Why was Jesus ‘cast out’ into the desert?
- Genesis 1.1, which begins with the words ‘In the beginning, God created’, is referenced in all four gospels as the beginning of the story. The book of Mark 1.1 begins with the phrase ‘the beginning of the good news’
- the book of Luke 1.2 mentions those who were ‘eyewitnesses from the beginning’
- the book of John 1.1 begins with the phrase ‘In the beginning was the Word’
- and the book of Matthew 1.1 is titled, ‘The book of the generations of Jesus the Messiah’
- compare this to Genesis 5.1, which begins with the phrase ‘The book of the generations of Adam’
- In this case, it appears that a ″gospel″ must begin with a reference to the beginning of Genesis, just as a ″letter″ must begin with the words ″Dear So-and-So.″ Mark, on the other hand, does more than simply begin with Genesis.
- However, while the other gospels follow Mark’s lead in having the first verse of their Prologues echo the first verse of the Genesis Prologue, Mark allows the ending of his Prologue to echo the last verse of the Genesis Prologue as well (Gn 3.24)— and this in turn anticipates something very important that will take place at the conclusion of the Old Testament.
- A garden was planted eastward in Eden, and it was there that God placed the man whom he had fashioned, according to Genesis 2.8, which we may read online.
- It is well-known that the ensuing account of Adam concludes in 3.24 when the LORD God ‘sent Adam out and forced him to live over against the garden of delight’—the word for ″cast out″ in this context is exébalen / v, which means ″to drive away.″ In fact, Mark employs this exact phrase at the conclusion of his Prologue: ‘And instantly the Spirit sends him out into the desert’ (Mk 1.12).
- Of course, Mark uses the ‘narrative present’ tense (ekbállei / ) to bring you right into the action, as he does anytime he wants to take you right into the action.
- However, the word comes from Adam’s tale, and by employing it, Mark portrays Jesus as a new Adam who has been exiled from the Garden of Eden.
- Now, why do I use the word ‘Exile’?
- The first three chapters of Genesis serve as a prelude to the whole Old Testament.
- This narrative can be seen as a story of a priest-king who is expelled from his garden/temple/kingdom and forced to live in exile.
- Exactingly in this way, Adam is a figure, or type (a typos), as St Paul and the church fathers put it, precisely of Jehoiachin and Zedekiah, the last kings of Judah (and thus of Israel itself), who were led away into exile in Babylon: ″Jehoiachin and Zedekiah are figures, or types, as the church fathers put it.″ 12 As a result, Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out to the king of Babylon with all of his belongings, including his mother and servants, as well as nobles and officers, and the king of Babylon captured him in the ninth year of his reign.
- In addition, he took the king’s mother, the king’s wives, and his commanders, as well as the great of the nation, and transported them all to Babylon from Jerusalem.
- Nebuchadnezzar appointed Jehoiachin’s uncle Mattaniah to be a tiny client-king in his place, and he was given the name Zedekiah as a result of this appointment (2K 24.17).
- As a result of Zedekiah’s actions, which were ‘bad in the sight of the Lord, according to everything that Jehoiachin had done,’ the Lord ‘drove away (apérripsen / ; lit.
- ″threw away″) Zedekiah when he ultimately revolted against Babylon.
- From his face, Zedekiah and the whole Judahite ruling class, as well as Israel, were humiliated (2K 24.19-20).
- And so, at long last, 4….was dismantled, and all of the men of battle fled by night via the gate between two walls that leads to the king’s garden.
Now the Babylonians were positioned against the city’s perimeter and on their approach to the plain.Five hundred and fifty thousand Babylonian soldiers chased and captured the king on the plains of Jericho, scattering his whole army in the process.6 Consequently, they captured the king and sent him to Riblah, where the king of Babylon heard his case and sentenced him.7 Also, they took out the eyes of one of Zedekiah’s sons who had been slain before his eyes, shackled him with bronze shackles, and dragged him off to Babylon.
- (K 25.4-7) (2K 25.4-7) Consequently, at the conclusion of Mark’s Prologue (1.1-13), ″the Spirit casts Jesus out into the Desert″ (Mk 1.12), just as God cast Adam out of the Garden— Adam being the figure of Jehoiachin, Zedekiah, and Israel, who were cast out of Jerusalem 3563 years later* (2K 24.12—and note the mention of a ″garden″ in 2K 25.4).
