrate Christmas on January 6 or 7, depending on the country.Nonetheless, historians and biblical scholars contend that even those accepted dates are up to debate.The Gospel of Luke has the most thorough account of Jesus’ birth in the Bible, yet even that ″orderly″ story — complete with extremely specific allusions to Roman emperors and a worldwide census – fails to provide a specific day, month, or even year for Jesus’ birth.When it comes to dates and chronological order, ″we have this modern fixation with them and with chronological order, but the gospel authors were far more concerned in theology than chronology,″ explains Ian Paul, a theologian, biblical historian, and author who writes at Psephizo.

  • As a result of a complex set of calculations relating to the birth of John the Baptist, who is also recorded in Luke’s gospel, Paul’s best bet for Jesus’ actual birth date is sometime around September.
  • When you consider that the shepherds were out in the fields tending their sheep, which was an indication of warm weather, the timing of Christmas in the autumn makes sense.
  • According to Paul, by December, the Judean foothills outside of Bethlehem are cold enough to receive snow on their summits.
  • In the end, whether Jesus was born in December, September, or March has no effect on the actual meaning of Christmas; yet, the controversy about Jesus’ ″genuine″ birthday demonstrates how difficult it is to assign particular dates to historical events in the first century.

Jesus Wasn’t Born in ‘Year 1’

First and first, historians largely agree that we have the wrong year for the birth of Jesus, even before we get into the month and day issue.How is this possible, though, given that ″year 1″ on the Gregorian calendar was based on the year in which Jesus was born?The simple explanation is that the individual who came up with the concept of anno Domini (abbreviated A.D.) for ″Year of Our Lord″ was wrong by many years when he came up with it.Even Pope Benedict XVI acknowledged in a 2012 book that Dionysius Exiguus, the sixth-century monk who first calculated the year of Jesus’ birth, had miscalculated and that Jesus was most likely born between 7 B.C.and 2 B.C., depending on which source you read.For religious neutrality, modern authors may prefer to use the abbreviations CE (for Christian era) and BC (for Biblical era) instead of A.D.

  • and BC (for Biblical era).
  • In addition, the Bible claims multiple times that Jesus was born while Herod the Great was reigning as King of Judea, which provides overwhelming evidence for an earlier birth year for the Savior of the world.
  • According to Flavius Josephus, a famous Roman-Jewish historian who lived in the first century C.E., Herod the Great died in 4 B.C.E., although the exact date of his death remains unknown.
  • If we believe Josephus’ account, Jesus must have been born at least four years earlier (and most likely even earlier) than our calendar indicates, according to Josephus.

How December and January Became the Traditional Dates for Christmas

In fact, the widely held belief that Christians selected December 25 to co-opt the pagan solstice feast of Sol Invictus is not founded on solid evidence at all, but rather on the marginal notes of an unknown Syrian monk from the 12th century.His point was not to accuse Christians of stealing Christmas but to provide an explanation for why western churches ″shifted″ the festival from January to December.According to the Biblical Archaeology Society, the first mention of Christmas was around 200 C.E., and the earliest celebrations took place between 250 and 300 C.E., ″a period when Christians were not heavily borrowing heavily from pagan traditions of such an obvious character,″ as the Biblical Archaeology Society explains.In the centuries following Jesus’ death, early Christians didn’t pay much attention to the anniversary of his birth.The persecution and even martyrdom of Christians during those times caused them to place a strong focus on the celebration of Easter, when Jesus himself was murdered on the cross, yet overcame death and was raised.It wasn’t until the third and fourth centuries C.E.

  • that early Christian theologians began speculating about the date of Jesus’ birth, according to the Bible.
  • And even then, those dates were associated with the celebration of Easter.
  • It was formerly believed that the lives of great individuals were linked to particular periods of the year, according to Paul, who claims that this was the case in ancient times.
  • Heroic personalities were frequently assassinated in the same month and on the same day as their birth (years apart of course).
  • For example, it appears that ancient sources thought Jesus was either born or divinely conceived at Passover, the Jewish festival celebrated during which he was subsequently killed in the springtime.
  • To determine Jesus’ birthday, Christians who thought that he was conceived around the time of Passover/Easter calculated nine months forward.
  1. Passover in the year of Jesus’ death was projected to fall on March 25 in Rome and other western sites, according to tradition.
  2. Eastern Christian societies used the Greek calendar, which put the same Passover on April 6 as it did in the West.
  3. The addition of nine months resulted in the establishment of two traditional Christmas dates in Christianity: December 25 and January 6.

