In Jesus’ Time What Power Controlled Israel
In those days, Caesar Augustus issued an edict requiring that all of the world’s inhabitants be registered.When Quirinius was governor of Syria, this was the first time a register was made.(See also Luke 2:1–2).Politically, the city of Rome / the Roman Empire Religiously, the High Priest and His Party (the Sadducees) were the most influential, followed by the Pharisees to a lesser extent.God, in a divine way:
How was Israel controlled during Jesus time:
In terms of politics, the two Roman emperors who reigned during Jesus’ lifetime were Augustus Caesar and Tiberius Caesar, as well as Herod the Great, the Jewish King of Palestine.It was around the time of Jesus’ birth that the Romans had appoint Herod as the ruler of all of Israel.Herod was not a Jew in any sense of the word.He was a non-citizen of the United States.He was religiously Jewish, but he did not follow the rules of the Jews.The Romans governed Israel through a series of proxy monarchs (the Herodians) and a provincial governor, despite the fact that he was religiously Jewish (Pontius Pilate was one).
- Herod the ″Great″ was not even truly Jewish in origin; his father was from the region of Idumea, which is now in Turkey.
- HG came to power by political maneuvering and by kissing up to the right individuals towards the conclusion of the Maccabean uprising in Jerusalem.
- Herod the Great reigned until a short time after the birth of Jesus.
- He restored the Temple in Jerusalem, but he lived in constant worry that he would be toppled by the people.
Religious affairs were handled by the High Priest and his ‘party’ (the Sadducees), who presided over both the Temple and the Sanhedrin (the Jewish parliament).The Pharisees, who sat on the same council as the Sadducees, served as a type of check and balance.
In Jesus’ time, what power controlled Israel? A. Greece B. Egypt C. Persia D. Rome
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- The first and most important.
- I agree with Weegy that the right plural for the term attorney is lawyers.
- 3/3/2022 5:19:39 a.m.
- to 5:19:39 a.m.
|12 Answersis a formal assessment of an employee and his or her performance to a certain standard.3/4/2022 at 2:57:07 p.m.|
11 Responses Is attorney the right plural form of the word attorney?The first and most important.I agree with Weegy that the right plural for the term attorney is lawyers.
- 3/4/2022 at 3:50:45 a.m.
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- So, what does Lizabeth think?
5th of March, 2022, 6:57:27 PM |9 AnswersThe oceans hold around 70% of all the fresh water on the planet.Weegy: Glaciers are responsible for storing over 70% of all the fresh water on the planet.Wind erosion is particularly frequent in flat, exposed places where there is little vegetation.|3:51:01 p.m., March 3, 2022|
8 responses Questions 1 through 10: Fill in the blanks with an antonym for the word in question.For starters, he couldn’t stand the cold of Alaska after spending his entire life in the heat of Texas.He’s been accused of stealing, but we don’t believe it.|3:06:46 PM, March 3, 2022|
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It’s a torrent of water.According to Weegy, stream velocity is slowest near the bottom and margins of a stream.6 responses as of 2/28/2022 5:46:41 PM Humans, according to the sociocultural perspective on psychology, are rational creatures.
William James, a significant influence on the functionalist school of thought, [taught a great deal about the workings of the mind.2:52:32 p.m.on February 25, 2022 |5 Responses ″Annabel Lee″ blank verse 2.
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- 5 Responses In academic writing, there are four primary goals that must be achieved: In academic writing, the four primary goals are to inform, entertain, persuade, and convince the reader.
- 2:57:25 p.m.
- on March 2, 2022 |
- 5 Responses
In Jesus time, what power controlled Israel? A. Greece B. Egypt C. Persia D. Rome
Is attorney the proper plural form of the noun?The first and most important thing to remember is that I agree with Weegy that the proper plural of the term attorney is lawyers.2/28/2022 three o’clock thirty-eighth hour a total of 13 solutions In the noun attorney, _attorney is the proper plural form of the word.The first and most important thing to remember is that I agree with Weegy that the proper plural of the term attorney is lawyers.3/3/2022 It’s a little after 5:19:39 a.m., but Is a performance appraisal of a company’s employee and his or her performance to be given?3/4/2022 PM (Sunday, February 27th, 2007) a total of 11 replies Is attorney the proper plural form of the noun?
- The first and most important thing to remember is that I agree with Weegy that the proper plural of the term attorney is lawyers.
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- So, what does Lizabeth believe?
- The time is 6:57 p.m.
on March 5, 2022.There are approximately 70% of all fresh water on Earth in the oceans.|9 Answers According to Weegy, glaciers hold close to 70 percent of the world’s fresh water.
It is especially frequent in flat, barren places where there is little vegetation.|3:51:01 p.m., March 3, 2022 |
- 8 responses Question No.
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- 10 (in order): Make a substitution for the word in the blank spot.
- For starters, he couldn’t stand the cold of Alaska after spending his previous years in the sweltering heat of Texas His accusers are claiming that he stole, but we disagree.
8 responses to 3/3/2022 2:06:46 p.m.Make a note of what you want to say.To be a writer is one of the most compelling reasons to do so; Wednesday, March 1, 2022, at 8:28:56 p.m.a total of six responses On the bottom and margins of a stream, velocity is greatest.A flow of water In the bottom and margins of a stream, the velocity is the slowest.|
2:46:41 PM on February 28, 2022|6 responses Humans, according to the sociocultural perspective on psychology, are Weegy: William James, a significant influence on the functionalist school of thought, [explained a great deal about the workings of the mind.2:52:32 p.m.on February 25th, 2022 |There are 5 responses to this question ″Annabel Lee″ blank verse 2.
the portion of a sonnet that establishes the tone of the poem.12:13:48 a.m.on March 7, 2022 – |There are 5 responses to this question In academic writing, there are four primary goals that must be met: To inform, entertain, persuade, and convince are the four primary goals of academic writing, says Weegy.
2:57:25 p.m.on 3/2/2022 |There are 5 responses to this question
In Jesus time, what power controlled Israel? A. Greece B. Egypt C. Persia D. Rome
Attorney is the proper plural form of the word.This is the first and most important.Weegy: The proper plural form of the word attorney is lawyers.2/28/2022 3:00:38 PM EST |There are 13 responses.Attorney is the proper plural form of the word attorney.