- Christ is the same as Adam, who is the same as Jehoiachin/Zedekiah.
- We know that Jesus is the new Adam because of the writings of St Paul, who is fascinated by Adam as the progenitor of the human race.
- Mark, on the other hand, is intrigued by Jesus/Adam as the new Jehoiachin/Israel.
- Jesus is the loyal Servant Israel of Isaiah 40-55, who has arrived to cope with the Exile and its consequences.
- And in order to do it, he must go back to the beginning of the narrative and where it left off—in Exile.
As a result, the Holy Spirit drove Jesus into the desert (Mk 1.12).Now, when it comes to the ‘Desert,’ like with anything else in the New Testament, we have to ask ourselves what the biblical context is for it.After the Exodus, Israel’s 40-year wandering across the desert is the one and only classic Desert tale recorded in the Bible, according to many scholars.In fact, that is precisely what John the Baptist has in mind when he summons people to the Desert, pleading with them to repent and be cleansed (Mk 1.4-8).
Following that, they will re-enter the Land and wait for the full fulfillment of the Promise to take place there.It’s so exciting!What is the location of this ‘Desert’?You don’t have to travel very far to find out.The ‘Desert’ is precisely Not-The-Land; it is perfectly Outside-The-Land; it is precisely Not-The-Land (but also not Egypt or Babylon etc).It is not necessary to drive a long distance to get there; it begins on the opposite side of the Jordan River, just over the border.
It is the place where Israel roamed before entering the land, and they remained in the Desert until the night before they entered the country.John the Evangelist is making this point when he tells us where John the Baptist was baptizing—’in Bethabara beyond Jordan,’ as he puts it (Jn 1.28).Beth-Abarah is a Hebrew word that meaning ‘House (i.e., Place) of Crossing.’ That might lead one to believe that he is referring to the point at which Joshua and his people crossed over from Egypt into Israel.But that isn’t what he is talking about.
Moreover, they would get the point: John is summoning people out into the Desert once more, this time to repent, and then to re-enter the Land, pure and ready for the entrance of God’s government.This is about Israel finally obtaining ownership of God’s Promise of Blessing once and for all.Consequently, Jesus comes to participate in John’s ″Israel renewal movement,″ and he is baptized in conjunction with the devout who believe what John is teaching about the state of Israel.
He is lifted out of the water, and the Spirit descends on him like a Dove.He is transformed by the Spirit.Traditionally, a Dove is a symbol of Israel in the Old Testament—I’ll write more about this later—and so, in getting the Dove, Jesus is given the vocation to be Israel, and as a result, he is driven out into the desert for a period of ’40 days’.In the presence of the Holy Spirit, Jesus is cast into the desert to go and become Israel, to be tried as Israel, and then to come forth as Israel’s king, to declare at long last the establishment of God’s kingdom.Of course, the typology extends to our own baptism as Christians, which is also included.
- What, if anything, does any of this truly have an impact on our understanding of our own baptism?
Why Did Jesus Cast Out Demons?
- Although the Bible has several examples of Christ confronting and casting out demons, only a handful of these tales have addressed the question of why this occurred.
- It was not by chance or coincidence that this occurred, but rather it was a vital component of the Messiah’s mission.
- One of the most important reasons why Jesus Christ confronted demons was to demonstrate to his disciples that He possessed a unique authority that even the devils were obliged to recognise and respect.
- Examples of this may be found in Mark 5:1-20 and Mark 9:14-27, both of which are in the Bible.
- However, there was much more to this story than most people realized.
What Are Demons?
- Understanding Genesis 6 and what it truly implies is one of the most important keys to comprehending the entire scope of the Messiah’s work on earth.
- In order to accomplish this, we must engage in a little of hermeneutical research first.
- The apocryphal book of Enoch, an ancient Jewish document that was thought to be canonical by many Church Fathers, is the book we need to consult in this circumstance.
- I understand that many Christians are offended by this, but it is a crucial component of extra-biblical knowledge to have this information.
- Theologian Dr.