The September Theory of Christmas

How come biblical scholars such as Ian Paul believe that the true date for Christmas should be in September, rather than December?In particular, it derives from a critical examination of the indications left behind in Luke, notably what the gospel’s authors have to say regarding the chronology of John the Baptist’s birth in connection to Jesus’ birth.Instead of Mary and Joseph, Luke’s version of the Christmas tale begins with another couple, Elizabeth and Zechariah, who were both elderly and childless when the story begins.Zechariah was a priest in the Temple, and one day the angel Gabriel appeared to him in the Temple and told him that his wife would bear a son named John who would prepare the world for the coming of the Lord.Zechariah was overjoyed, and the angel told him that his wife would bear a son named John who would prepare the world for the coming of the Lord.Zechariah was dumbfounded by Gabriel’s message and remained so for the rest of his life.

  • However, after his service in the Temple was completed, Zechariah returned home, and Elizabeth became pregnant shortly after.
  • What is the significance of this tale in relation to Jesus?
  • Although Mary was a virgin at the time, the angel Gabriel came to her and told her that she would conceive and give birth to Jesus, the Son of God, despite the fact that she was a virgin.
  • Mary received a second visit from the angel Gabriel ″during the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy,″ according to Luke.
  • With this crucial evidence in hand, it is reasonable to determine that Jesus was conceived six months after John was conceived, as is often believed.
  • However, we can only benefit from this information if we know when exactly John was born.
  1. And how would we be able to tell?
  2. More information can be found in the Bible once again.
  3. The author of Luke tells us that Zechariah ″belonged to the priestly division of Abijah,″ which means ″of Abijah the priest.″ It was customary for priests from each division to alternate in performing sacrifices and other Temple rites.
  4. Abijah is listed as the eighth person in the rotation in 1 Chronicles 24, which describes the order of Temple service as divided by divisions one through twenty-four.
  5. If each priestly division served for one week and the first week of the ecclesiastical calendar fell in late March, as Paul estimated, Zechariah would be in the Temple by early June, according to his blog.
  6. If Elizabeth became pregnant shortly after the angel appeared to Zechariah in the Temple, and Mary became pregnant six months later, then Jesus’ birth would have occurred in September of the following year.

Paul is a fan of the September hypothesis of Christmas for a variety of reasons, one of which being the shepherd concept described above.When was the last time Luke deployed shepherds in the fields?Was it in the midst of winter at the time?

However, there are several flaws in this hypothesis as well.The most serious issue is that each priestly division was required to serve in the Temple more than once a year.Consider what would happen if Gabriel appeared to Zechariah six months later, during his second visit to the temple.

As a result, the birth of Jesus would be around March, which Paul acknowledges as a viable possibility.BYU professor of classical studies Thomas Wayment has written on the opposing views surrounding the time of Jesus’ birth, which may be seen in his book The Birth of Jesus: When Did He Come?The controversy over Jesus’ birthday, he believes, is academically intriguing and deserving of discussion, but he misses the point in terms of spirituality.Perhaps, he suggests, ″it’s preferable to leave things open in the sense of being flexible.″ In addition to December and January, he has discovered early Christian references to Jesus’ birth in the months of April and May.″We’re commemorating an occasion rather than a day.″

Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem

Located 10 kilometers south of Jerusalem, on the spot that has been designated by Christian tradition as the birthplace of Jesus since the second century, this UNESCO World Heritage Site is worth a visit.There was originally a church there, which was completed in 339, and the edifice that replaced it after a fire in the 6th century still contains elaborate floor mosaics from the original structure.The property also comprises churches and convents belonging to the Latin, Greek Orthodox, Franciscan, and Armenian faiths, as well as bell towers, terraced gardens, and a pilgrimage path.The following description is accessible under the CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 license.

Lieu de naissance de Jésus: l’église de la Nativité et la route de pèlerinage, Bethléem

The property is located about 10 kilometers south of Jérusalem on the grounds of the sites that Christians have revered as the site of Jesus’ birth since the second century AD, according to Christian tradition.It was here that a church was built in 339, and the building that replaced it after a fire that occurred in the sixth century still contains remnants of the original structure’s floor, which were created from mosaics.The complex also includes a number of churches and monasteries, including Greek, Latin, Orthodox, Franciscan, and Armenian structures, as well as cloisters, terraced gardens, and a pilgrimage path across the area.The following description is accessible under the CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 license.