- This is the first and most important.
- Weegy: The proper plural form of the word attorney is lawyers.
- 3/3/2022 5:19:39 a.m.
- to 5:19:39 p.m.
|12 Answersis a formal assessment of an employee and his or her performance to a company’s standards.3/4/2022 2:57:07 p.m.EST |
There are 11 responses.Attorney is the proper plural form of the word.This is the first and most important.
- Weegy: The proper plural form of the word attorney is lawyers.
- 3/4/2022 5:00:45 a.m.
- There are 11 responses.
What was it that Lizabeth did as a result of her fury?What does Lizabeth believe.5th of March, 2022, 6:57:27 p.m |9 AnswersThe oceans hold around 70% of all fresh water on the planet.Weegy: Glaciers hold around 70% of all the fresh water on the planet.Wind erosion is particularly frequent in flat, exposed locations where there is no vegetation.
3/3/2022 at 4:51:01 PM|8 responses Question number one ten: Fill in the blanks with an antonym for the word in the sentence.For starters, he couldn’t stand the cold of Alaska after spending his previous years in the heat of Texas.He’s been accused of stealing, but we don’t believe him.3/3/2022 2:06:46 PM|
8 Responses to Fill up the blanks with the appropriate information.One of the most compelling reasons to write is to express yourself.3rd of March, 2022, 8:28:56 p.m |6 Possible Answers The bottom and margins of a stream are where the velocity is highest.
A river s.Weegy: The bottom and margins of a stream have the slowest velocity.|
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- 5 Possible Answers ″Annabel Lee″ blank verse 2.
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- 7th of March, 2022, 12:13:48 A.M.
- 5 Possible Answers The four primary goals of academic writing are as follows: In academic writing, the four primary goals are to inform, entertain, persuade, and convince the reader.
- Weegy: the 2nd of March, 2022 at 8:57:25 p.m.
- 5 Possible Answers
In Jesus’ time, what power controlled Israel? A. Greece B. Egypt C. Persia D. Rome
The proper plural form of the word attorney is attorneys.The first and foremost.Weegy: The proper plural of the term attorney is lawyers.2/28/2022 3:00:38 p.m.|There are 13 responses The proper plural form of the word attorney is _attorney.
- The first and foremost.
- Weegy: The proper plural of the term attorney is lawyers.
- 3/3/2022 5:19:39 a.m.
12 Answersis an appraisal of an individual and his or her performance to a company.3/4/2022 2:57:07 p.m.|There are 11 responses The proper plural form of the word attorney is attorneys.
The first and foremost.Weegy: The proper plural of the term attorney is lawyers.3/4/2022 3:50:45 a.m.
- There are 11 responses What did Lizabeth’s rage lead her to do?
- What does Lizabeth think?
- 3/5/2022 6:57:27 p.m.
|9 AnswersThe oceans hold around 70% of all fresh water on Earth.Weegy: Glaciers are responsible for the storage of over 70% of all fresh water on the planet.Wind erosion is particularly frequent in flat, exposed terrain.3/3/2022 4:51:01 PM|8 Answers Questions 1-10: Fill in the blanks with an antonym of the word.
Weegy: 1.He couldn’t stand the cold of Alaska after living in the sweltering heat of Texas.He has been accused of stealing, but we do not believe him.3/3/2022 2:06:46 PM|8 Answers Fill in the blanks.
One of the finest motivations to write is to express oneself.3/1/2022 8:28:56 p.m.|6 possible responses The bottom and margins of a stream are where the velocity is greatest.
It’s a stream s.Weegy: The stream’s velocity is slowest near the bottom and edges.2/2/2022 5:46:41 PM|
6 Answers The social perspective on psychology says that people are.Weegy: William James, a significant influence on the functionalist school, [explained a great lot about how our minds work.2/25/2022 6:52:32 p.m.|
- There are 5 responses.
- ″Annabel Lee″ blank verse 2.
- the segment of a sonnet that establishes the tone.
- 3/7/2022 12:13:48 a.m.
- There are 5 responses.
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- 3/2/2022 8:57:25 p.m.
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The political situation
Palestine was a part of the Roman Empire during Jesus’ time, and the empire exercised power over its different provinces in a variety of ways.Territories in the Eastern Mediterranean (eastern Asia Minor), Syria, Palestine, and Egypt were administered either by monarchs who were ″friends and allies″ of Rome (sometimes referred to as ″client″ kings or, more disparagingly, ″puppet″ kings), or by governors who were supported by a Roman army.When Jesus was born, Herod the Great, Rome’s able ″friend and ally,″ reigned over all of Jewish Palestine, as well as parts of the neighboring Gentile regions, at the time of his birth.Palestine was significant to Rome not because it was a great asset in and of itself, but because it was situated between Syria and Egypt, two of Rome’s most valuable conquests.While Rome had legions in both countries, they did not have any in Palestine.Rome’s imperial strategy demanded that Palestine remain loyal and tranquil in order to ensure that Rome’s wider interests were not jeopardized.
- It was possible to fulfill this goal for a long period of time by enabling Herod to stay king of Judaea (37–4 BCE) and granting him complete autonomy in the administration of his kingdom, so long as the prerequisites of stability and loyalty were maintained.
- His empire was split into five divisions after Herod died shortly after the birth of Jesus, according to the Bible.
- Many Gentile lands were separated from Jewish areas, which were divided between two of Herod’s sons, Herod Archelaus (who received Judaea and Idumaea, as well as Samaria, which was not Jewish), and Herod Antipas (who received Galilee and Peraea), who received the majority of the Gentile districts.
- (In the New Testament, Antipas is often referred to as Herod, as in Luke 23:6–12; it appears that the sons of Herod adopted his name, in the same way that the successors of Julius Caesar were frequently referred to as Caesar.) Both sons were assigned lower-ranking positions than their father: Archelaus was ethnarch and Antipas was tetrarch, respectively.
The non-Jewish regions (with the exception of Samaria) were awarded to Herod’s third son, Philip, to Herod’s sister Salome, or to the Syrian province.Archelaus was ousted by Augustus in 6 ce, and Judaea and Samaria were elevated from their previous status as client kingdoms to that of ″imperial provinces″ under the rule of the Roman emperor.As a result, he appointed a prefect to administer this area.It was a tiny Roman army of around 3,000 troops that helped that minor Roman nobleman (later known as a procurator) on his campaign.