- Mike Heiser points out that ″we must be devoted to the biblical text, read and understood in its original ancient context — not in a later one″ in order to ″develop our theology.″ In reality, this is a fundamental premise of hermeneutics.
- Therefore, every seminarian is instructed to begin by attempting to grasp what Scripture says as if they were the original audience.
- We must thus examine the book with an understanding of the distinctive culture and generally held ideas of the Israelites at the time of its composition.
- The biblical story of the Nephilim, sometimes known as Watchers, is provided here.
- The Watchers are described in depth in the apocryphal book of Enoch.
- Because of the expansion in the number of human beings on the world, and the birth of daughters to them, the sons of God recognized the beauty of the daughters of humans and married any of them they liked.
- Afterwards, the Lord declared: ″My Spirit will not battle with mankind indefinitely since they are mortal; their days will be one hundred and twenty years.″ The Nephilim were present on the world throughout those times — and also subsequently — when the sons of God married human women and produced offspring via them.
- They were the legendary heroes of yore, guys who had achieved greatness (Genesis 1:1-4).
- So, what exactly is this information?
- In a nutshell, Enoch tells us about a group of rebellious spirit beings called as Watchers who have risen up against God.
- These Watchers struck a contract with one another that they would forsake their true abode in the celestial realm and accept human women as their spouses.
The guys were well aware that what they were doing was wrong, yet their desire for the beautiful ladies drove them to disobey God’s holy mandate.They fell to the surface of the planet to a location known as Mount Hermon.As soon as they had married wives, they began to teach men a variety of skills, including how to build weapons of war and a variety of occult activities.Eventually, their unlawful connection with women resulted in the conception of children, who are referred to as Nephilim by both Scripture and Enoch.
- These hybrid monsters were very dangerous.
- God opted to cleanse the planet with the Flood as a result of the rapid growth in sin, the influence of the Watchers, and the violence perpetrated by the Nephilim at the time of the Flood.
- This is what Genesis 6:1-4 is referring about when it says As the early church recognized, this was also the correct understanding.
- In violation of this agreement, the angels, known as the Watchers, were taken in by the need for female company.
- Furthermore, their offspring are those whom people refer to as devils.″ Justin Martyr is the author of this piece.
- He justly brought on the Deluge during the days of Noah for the goal of killing the most notorious race of mankind then in existence, who were unable to produce fruit for God.
Because the angels who had sinned had mixed with them,″ the Bible says (Irenaeus).In fact, the Watchers were repelled away from women because of their attractiveness.As a result, because they had been tainted, they were unable to enter paradise.The curses were directed at God since they were rebels against Him.
As a result, the Most High pronounced His judgment upon them.In addition, it is said that the Nephilim were created from their seed″ (Commodianus).The data from both Genesis 6:1-4 and Enoch perfectly align, which is why the early church accepted the narrative.So, what does this have to do with the Messiah, and why does it tie to Jesus casting out demons?
Why Did Jesus Cast Out Demons?
- A major element of the Messiah’s mission was to give notice to the rebellious angels and demons that God, in the form of the Only Begotten Son, was taking back control of His creation and putting an end to their reign of terror over it.
- This meant that He would have to demonstrate His authority.
- When we read the tale of the demoniac who lived in the tombs, the place of the dead, in Mark 5:1-20, we have a clear illustration of the demons acknowledging the power of Jesus Christ.
- This is why they implore Him not to punish them and to allow them to enter the pigs’ pen instead.
- The fact that the guy who had been freed from demonic agony was instructed by Jesus to go inform others about what had happened to him is also worth mentioning.
- There were two audiences that needed to know that Jesus had control over demons: the devils and the general public.
- A similar account may be found in Mark 9:14-27, in which Jesus is handed a demon-possessed kid, and upon seeing that a large audience has assembled, He casts the devil out of the youngster.
- It was another another demonstration of His mastery over demons and mortals.
- Christians value above all the understanding that Christ has delegated a portion of His authority over demons to them since they are members of His Body, the Church.
- Your authority comes from a higher source.
- As a result, you have the ability to drive out demons in the name of Jesus Christ, rather than in your own name or by any other power you may possess.
- It is only He who has the capacity to throw them out, and He exercises that ability when you live a holy life and honestly pray to God to drive the devils out of you.