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مهد ولادة يسوع المسيح: كنيسة المهد وطريق الحجاج، بيت لحم

A total of 20 years have passed since the beginning of the project. Three hundred and forty-nine dollars and thirty-nine cents A spokesman for the company said: ″The company is committed to providing the best possible service to its customers.″ . source: UNESCO/ERI The following description is accessible under the CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 license:


这一入选遗产位于耶路撒冷以南10公里,自从公元二世纪以来,就被基督教传统认定为耶稣的诞生地。 公元339年,在此建成第一座教堂,公元6世纪的火灾后,在此基础上重建的教堂保留了原有建筑精美的马赛克地板。 这一遗产地还包括拉丁、希腊东正教、方济会和亚美尼亚修道院和教堂,以及钟楼、露台花园和一条朝圣路线。 source: UNESCO/ERI The following description is accessible under the CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 license:

Базилика Рождества Христова и тропы паломников

The location is approximately 10 kilometers from the city of Seychelles.Beginning in the second century A.D., this location is revered by the Slovak people as the site of the birth of исуса ристa.When the city was first established in 339 A.D., it was known as the ″Egyptian City of Peace.″ Following oap in the 6th century n.y., she was renovated, and as a result, it was possible to collect a variety of unusual musaacs.The list includes католиеские and равославне, including ранисканские and армнские, монастри and еркви, as well as колоколни, террасне сад, and тро аломников.ект also includes католиеские and UNESCO/ERI is the source of this information.The following description is accessible under the CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 license.

El Lugar de Nacimiento de Jesús: Iglesia de la Natividad y ruta de peregrinación en Belén

Located about 10 kilometers south of Jerusalem, the registered site is believed to be the location where Jesus Christ was born, according to Christian tradition.A first church was built in 399 B.C., but it was demolished by fire and replaced by another in the sixth century, which was demolished by fire again in the seventh century.Suelos de mosaico extraordinariamente elaborados, originating from the original structure, have been preserved in the current church.The site also includes conventos and churches of several denominations, including latinas, Greeks, Orthodoxes, Franciscans, and Armenians, as well as campanarios, terraced gardens, and a pilgrimage route.UNESCO/ERI is the source of this information.The following description is accessible under the CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 license.


エルサレムの南方10kmに位置する生誕協会は、2世紀以降人々によってイエスの生誕地と考えられてきた場所に立つ。 339年に創始され、6世紀の火災後に再建されたもので、初期教会建築の顕著な例。 構成資産には、巡礼の最終目的地である生誕教会に向かう巡礼路や鐘楼、ひな壇式庭園のほか、ラテン・ギリシャ正教・フランシスコ会・アルメニア教会の修道院や教会なども含まれている。 生誕教会の建物の損傷が激しいことから、危機遺産にも同時に登録された。 NFUAJ is the source of this information.

Geboorteplaats van Jezus: Geboortekerk en pelgrimsroute, Bethlehem

This location is located 10 kilometers to the south of Jeruzalem, on the site that has been recognized as the birthplace of Jesus by Christian tradition since the second century after Christ’s death and resurrection.In 339, a church was dedicated for the first time in history.In the sixth century, a brand was established.The current church, which retains the original vernacular, still contains the complete set of vloermozaeken from the original church.There are also Latijnse, Greek-orthodox, Franciscaanse, and Armeense churches and chapels in the vicinity of the Geboorteplaats van Jezus’ burial site.As well as caves and tornadic sites, you may find a pilgrimage trail and terrasvormige gardens.

  • UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization)
Outstanding Universal Value

A succinct summary Bethlehem is located 10 kilometers south of the city of Jerusalem in the fertile limestone hill country of the Holy Land, 10 kilometers south of the city of Jerusalem.Historically, people have believed that Jesus was born in the location where the Church of the Nativity now stands (Bethlehem) since at least the second century AD.In one specific cave, over which the first Church was erected, there is a long-held belief that the actual Birthplace of Christ took place.When it comes to pinpointing the Nativity, the location is significant since it both represents the beginnings of Christianity and is one of the holiest sites in all of Christendom.Parts of the original basilica church (St Helena), which was built in 339 AD and is still standing below ground, were designed so that the cave was surrounded by and visible from the church’s octagonal eastern end.This church is overlaid by the current Church of the Nativity, which dates primarily from the mid-6th century AD (Justinian), though it has undergone some modifications since then.