The troops, on the other hand, were not from Italy, but rather from adjacent Gentile cities, particularly Caesarea and Sebaste; the officers, on the other hand, were almost certainly from Italy.Pontius Pilate was the Roman governor during Jesus’ public ministry (he reigned from 26 to 36 CE).Despite being officially in charge of Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea, the prefect did not have actual control over his territory.
- Instead, he depended on the leadership of the local community.
- In Caesarea, on the Mediterranean coast, about two days’ march from Jerusalem, the prefect and his small army dwelt in the city of Caesarea, which was dominated by Gentiles.
- Only during the pilgrimage festivals of Passover, Weeks (Shabuoth), and Booths (Sukkoth) did they come to Jerusalem, when vast numbers and nationalistic themes occasionally combined to cause turmoil or riots.
- The high priest was in charge of the administration of Jerusalem on a day-to-day basis.
In conjunction with a council, he was given the onerous responsibility of mediating between the faraway Roman prefect and the local community, which was hostile toward pagans and desired to be free of foreign intrusion.He succeeded admirably.His political responsibilities included keeping the peace and ensuring that tribute was properly paid.Caiaphas, the high priest during Jesus’ age, held the position from around 18 to 36 ce, which was the longest tenure of any other official throughout the Roman period, showing that he was a successful and trustworthy negotiator.Since he and Pilate were in power together for ten years, it is reasonable to assume that they worked well together.The region of Galilee was administered by tetrarch Antipas at the time of Jesus’ public ministry, who was sovereign within his own territory as long as he remained faithful to Rome and maintained peace and security inside his borders.
Despite the fact that Judaea (including Jerusalem) was theoretically under the authority of Pilate, Caiaphas and his council were in charge of the day-to-day administration of the city.
Relations between Jewish areas and nearby Gentile areas
Galilee and Judaea, the two most important Jewish settlements in Palestine, were bordered by Gentile territory on all sides (i.e., Caesarea, Dora, and Ptolemais on the Mediterranean coast; Caesarea Philippi north of Galilee; and Hippus and Gadara east of Galilee).There were also two inland Gentile cities on the west bank of the Jordan River, close to Galilee, which were mentioned in the Bible (Scythopolis and Sebaste).Because of the close proximity of Gentile and Jewish areas, there was some exchange between them, including trade, which explains why Antipas stationed telns—often translated as ″tax collectors,″ but more accurately rendered as ″customs officers″—in the villages on his side of the Sea of Galilee.Telns were customs officers who collected taxes from people entering and leaving the country.There was also some population exchange: some Jews resided in Gentile cities, such as Scythopolis, and some Gentiles lived in at least one of the Jewish cities, Tiberias, and vice versa.Although Jewish businessmen and dealers were likely to be able to communicate in some Greek, Aramaic was the predominant language of Palestinian Jews (a Semitic language closely related to Hebrew).
- As a counterpoint, the Jews opposed pagan practices, and they prohibited the construction of temples dedicated to the worship of Greek and Roman gods in their cities.
- They also prohibited the construction of Greek educational institutions such as the ephebeia and gymnasium, gladiatorial contests, and other structures or institutions typical of Gentile areas.
- In part due to the tense nature of Jewish-Gentile relations in the country that the Jews considered their own, Jewish districts were often administered separately from Gentile areas.
- Only Herod the Great’s reign was an exception to this pattern, and even he distinguished between the Jewish and Gentile sections of his kingdom, promoting Greco-Roman culture in Gentile areas while only small features of it were introduced in Jewish ones throughout his reign.
When it came to forcing the Jews in Palestine and other regions of the empire to adhere to common Greco-Roman culture in the first century, Rome showed little interest.Following a succession of decrees by Julius Caesar, Augustus, the Roman Senate, and numerous city councils, Jews were entitled to maintain their own traditions, even though they were incompatible with Greco-Roman culture at the time.Because Jews observed the Sabbath, for example, Rome spared Jews from conscription in its troops out of respect for their religious beliefs.Rome did not settle Jewish Palestine, and neither did the Ottoman Empire.
Augustus built colonies in other parts of the world (including southern France, Spain, North Africa, and Asia Minor), but prior to the First Jewish Revolt (66–74 ce), Rome did not establish any colonies in the Jewish homeland.Individual Gentiles from other countries would have been unlikely to be drawn to settle in Jewish communities since they would have been cut off from their traditional places of worship and cultural activities.In Tiberias and other Jewish communities, most of the Gentiles who resided there were most likely citizens of surrounding Gentile cities, with many of them being Syrians who were likely able to communicate in both Aramaic and Greek.
The majority of individuals in the ancient world were farmers or artisans who produced food, clothes, or both, and could afford only the most basic of comforts.While most Palestinian Jewish farmers and ranchers earned enough to sustain their families and pay their taxes, they also made sacrifices during one or more yearly festivals and allowed their property to lay fallow during the sabbatical years, when cultivation was forbidden.Galilee, in particular, was quite rich, owing to the abundance of crops and the favorable climate that allowed for the raising of a large number of sheep.Assuming that Galilee was prosperous in the first century, it is unlikely that it was as prosperous as it was during the late Roman and Byzantine periods.However, archaeological remains from the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries confirm the plausibility of references to the region’s prosperity in the first century.The Herodian dynasty took care to plan massive public works projects that employed thousands of workers, despite the fact that there were many landless people in the country.
- Desperate poverty was also evident, but it never reached a degree that was considered socially harmful.
- At the opposite end of the economic scale, few if any Palestinian Jews had amassed the large fortunes that successful merchants in port towns might amass over the course of a lifetime.
- But there were wealthy Jews who owned enormous estates and splendid homes, and the merchants who supplied the Temple (supplying, for example, incense and cloth) were able to amass substantial wealth.
- Although the disparity between rich and poor in Palestine was visible and painful to the poor, it was not particularly great when compared to the rest of the globe.
Located on the eastern beaches of the Mediterranean Sea, Israel is a small Middle Eastern nation around the size of New Jersey that is surrounded by Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria.Israel is the only country in the Middle East that is not part of the United States.Having a population of more than 9 million people, the majority of whom are Jewish, Israel is home to numerous important archaeological and religious sites that are revered by Jews, Muslims, and Christians alike.The country also has a complicated history that has seen periods of both peace and conflict.