- As recorded in Luke 10:17, the 72 disciples grasped the significance of this.
- You will almost certainly come across those who will assert that you do not have the ability to cast out demons and that only a pastor or priest has the right to do so.
- This is incorrect.
- It is the responsibility of each man and wife to exercise authority over their children and household.
When that authority is employed in subjection to Christ and within the limitations of Christ’s derived authority to combat demons, you are entirely within the confines of biblical teaching on the subject of spiritual warfare.For example, Philip was not one of the 70, nor was he one of the 12 apostles, but he is an excellent example (Acts 8:4-7).In other words, recognize that Jesus showed His authority over demons by proclaiming the end of their control over man and by sharing that power with you.Sources Michael Heiser’s Reversing Hermon was published by Defender Publishing in 2017.
- Further reading: What Kind of Power Do Demons Possess?
- Who was Enoch in the Bible, and what was his story?
- Is it true that Demons are fallen angels?
- Who Were the Nephilim in the Bible, and What Did They Look Like?
- Should We Be Concerned About Demons These Days?
- Are Spirits of Uncleanliness Demons?
What Kind of Power Does Satan Possess?Photograph courtesy of iStock/Getty Images Thomas Soeliner’s Plus/Thomas Soeliner J.Davila & Associates, Inc.Ashcraft is an Anglican priest, theologian, and apologist who graduated from God’s Bible College in Cincinnati, Ohio, with a B.A.
in Biblical Studies and Theology and a certificate in Apologetics.Known as an expert on the subject of exorcism, he has contributed to and/or appeared on programming for the National Geographic Channel, Discovery Channel, and CNN, among other networks and networks.Expedition Truth, a one-hour apologetics radio discussion show hosted by him, airs on a variety of stations.
Why did Jesus go to Galilee from Judea when John was arrested if Herod Antipas was the tetrach of those regions. Matthew 4:12
- I came here to attempt to figure out what it meant when it claimed Jesus ″withdrew.″ That term was particularly perplexing to me since it suggests a movement away from something.
- According to what I’ve read in this post, and based on what I’ve read, my interpretation is as follows (please tell me if this makes sense or not): Jesus was in Nazareth, his hometown, but as stated above in the article, ″Judea was under the rule of the scribes, Pharisees, and priests,″ and ″Because the attention of the people had been greatly stimulated by John’s teaching,″ Jesus was in Nazareth, but he was not in Jerusalem.
- This got me thinking about the holy spirit today, and how Jesus spoke about what’s in a man’s heart on a number of occasions during his ministry.
- As far as I understand it, Jesus was in the midst of His own people, and so He would try to share the good news with them in the most righteous and just way possible.
- However, because the land was governed by the Pharisees, scribes, and priests, their hearts were hardened by their pride and arrogance in their own knowledge.
- In Galilee, on the other hand, John had already begun preaching, and the people’s hearts were open and hungry, just as they are today, thanks to the work of the Holy Spirit.
- He did the right thing and attempted to share the good news with them, but once John was imprisoned, he ″withdrew″ from them and went to a place where there were open and receptive hearts because those people needed Him and their hearts were open to receive Him.
- As you can see, I’m standing at the door, knocking.
- In the event that someone hears my call and answers the door, I will come in and have a meal with him, as well as he will with me.
- Revelation 3:20 was answered at 15:48 on October 17, 2021.
Why Did Jesus Drive the Money Changers From the Temple?
- Not only did Jesus expel money changers from the temple, but he also expelled those who were engaged in the business of selling animals.
- When it was almost time for the Jewish Passover, Jesus traveled to Jerusalem to observe the festival.
- Among the vendors in the temple courtyards were those selling livestock, lambs, and doves, as well as those seated at tables trading money.
- As a result, he fashioned a whip out of cords and drove everyone out of the temple courts, even the sheep and calves; he also dispersed the coins of the money changers and threw their tables over.
- – John 2:13-15 (New International Version) When Jesus entered the temple courtyards, he expelled everyone who was buying and selling goods there.
- In the process, he knocked down the tables of money changers and the benches of those selling doves.
- Then he told them that ″it is written that my house would be called a place of prayer,″ but that they were turning it into ″a den of thieves.″ – Matthew 21:12-13 New International Version
Why Did Jesus Drive Them Out?