  • It is the world’s oldest Christian church still in continuous use.
  • Since the early Middle Ages, the Church has gradually been assimilated into a larger complex of other religious structures, mostly monastic in nature.
  • As a result, it is now part of an extraordinary architectural ensemble that is overseen by representatives of the Greek Orthodox Church, the Custody of the Holy Land, and the Armenian Church, all of whom are bound by the provisions of the Status Quo of the Holy Places, which was established by the Treaty of Berlin (1878).
  • Bethlehem and the Church of the Nativity have been, and continue to be, a popular pilgrimage destination for more than 1700 years, at various times in history.
  • Known as the Pilgrimage Route, this section of the traditional route from Jerusalem to Bethlehem connects the traditional entrance of Bethlehem, near King David’s Wells, with the Church of the Nativity and continues along the Star Street, passing through the Damascus Gate, or Qos Al-Zarara, the historical gate of Bethlehem, and on to the Manger Square.
  • Year after year, at Christmas festivities in Bethlehem, the Route is commemorated as the path taken by Joseph and Mary on their journey to Bethlehem, and it is ceremonially followed by the Patriarchs of the three churches at their various Christmas celebrations and formal trips to Bethlehem.
  1. The association of the Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem, with the birthplace of the founder of a great religion, which for Believers saw the Son of God become man in Bethlehem, gives the church and the pilgrimage route an exceptional universal significance.
  2. As well as for the way that over 1500 years, the fabric of the Church of the Nativity and its associations have come together to reflect the extraordinary spiritual and political influence that Christianity has had on human history.
  3. The Church of the Nativity is a remarkable example of an early church within a remarkable architectural ensemble; it illustrates two significant stages in human history in the 4th-6th centuries AD: the conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity, which resulted in the development of the Church of the Nativity on the site believed to be associated with the birth of Jesus; and the power and influence of Christianity during the Crusades, which resulted in the construction of the Cathedral of St.
  4. Peter in Rome.
  5. Criterion (vi): The Church of the Nativity, as well as the Pilgrimage Route leading to it, are directly associated with the birth of Jesus, an event of outstanding universal significance, as evidenced by the buildings of the church, which were built in the 4th century AD and re-constructed in the 6th century AD, respectively.
  6. These are a powerful symbol for the more than 2 billion Christian believers across the world, and they are considered sacred by both Christians and Muslims.

Integrity The Church of the Nativity and its architectural ensemble, which includes the Armenian, Franciscan, and Greek Orthodox Convents, as well as an area of terraced ground to the east and a short portion of the Pilgrimage Route, are all included in the purchase of the property.As a result, it encompasses all of the structures that serve as the focal point of pilgrimage, as well as the cave that is believed to be the birthplace of Jesus.As a result, it encompasses all of the structures that serve as the focal point of pilgrimage, as well as the cave that is believed to be the birthplace of Jesus.

Known to include as yet rigorously unexplored and generally untouched archaeological evidence of habitation and burial dating from the early centuries AD back to at least the mid-2nd century BC is a small tract of land to the east that is directly related with the ensemble.The approach to the Church through Star Street and Paul VI Street preserves the street width and line petrified by urban expansion from c.1800 AD.

Additionally, in addition to delineating a functional roadway in a bustling city, this ″width and line″ now serves to define a commemorative path for a religious rite.Both sides of this route are lined with classic 19th and 20th century yellow limestone buildings that retain their original form and look, with residential accommodation above and workshops at street level that open out onto the street.These trees are not a part of the land, but they constitute an important component of the approach to the church and should be safeguarded and conserved.Without regular maintenance and repair, the roof structure of the main Church is extremely vulnerable to damage.As a result of the dramatic growth in the number of vehicles, insufficient parking, and the presence of minor companies inside the old town, a polluted environment has developed that is damaging the façades of the Church of the Nativity as well as other structures along the Pilgrimage Route.