Early History of Israel
The Hebrew Bible contains a great deal of information on Israel’s past history, which researchers may use to their advantage.In the book, Israel’s roots are traced back to Abraham, who is regarded the father of both Judaism (through his son Isaac) and Islam (via his grandson Ishmael) as well as Christianity (through his son Ishmael).Abraham’s descendants were believed to have been slaves by the Egyptians for hundreds of years before settling in Canaan, which is roughly the territory that today’s Israel occupies on the biblical map.According to the Bible, the word Israel derives from Abraham’s grandson, Jacob, who was dubbed ″Israel″ by God the Hebrew after being renamed by him.
King David and King Solomon
Around 1000 B.C., King David reigned over the region.His son, King Solomon, is credited with the construction of the first sacred temple in ancient Jerusalem, which was dedicated to the gods.Approximately 931 B.C., the territory was divided into two kingdoms: Israel in the north and Judah in the south, with Israel being the northern monarchy.Around 722 B.C., the Assyrians attacked and destroyed the northern kingdom of Israel, bringing the region under their control.A second temple was built around five hundred years later, in 516 B.C., to replace the original temple, which had been demolished by the Babylonians in 568 B.C.Following that, the territory of modern-day Israel was captured and governed by numerous groups, including the Persians, Greeks and Romans, Arabic people and organizations such as the Fatimids, Seljuk Turks, Crusaders, Egyptians, Mamelukes, Islamists and others throughout the course of several centuries.
The Balfour Declaration
From 1517 until 1917, the Ottoman Empire reigned over what is now Israel as well as most of the rest of the Middle East, including much of Israel itself.However, the geopolitical environment in the Middle East was drastically transformed as a result of World War I.British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour sent a letter of intent supporting the construction of a Jewish nation in Palestine during World War I, during the height of the conflict in 1917.When Britain issued the formal pronouncement, which became known as the Balfour Declaration, the government believed it would inspire support for the Allies during World War I.It failed.Allied victory in World War I brought about the end of the 400-year-old Ottoman Empire rule, and Great Britain seized control of what would become known as Palestine after the war concluded (modern-day Israel, Palestine and Jordan).
- In 1922, the League of Nations ratified the Balfour Declaration and the British mandate over Palestine, bringing the two documents together.
- Arabs were outspoken in their opposition to the Balfour Declaration, fearing that the establishment of a Jewish nation would imply the enslavement of Arab Palestinians.
- The British dominated Palestine until Israel gained independence as a state in 1947, following the end of World War II and the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.
Conflict Between Jews and Arabs
- Over the course of Israel’s lengthy history, conflicts have persisted between Jews and Arab Muslim communities. The intricate enmity between the two tribes can be traced all the way back to ancient times, when they were both able to settle in the region and consider it sacred. Both Jews and Muslims revere the city of Jerusalem as a holiest site on the planet. It contains the Temple Mount, which houses the holy sites of the Al-Aqsa Mosque, the Western Wall, the Dome of the Rock, and other locations of religious significance for Jews. Throughout recent years, most of the battle has been around who is in control of the following territories: In addition to the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights (a mountainous plateau between Syria and modern-day Israel) and the West Bank (a area that splits part of modern-day Israel and Jordan) are also included in this list.
The Zionism Movement
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a Jewish religious and political movement known as Zionism arose in the United States.It was the goal of Zionists to re-establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.Jews from all over the world flocked to the old holy land, where they established colonies.Between 1882 and 1903, over 35,000 Jews immigrated to Palestine from other countries.Between 1904 and 1914, an additional 40,000 people moved into the area.In order to avoid persecution during the Nazi regime, many Jews residing in Europe and abroad sought sanctuary in Palestine and became committed to Zionism.
- Following the conclusion of the Holocaust and World War II, members of the Zionist movement concentrated their efforts largely on the establishment of an independent Jewish state.
- Arabs in Palestine were staunch opponents of the Zionist project, and tensions between the two communities remain today.
- As a result, an Arab nationalism movement grew in strength.
In 1947, the United Nations authorized a plan to split Palestine into two states, one for Jews and one for Arabs, but the Arabs rejected the idea.Israel was officially declared an independent state in May 1948, with David Ben-Gurion, the leader of the Jewish Agency, serving as its first prime minister and president.While this historic event appeared to be a success for Jews, it also signaled the beginning of an escalation of bloodshed between Jews and Arabs in the coming years.
1948 Arab-Israeli War
Following the declaration of an independent Israel, five Arab countries—Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon—invaded the region, resulting in the Arab-Israeli War, which was known as the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.The state of Israel was engulfed in civil war from coast to coast, until a cease-fire agreement was struck in 1949.Because of the armistice agreement’s temporary ceasefire, the West Bank was annexed by Jordan, while the Gaza Strip was annexed by Egypt.
There have been other battles and acts of violence between Arabs and Jews in the decades after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Some of these are as follows:
The Suez Crisis: Following the 1948 war, relations between Israel and Egypt remained tense for a period of many years.The Suez Canal, an important maritime route between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, was taken over and nationalized by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1956.The canal is now owned by the Egyptian government.Israel assaulted the Sinai Peninsula and retook control of the Suez Canal with the assistance of British and French soldiers.
Israel overcame Egypt, Jordan, and Syria in six days during the Six-Day War in 1967, which began as a surprise attack and ended in a victory. Following this brief conflict, Israel seized control of the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights, among other areas. Israel considers these places to be ″occupied″ territory.
Yom Kippur War: In 1973, Egypt and Syria began air raids on Israel on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur, hoping to catch the Israeli army off guard.The battle continued for two weeks until the United Nations issued a resolution calling for an end to the conflict.While fighting on the Golan Heights, Syria attempted to retake the territory, but was ultimately unsuccessful.The Golan Heights were seized by Israel in 1981, although Syria continued to claim it as its own territory.
During the 1982 Lebanon War, Israel invaded Lebanon and expelled the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (PLO). This organization, which began in 1964 and considered all Arab residents who lived in Palestine before to 1947 to be ″Palestinians,″ was dedicated to the establishment of a Palestinian state within Israel.