1. They were taking advantage of those who had traveled long distances to celebrate Passover.
- Two things were required of these foreign worshipers: an animal to sacrifice and Temple currency that might be exchanged for goods at local commercial establishments.
- In most cases, selling animals or conducting a legitimate money exchange were perfectly legal activities.
- However, according to Jesus, these specific sellers were a ″den of thieves″ who likely charged outrageous fees in order to take advantage of individuals who appeared to have no other alternatives.
2. They were doing so in the Temple.
- They apparently established up shop in the Court of the Gentiles, thereby displacing individuals who had come long distances to attend the temple’s services.
- Besides that, they were perverting the whole purpose of the Temple itself; Jesus screamed that they were transforming the house of worship into a den of thieves.
- This is not good!
- In summation, these ″businessmen″ were guilty of committing a double whammy: they took advantage of people while also interfering with God’s intentions.
- It’s no surprise that Jesus was enraged!
What Should We Learn?
1. Don’t make the same mistakes.
- Of course, we will not be selling sacrifice animals or offering money exchange services to devotees, but we will be taking advantage of those who are less fortunate.
- Do you ever take advantage of people in order to further your own objectives?
- Is it possible that you’ve borrowed money from a kind friend with no intention of repaying them later?
- Do you assign less desirable jobs to your subordinates just because you have the authority to do so in your place of employment?
- What percentage of the population asks for favors from those who don’t know how to say no?
2. Speak up when others do the same thing.
On the other hand, if you observe someone else taking advantage of you, you should speak out and point it out. Perhaps we should follow Jesus’ lead and speak up in no uncertain terms?
3. Anger can be a good thing.
- Rage is sometimes depicted as a bad feeling, yet the God who created us and gave us our emotions wants us to be stirred to anger from time to time.
- Jesus was enraged because people were abusing the privilege of using his Father’s dwelling.
- What are your thoughts?
- Do you become enraged when you see children being abused?
- When you hear of human trafficking, what are the first feelings that come to mind?
- If rage isn’t something that comes to mind when you think about it, you might want to consider why.
- That rage may be a powerful motivator for us to become engaged in issues that we might otherwise overlook.
4. We are the Temple.
- Even while I recognize that we must exercise caution when it comes to the activities that take place in church facilities, the larger point is that today’s believers in Christ are the church.
- When a result, as we meet with people from all walks of life, we are promoting the church.
- Do we believe that because the Temple was built for prayer, we, as God’s children, have any less of a responsibility?
- Consider whether we may be guilty of perverting the term ″God’s home″ when we make our prayer walk a priority over all else.
The Rest of the Story
- When Jesus drove the moneychangers out of the Temple, what occurred next was a mystery.
- There was probably a startled hush as everyone nervously waited to see what would happen next.
- The Bible informs us that the blind and the lame flocked to him, and that children recognized him as ″Hosanna, son of David,″ according to the text.
- Consider the following: As soon as Jesus dealt with the opportunists, he became a magnet for the very people who were previously taken advantage of by others.
- Taking a strong stand for righteousness may be recognized and appreciated by others, depending on the circumstances.
- There are plenty of oppressed individuals in the world who are yearning for someone to speak out for their rights.
- Who will take our place if we don’t?
- Are there any more applications that you can draw from Jesus’ expulsion of the moneychangers from the Temple?
- Every one of your thoughts is appreciated.
- What a wonderful lesson!
- Learn more more about what the Bible teaches about money in this free online course!
Jesus and the Money Changers (John 2:13-16)
- It’s referred to as the ″temple tantrum″ by some.
- The ″cleaning of the temple″ is another term for this ritual.
- The scene in which Jesus throws over tables full of cash and chases away animals appears to be well-known to anybody who knows anything about Jesus, whether through books, movies, or other sources.
- The majority of historians think that this account in the Gospels is based on a true event that occurred.
- However, there is a great deal of debate beyond that.
- When did the occurrence take place?
- And what was it that compelled Jesus to exclude money changers and animal vendors from the temple courts in the first place?
When did Jesus’ temple action occur?