The presence of significant urban pressure in the surrounding urban areas, which is largely due to unregulated tourism and traffic, has been acknowledged.New constructions, some of which are large in scale, are disrupting the traditional urban fabric in the vicinity of the Church of the Nativity, resulting in a negative impact on views to and from the property, as well as on its sense of place and spiritual connections.Authenticity The Church of the Nativity, which has stood on the location believed to be the birthplace of Jesus Christ for more than 2000 years, has been considered one of the most hallowed Christian places in the world since at least the 4th century AD and continues to be so today.The three churches that have taken up residence on the site are responsible for maintaining its sanctity.

  1. In 339 AD, a church was built over the grotto, and it was rebuilt again in 533 AD to mark the birth of Jesus.
  2. This commemoration and rebuilding bear witness to a seventeen hundred year-old tradition of believing that this grotto was, in fact, the birthplace of Jesus Christ.
  3. Beginning in the 4th century AD, the area that was supposed to be the birthplace of Jesus has been associated with the Christian faith, and since then, additional structures have been erected to it in order to increase its religious importance.
  4. Most of what is left of the existing church today dates back to the 6th century AD, but a portion of the 4th century floor and some of the church’s walls and columns have survived, as well as 12th century and later additions, as evidenced by the icon painting that can be seen on the columns of the church today.
  1. The Crusades, which resulted in one of the most significant increases in pilgrimage activity, are reflected in the additions made in the 12th century.
  2. For centuries, monastic groups have backed the church, and there is plenty of historical documentation to support this claim (see below).
  3. The buildings of one of the monastery complexes date back to at least the 12th century, and there is evidence of earlier monastic structures beneath the other complexes that date back to the 12th century.
  1. With the exception of the Armenian Convent, the majority of their existing visible constructions originate from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
  2. To ensure that repair and restoration work respects as much as possible the existing fabric, which is critical to understanding the church’s significance, it is necessary to clearly identify all elements of the church associated with the original church, its re-building in the 6th century, and its alterations in the 12th century, and to agree on a conservation plan to ensure that repair and restoration work respects as much as possible the existing fabric.
  3. Over the years, the Church of the Nativity and its monastery structures, as well as the town of Bethlehem, have grown in lockstep with one another.

The current lack of control over development, traffic, and tourism in the immediate urban surrounds of the Church poses a threat to this relationship as well as the capacity of the property to express properly its spiritual connections to those who visit it.During peak hours, the abnormally large number of individuals who congregate in the Church of The Nativity is having a negative influence on the fabric of the building.The rapid increase in the number of vehicles, insufficient parking, and the presence of small industries within the historic town have resulted in a polluted environment that is negatively impacting the façades of both the Church and the buildings along the Pilgrimage Route, according to the local authorities.Prerequisites for protection and administration The Church of the Nativity is managed in accordance with the terms and provisions of the ‘Status Quo of the Holy Places,’ which is implemented by the three churches that currently occupy the site: the Greek Orthodox Church, the Custody of the Holy Land, and the Armenian Patriarchate.The Church of the Nativity is managed in accordance with the terms and provisions of the ‘Status Quo of the Holy Places,’ which is implemented by the three churches that An advisory committee appointed by the Palestinian President currently serves as a supplement to the management structure.

All three Convents, which are adjacent to one another, are maintained under separate arrangements: the Armenian Convent is under control of the Armenian Patriarchate in the Holy City of Jerusalem; the Greek Orthodox Convent is under the control of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in the Holy City of Jerusalem; and the Franciscan Convent and the Church of St Catherine are under the control of the Custody of the Holy Land in the Holy City of Jerusalem.The advisory committee, which was established by the Palestinian president in full cooperation with the three churches in charge of the church, has developed a technical plan for the restoration of the roof of the Church of the Nativity.The plan was developed in full cooperation with the three churches in charge of the church.

The intervention to repair the roof of the church was identified as a priority by the multinational team that worked on the plan, and the work is likely to begin later this year or early next.In order to maximize preservation of the fabric relating to the 4th, 6th, and 12th century interventions, a Conservation Strategy for the Church of the Nativity must be developed to guide roof repair and restoration as well as future conservation interventions in the church.One of the objectives of such a Strategy should be to integrate the results of the extensive investigation reports into a concise statement that expresses the relevance of each aspect within the context of a complete conservation philosophy relevant to the planned action.Additionally, conservation plans for the other ecclesiastical structures must be devised.

The second major component, the Pilgrimage Route, which includes Star Street in Bethlehem, is a part of the Municipality of Bethlehem and is therefore subject to the provision

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