Israeli control of Gaza and the West Bank triggered a Palestinian revolt in 1987, which resulted in hundreds of fatalities.This was the first Palestinian Intifada.The Intifada (an Arabic phrase meaning ″shaking off″) came to an end as a result of a peace process known as the Oslo Peace Accords.Following this, the Palestinian Authority was established, and certain Israeli lands were annexed by it.The Israeli army withdrew from areas of the West Bank in 1997, bringing the conflict to a close.
In 2000, Palestinians committed suicide bombings and other assaults against Israelis as part of the Second Palestinian Intifada. It took years for the bloodshed to subside, and only then was a cease-fire achieved. By the end of 2005, Israel intends to have all of its troops and Jewish colonies in the Gaza Strip removed from the territory.
Second Lebanon War: In 2006, Israel launched an offensive against Hezbollah, a Shiite Islamic terrorist organisation based in Lebanon. A truce mediated by the United Nations brought the conflict to an end just a few months after it began.
Hamas Wars: Since 2006, Israel has been embroiled in a series of violent clashes with Hamas, a Sunni Islamist terrorist group that seized control of the Palestinian Authority. Some of the more important clashes began in 2008, 2012, and 2014, with the most recent being in 2014.
Clashes between Israelis and Palestinians continue to be a regular occurrence.Land holdings in strategic locations are divided, but some are claimed by both sides.For example, they both refer to Jerusalem as their national capital.Both parties hold each other responsible for terrorist acts that result in the deaths of people.Despite the fact that Israel does not officially recognize Palestine as a state, more than 135 member countries of the United Nations do.
The Two-State Solution
In recent years, a number of nations have advocated for the signing of new peace treaties.Many have advocated for a two-state solution, but recognize that Israelis and Palestinians are unlikely to agree on boundary lines in the near future.Although Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has expressed support for a two-state solution, he has been under pressure to shift his position.While maintaining his support for a two-state solution, Netanyahu has also been accused of supporting Jewish settlements in Palestinian territories.The United States is one of Israel’s closest allies, and it has a long history of supporting the Jewish state.The United States President Donald Trump pushed Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu to accept peace accords with the Palestinians during a visit to Israel in May 2017.
- Furthermore, in May 2018, the United States Embassy was transferred from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, which Palestinians saw as a symbol of American support for Jerusalem as Israel’s capital city.
- Demonstrations at the Gaza-Israel border were met by Israeli force, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of demonstrators.
- Palestinians have retaliated by demonstrating at the Gaza-Israel border.
- Despite the fact that Israel has been plagued by unpredictable conflict and bloodshed in the past, many national officials and residents are hopeful that the country will become more safe and stable in the near future.
Oxford Research Encyclopedias’ History of Ancient Israel is available online.The establishment of Israel in 1948, according to the Office of the Historian of the United States Department of State.The Arab-Israeli War of 1948, according to the Office of the Historian of the United States Department of State.The BBC has a timeline of important events in Israel’s history.The Central Intelligence Agency of the United States of America publishes The World Factbook on Israel.A History of Jewish Immigration to Israel: The Second Aliyah (1904 – 1914): Jewish Virtual Library Trump Pays a Visit to Israel The New York Times describes a Palestinian settlement as ″crucial.″ According to Al Jazeera, Palestine is gaining more international recognition.
- The History of Mandatory Palestine and Why It Matters: TIME Magazine.
Judea – Palestine – or the Holy Land
It is derived from a Matthew Carey Bible published in 1801 but was found in many Bibles during this time period.The following geographical description of ″Judea, Palestine, or the Holy Land″ is taken from an 1801 Bible published by Matthew Carey.Mount Libanus, or Lebanon, which separates it from the region of Syria known historically as Phnecia, borders Palestine on the north; Mount Hermon, which borders Palestine on the east; Arabia Deserta, which borders Palestine on the south; and the Mediterranean Sea, or Sea of Syria, which borders Palestine on the west.This country was given the name Palestine by the Philistines, who lived on the seacoast; it was given the name Judea by the tribe of Judah; and it is known as the Holy Land because it is the place where Jesus Christ was born, where he preached his holy doctrines, where he was confirmed by miracles, and where he laid down his life for mankind.In terms of length, Palestine is around one hundred and eighty-five miles long and approximately eighty miles wide; it is located between 31 degrees and 33 degrees 40 seconds north latitude.Throughout a large portion of the year, the climate in Palestine is quite hot.
- The easterly winds are normally dry, though they can be turbulent at times, whereas the westerly winds are frequently accompanied by rain and thunderstorms.
- Despite the fact that the heat is supposed to be extreme, Mount Libanus, due to its unusual height, is completely covered with snow throughout the winter.
- It is customary for the first rains to arrive around the beginning of November, and the last rains to arrive around the beginning of April.
- In the country surrounding Jerusalem, if a moderate amount of snow falls in the beginning of February, and the brooks soon after overflow their banks, it is believed to portend a fruitful year; and the inhabitants celebrate this event in the same way that the Egyptians do with regard to the Nile: however, this country receives little refreshment from rain during the summer season.
The rocks of Judea are coated with a soft, chalky substance that contains a variety of shells and corals, and this substance may be found in numerous areas.The majority of the Carmel highlands, as well as the mountains around Jerusalem and Bethlehem, are similarly coated with a white chalky strata of rock.On Mount Carmel, there are several stones that have been petrified into the shapes of olives, melons, peaches, and other fruits, and which are forced upon travelers not only as petrified versions of those fruits, but also as antidotes for a variety of maladies.When it comes to the rivers of the land, the Jordan, known to the Arabs as Sceriah, is not only the most significant, but it is also the largest, second only to the Nile, in terms of length, either in the Levant or in Barbary.
Its source lies at the foot of Mount Libanus, also known as Lebanon, and it is produced by the confluence of the waters of two fountains that are approximately a mile apart.One of them is located to the east and is known as Jor, while the other, which is located to the south and is known as Dan.The confluence of the two streams may be located near the ancient city of Csarea Philippi, which is now simply a settlement and is known as Beline, where the two streams meet.
- The river begins its journey between the east and the south, and after seven miles of travel, it empties into the lake Samochon or Mathon, which is currently known as Hulet-panias and measures six miles in length from north to south and roughly four miles in width from east to west.
- The Jordan River emerges from this lake and runs over the plain, passing beneath a stone bridge known as Jacob’s Bridge, which is comprised of three arches that are of high quality craftsmanship.
- In its current route, the river flows until it reaches the lake of Tiberias, which is located near the ancient cities of Corazin and Capernaum, where it merges with the lake’s waters.
- The Jordan River, which originates in this lake and extends for approximately eighteen miles in length and eighteen miles in breadth, is known as Jordan Major, and it divides Perea from Samaria, the plains of the Moabites from Judea, and it receives the waters of four rivers: the Dibon, the Jazer, the Jacob, and the Carith.
After being augmented by these streams, the Jordan River flows for approximately sixty-five miles from the lake of Tiberias, During the rainy season, the Jordan overflows its banks for a distance of more than four miles, and because of the unevenness of the land, it develops two or three channels in the process.Water is always muddy because of the rapidity of the current; however, when taken from the river and placed in any type of vessel, the water immediately clarifies and becomes sweet.While the Dead Sea is a relatively recent term, it was formerly known as the Lake of Asphaltites, the Sea of Sodom, the Salt Sea, and the Lake of Sirbon; the Arabs refer to it as Bahheret-Lut, which translates as the Sea of Lot.It has a perimeter of one hundred and eighty kilometers and is surrounded by water.The eastern side is dominated by the steep mountains of the Moabites’ region, which drains into it the waters of the Arnon and the Jaret rivers, respectively.It is also bordered on the west and south by steep mountains, which add to its allure.
The brook Cedron, which originates in Jerusalem and empties into the Mediterranean Sea, is also located on the western shore.Apparently, this great lake was once covered with fruit trees and plentiful harvests, and that from the bosom of the earth, which is now submerged beneath its waters, came the magnificent towns of Sodom, Gomorrha, Adam, Seboiim, and Segor, which are now submerged beneath its waters.In this lake, there are no vegetation of any type growing.Black, thick, and ftid is the color of the bottom of the container.Animals and plants that fall into it are quickly transformed into petrified branches.
The Dead Sea is a body of water located in the middle of the desert.Produces a type of bitumen that may be found floating on the surface of the water, like huge chunks of dirt.This bitumen is a sulphurous material that has been combined with salt; it is as brittle as black pitch, is flammable, and exhales a strong and pungent odor when it burns.It was employed by the ancient Arabs for daubing and embalming the deceased in order to prevent them from succumbing to the elements.
Mountains in the vicinity of this sea yield a type of black stone that, when polished, has a lovely sheen.In the Bible, the city of Acra, also known as Acre, is one of the towns from which the Israelites were unable to remove the old Canaanites; it was originally included among the ancient cities of Phnecia.Today, the city is known as St.
John de Acre, and the Arabs refer to it as Accho or Akka.It is also referred to as Ptolemais in some circles.Its geographical location is advantageous: it is surrounded on the north and east by a fertile plain; on the west, it is bathed by the Mediterranean; and on the south, it is surrounded by a wide bay that stretches from the city all the way to Mount Carmel.It consists primarily of a few cottages and a smattering of ruinous structures.
- It serves as the official house of the province’s basha.
- Sebasta, the ancient Samaria, is located to the south of Acra and served as the capital of the ten tribes following their insurrection against the house of David.
- It is situated on a long peak that rises out of a fertile valley and has been transformed into gardens in recent years.
- Naplosa, the old Sychem, is located in a small valley between Mount Ebal on the north and Mount Gerizim on the south, and it is a short distance to the south of Jerusalem.
- Jacob’s well, which is a short distance from Naplosa and is famed for Christ’s meeting with the lady of Samaria, is located nearby.
- Jerusalem is surrounded by hills, giving the impression that the city is positioned in an amphitheatre: There are only a few remnants of the city as it appeared during Christ’s time; however, the situation is changing; for example, Mount Sion, the highest point of ancient Jerusalem, is almost completely excluded, whereas the areas surrounding Mount Calvary are almost entirely in the center of the city.
- This city, which has a circle of around three miles, is perched on a rocky mountain, with steep ascents on all sides, with the exception of the northern horizon, except for the northern horizon.
- The walls are not robust, and there are no bastions to protect them.
- There are six gates in the city.
- According to estimates, the city of Jerusalem has a population of approximately twelve or fourteen thousand people.
- The port of Jaffa, which was formerly known as Joppa, is where the pilgrims disembark.
- They usually come in November and make their way straight to the holy city of Jerusalem.
Bethlehem, also known as Ephrata and the City of David, is well-known for being the birthplace of Jesus Christ and the site of his baptism.This little settlement is located around two miles south-east of Jerusalem, on a ridge of a hill; it is currently a nondescript outpost.Raha, the old city of Jericho, is located eighteen miles north-east of Jerusalem on a plain sixty-seven leagues long and three leagues broad, surrounded by a number of barren mountains.It is the site of the ancient city of Jericho.Habroun, often known as Hebron, is located twenty-four kilometres south of Bethlehem.
The Arabs refer to it as El-Kahil, which means ″the well-loved.″ An historic castle’s foundations may still be seen at the foot of an elevation on which the building is located.Nazareth is presently a little community perched on the crest of a steep incline.Cana of Galilee, also known as Cana Minor, is a small hamlet in Galilee, Israel, that is most known for the miracle performed by Jesus Christ, in which water was transformed into wine.At the moment, the community has just a few hundred residents.
Sidon, sometimes known as Sayd by the Turks, is a city on the Mediterranean Sea.It was historically a location of immense power and trade, and it still is today.Despite the fact that it is still a populated area and a significant trading center, it has lost much of its former splendor.Silks, as well as raw and spun cotton, are the primary exports of the country, with the majority of the population (about 5,000 people) employed in the manufacture of these products.The city is protected by an ancient fortress that was erected in the sea.Tyre, also known as Sour by the Turks, is located around twenty miles south of Sidon.
It was originally well-known for its deep purple dye, known as Tyrian dye, which was manufactured from a shellfish.In ancient times, this city was the epicenter of a colossal trade and navigation network, as well as the incubator of arts and sciences.The ancient city was initially located on an island that was connected to the mainland by a mole, the ruins of which may still be seen today.
It has two harbours; the one on the north side is excellent, but the other is clogged with ruins and is not worth seeing.The only people who reside there now are a small group of destitute fisherman who live in vaults and caves.Cesarea was once known as Strabo’s Tower, and it served as the capital of Palestine.Originally, this city was divided into two parts by a small hill, on top of which was built a temple dedicated to Cesar.
A huge plain of twenty miles long and ten wide, bordered on three sides by mountains, the city of Jericho is inhabited by a small number of destitute Arabs at the current time, and is surrounded by mountains on the other two sides.The Mount of Forty Days is located on the northern side of the plain of Jericho; its summit is devoid of any vegetation, trees, or earth, and is composed of a solid mass of white marble.Ascending it is extremely difficult and dangerous, with the path leading between two desolate abysses, which is very narrow and dangerous.This mountain is one of the tallest in the province and is considered to be one of the most holy spots in the country.It derives its name from the strict fast that Christ kept when visiting this location.
This peak provides a panoramic view of the Arabian Mountains, the land of Gilead, the country of the Ammonites, the plains of Moab, the plains of Jericho, the river Jordan, and the entire length of the Dead Sea, among other things.The mountain of Nebo rises in the distance, opposite Jericho and beyond Jordan.A large peninsula known as the Point Of Carmel is formed by Mount Carmel, which is located on the south side of the bay of Acre and projects into the sea at one point.On this summit, there are a variety of grottos, gardens, and convents, as well as several cisterns for catching rainwater and collecting it.Ecbatane was the name of the stronghold that stood atop this mountain.
- Mount Tabor, which rises from the Galilean plains approximately twelve miles from the city of Tiberias and is known by a variety of names, including Itabyrion and Taburium, is a very beautiful location.
- Also known as Gibel-el-Tor by the Arabs.
- It has the look of a sugar loaf and is covered with miniature trees from the top to the bottom of the structure.
Throughout history, Palestine, which encompasses the ancient region of Canaan and was held by nine tribes of Israel, has had numerous and catastrophic revolutions, including: In response to the extreme fertility of the country, as well as its numerous advantages and favorable geographical location, several powerful kingdoms in the surrounding area attempted to subjugate it: For the most part, they were successful in subduing the peaceful population to obedience and servitude; the Persians, Saracens, Syrians, and Romans have alternately been masters for a period of time, and then have been forced to succumb to greater force: These conquered people were treated with the utmost brutality, and they were subjected to the most heinous devastation and slaughter – not even sparing the elderly, the young, women, or helpless children: Thus it continued, changing its ferocious masters, until, in the twelfth century, the Turks conquered Cesarea and took over the entire country, which has remained under their control ever since, as follows: The innumerable scenes of blood and desolation that have been displayed in this country have reduced it from the happy, fruitful, and prosperous state that is described so beautifully in Deuteronomy, to an almost uninhibited desert and heap of ruins-few traces of its ancient splendour remain; and confusion and doubt hang over all of the enquirer’s investigations.Today’s lords exercise their absolute and dictatorial rule over their slaves in Palestine, keeping the poor population in the most complete subjugation; ruling them with iron rods, Caliphs and Bashas; and maintaining them in the most dreadful ignorance and superstitions.
Jerusalem is a city in modern-day Israel that is regarded to be one of the holiest locations on the planet by many people.Sacred to the three main monotheistic religions – Judaism, Islam, and Christianity – Jerusalem is the site of enormous religious significance for both Israel and Palestine, which both claim Jerusalem as their capital city.In part because of these powerful, centuries-old ties, terrible battles to rule the city and the places inside it have raged for thousands of years.
Early History of Jerusalem
- Historically, scholars estimate that the first human settlements in Jerusalem took place during the Early Bronze Age, some 3500 years before the present. When King David took Jerusalem in 1000 B.C., he declared it to be the capital of the Jewish kingdom. About 40 years later, his son, Solomon, began construction on the first holy Temple. In 586 B.C., the Babylonians conquered Jerusalem, demolished the Temple, and expelled the Jews from their homeland. After around 50 years, the Persian King Cyrus granted permission for Jews to return to Jerusalem and restore the Temple complex. In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great conquered Jerusalem and established his capital there. For several hundred years following, the city was conquered and ruled by a variety of groups, including the Romans, Persians, Arabs, Fatimids, Seljuk Turks, Crusaders, Egyptians, Mameluke and Islamists, as well as various other groups. Some of the most significant religious events that occurred in Jerusalem during this time period include: King Herod restructured the second Temple and added retaining walls to it in 37 B.C.
- Jesus was crucified in the city of Jerusalem around 30 A.D.
- The Romans destroyed the second Temple in 70 A.D.
- Muhammad, the Islamic prophet, died and was said to have ascended to heaven from Jerusalem in 632 A.D.
- Many European Christians began pilgrimages to Jerusalem in the first century A. The Christian crusaders occupied Jerusalem for approximately a century, during which time they declared the city to be a major religious site.
The Ottoman Empire
From approximately 1516 to 1917, the Ottoman Empire ruled over Jerusalem and much of the Middle East.Following World War I, the United Kingdom annexed Jerusalem, which at the time was a part of the Palestinian territory.In the years leading up to Israel’s independence in 1948, the British had sovereignty over the city and surrounding region.During the first two decades of Israel’s existence, the city of Jerusalem was divided.Israel held control over the western portions of the city, while Jordan held control over the eastern portions.Following the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel seized complete control of the city of Jerusalem.
The Temple Mount
The Temple Mount is a complex of buildings and grounds built on a hilltop in Jerusalem that encompasses approximately 35 acres of land.Many holy sites, including the Western Wall, the Dome of the Rock, and the Al-Aqsa Mosque, may be found there.This historic monument is considered to be the holiest location in all of Judaism.References to the region can be traced back to Abraham’s near-sacrifice of his son Isaac, according to Jewish tradition.The site is also the site of the first and second Temples, as well as the location of many Jewish prophets’ teaching sessions.The Temple Mount is considered to be the third holiest place in Islam (after Mecca and Medina, both in Saudi Arabia), and it is believed to be the location where the Prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven, according to Muslims.
- Christians, on the other hand, believe that the site is important to their faith.
- It is a location that prophets spoke of in the Old Testament of the Bible, and it is also a location that Jesus visited according to the New Testament.
- For millennia, the presence of the Temple Mount has been a source of great conflict, particularly between Jews and Muslims who live in the surrounding area, because of the theological and historical implications of such occupation.
- Israeli forces took possession of the Temple Mount during the Six-Day War in 1967.
However, nowadays, the Islamic Waqf is in charge of what takes place inside the courtyard, while Israeli soldiers are in charge of external security.
Dome of the Rock
The Dome of the Rock, an Islamic monument with a gilded dome that was erected on the site of the demolished Jewish Temples in Jerusalem, was dedicated in 691 A.D.The Dome of the Rock, which is located on the Temple Mount, was constructed by Caliph Abd al-Malik.Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to heaven from the site of this structure, which is believed to be Islamic history’s most ancient surviving Islamic structure.Christian Crusades transformed the monument into a church during their time in the city.In 1187, Muslims retook control of the Dome of the Rock and re-dedicated it as a religious site.Located on the Temple Mount, near to the Dome of the Rock, is a mosque with a silver dome, known as al-Aqsa.
- Both buildings are revered by Muslims as being sacred.
Western Wall (Wailing Wall)
There’s an antique part of the Western Wall from the second Jewish Temple still standing today.Located on the western side of the Temple Mount, it’s known as the ″Wailing Wall″ since it’s where many Jews come to pray and grieve at the site of the destroyed Second Temple.Every year, millions of Jews from all over the globe come to the Wall to pay their respects.Because Muslims dominate the Temple Mount (the actual site of the ancient Temples), the Western Wall is often regarded as the holiest place for Jews to pray outside of the Temple.
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Built in 335 AD, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre commemorates the location where many Christians believe Jesus was crucified and buried, as well as the place where his resurrection was celebrated.It is located in the heart of Jerusalem’s Christian neighborhood.Every year, hundreds of thousands of Christian pilgrims from all over the world visit to this church.Many Christians consider it to be the holiest Christian site on the planet.
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Over Jerusalem
Conflicts between Israelis and Palestinians over important regions in Jerusalem have raged continuously since Israel’s declaration of independence in 1948.Jews are not permitted to pray on the Temple Mount, according to Jewish law.Despite this, Israeli soldiers allow hundreds of Jewish settlers to enter the area on a regular basis, prompting some Palestinians to fear that Israel would seize control of the region.When Jewish politician Ariel Sharon, who would later become Israel’s Prime Minister, visited Jerusalem’s Temple Mount in 2000, it was one of the primary events that precipitated the Second Palestinian Intifada (a Palestinian uprising against Israel).In recent years, some Israeli factions have even revealed plans to build a third Jewish Temple on the Temple Mount, which has sparked widespread controversy.Palestinians living in the region have expressed outrage at this proposal.
- Furthermore, both Israelis and Palestinians have aspirations to establish Jerusalem as their respective capitals.
- Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1980, but the majority of the international community does not recognize this distinction as legitimate.
- In May 2017, the Palestinian militant group Hamas unveiled a document in which it proposed the establishment of a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital, replacing Israel.
- The organization, on the other hand, refused to acknowledge Israel as a state, and the Israeli government rejected the notion on the same day that it was proposed.
Tensions are still high in and around the city of Jerusalem, even as of today.Confrontations between Israeli soldiers and Palestinians are all too typical these days.Many international organizations and governments support plans to split Jerusalem into two halves, one for Israelis and one for Palestinians.However, getting a strategy on which everyone can agree is a challenging task.In July 2017, three Arabs opened fire on two Israeli police officers on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, wounding them both fatally.For security considerations, guests were barred from entering the enclosure, and Friday prayers were cancelled for the first time in 17 years, according to officials.
- Protests and violent acts have cast a pall over this perilous situation in recent weeks.
- While the future of Jerusalem is still up in the air, it is undeniable that this city wields tremendous religious, historical, and political influence, and that this will continue for many years to come.
What is the significance of Jerusalem?The Guardian is a British newspaper.A chronology of Jerusalem’s history may be found at History of Jerusalem.The Jewish Virtual Library is a collection of resources for Jews across the world.A brief history of the city of Jerusalem.The Municipality of Jerusalem.
- From the beginning of time through the reign of David, the history of Jerusalem is told.
- The Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study of Jerusalem.
- What is it about Jerusalem that makes it so holy?
- According to the BBC News.
What exactly is Jerusalem?Vox Media is a news organization.When it comes to the Temple Mount, what exactly is it and why is there so much fighting around it?The Blaze, to be precise.
There are five things you should know about Al-Aqsa.Al Jazeera is a news channel.Jerusalem is the destination for Sacred Journeys.
- A shooting in Jerusalem’s Old City claimed the lives of two Israeli police officers.
- 6 Reasons Why Jerusalem’s Old City Is Creating a Stir in the Middle East Once More TIME.
Did Jews take Israel away from Palestinians?
- QUESTION: After the Palestinians arrived in Israel, the country was overrun with European Jews who had survived the Holocaust. If someone is escaping the Holocaust, I feel compassion for them, but they shouldn’t be allowed to simply take over someone else’s land, should they? ASKED QUESTION: The statement and question posed above may be something you hear from those who believe that Jews establishing the State of Israel constituted an act of colonialism – an act of assuming political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, displacing and exploiting its indigenous people, and exploiting its economic resources. Take a look at the historical mistakes in the statement and question that were just presented: It is incorrect to claim that Arab Palestinians were the first people to reside on the territory of Israel
- Jews have lived on the land of Israel continuously for about 4,000 years
- and the country of Israel is the ancestral home of the Jewish people. Abraham migrated to the country of Israel around 4,000 years ago, where he lived with his family, reared his children, and acquired property on which to bury his wife and himself. Abraham’s sons Isaac and Jacob followed him to the land of Israel. God gave Jacob the name Israel, and he had twelve sons, whose families were known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
- Approximately 3,000 years ago, the Jews formed a kingdom in the territory that now encompasses Israel, Gaza, the West Bank (Judaea and Samaria), the Golan Heights, and portions of Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan (see map below).
- The area depicted on the map above was held by the 12 Tribes during the time of King Saul’s unification of the kingdom. King Saul unified the 12 Tribes of Israel into a single Jewish nation