- Jesus’ action in the temple is placed at the beginning of Jesus’ public activity in the Gospel of John, but the other Gospels place it at the very end of Jesus’ public activity in the Gospels.
- As a result, this appears to be a straightforward instance of three versus one, and hence simply resolved.
- In reality, because Matthew and Luke both follow Mark’s form, it is a matter of Mark versus John in terms of structure.
- Furthermore, because Mark and the other Synoptic Gospels only mention one visit by Jesus to Jerusalem, they could not have put the incident earlier without altering the framework of the narrative.
- As a consequence of this interest in Jesus, the Roman authorities become involved, which sets in motion the events that lead to his arrest and execution, according to the majority of historians following Mark’s account.
- Disturbances have occurred in the past during Passover, which is marked by a focus on emancipation from foreign domination.
- They would have been drawn to even a small-scale symbolic activity in the temple, such as this one had to be, since it was symbolic.
What was the significance of the temple action?
- Is it possible that Jesus lost his cool, as the expression ″temple tantrum″ suggests?
- Instead of a spontaneous outburst, both the Gospels of John and Mark portray something that has been deliberately arranged in advance of time.
- In Mark 11:11-19, Jesus pays a visit to the temple, but he does not do anything until the next day.
- As seen in John’s gospel, Jesus really takes the time to fashion a whip out of cords (John 2:15).
- Is it possible that calling it a temple tantrum provides the incorrect impression, and that calling it ″the cleansing of the temple″ is more accurate in conveying the essence of the incident?
- If the selling of animals took place anywhere within the temple grounds, it would have taken place in the Court of the Gentiles, which was the outside court next to the temple.
- Animal droppings are unsightly, and manure was once regarded to be a desecration of sacred ground.
- Some, on the other hand, may have believed that the presence of Gentiles, who were seen as fundamentally filthy, was no more or less defiling than the presence of animal manure.
- On the other hand, Jesus is depicted as interacting with and dining with those who are ritually unclean, and he may have taken exception to both the implied slight toward non-Jews and the disrespect for their place of worship that was involved in conducting commercial activities in the Court of the Gentiles.
- The remarks ascribed to Jesus in Mark 11 are concerned with the temple’s future role as a ″house of prayer for all peoples,″ as predicted by Isa 56:7, but the version in the Gospel of John is concerned with the temple becoming a marketplace, potentially referencing to Zech 14:21.
- When it comes to Jesus, they can be considered as two sides of the same coin rather than as two wholly separate issues.
- We should not conclude that the presence of obnoxious animals and commercial activity disturbed Jesus just because they disrupted the mood of devotion.
- It was not intended for an old temple to be as serene as a calm cathedral.
- It was a hustling and crowded environment.
- In order for the temple to fulfill its primary purpose as a site for the offering of animal sacrifices, the selling of animals became necessary.
- Bringing an animal from one’s home ran the chance of anything happening to it on the trip, which is why many people decided to sell their own animal and carry the money with them to Jerusalem, where they could then acquire a replacement.
The money changers were there to convert numerous currencies into a single standard currency, the Tyrian shekel, which was then used to pay the annual temple tax, which was collected by the temple authorities.Temple tax collection and the sale of animals for sacrifice were both operations mandated by Jewish law and essential to the temple’s operation.Because Jesus drove away people and animals that were necessary to the temple’s operation, many academics regard his conduct as a symbolic gesture foreshadowing the building’s destruction rather than a cleansing of the temple.In doing so, Jesus is putting himself in the same category as Israel’s former prophets, and it is also consistent with the words that Jesus speaks on this occasion in John 2:19: ″Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.″ Jesus appears to have anticipated that the temple would be demolished in order to make way for whatever more perfect condition of affairs would take its place in the kingdom of God in the near future.
- James F.
- McGrath’s ″Jesus and the Money Changers (John 2:13-16),″ n.p., is available online.
Professor of New Testament language and literature at Butler University in Indianapolis, James F. McGrath has a Ph.D. in New Testament studies.
The Lesson Behind Jesus & The Money Changers Bible Story
- The narrative of Jesus and the money changers takes place during Jesus’ earthly mission, while he was on his way to the temple to offer sacrifices.
- He felt agitated as a result of the market that was going place at the Temple.
- With a whip, he toppled tables and emptied the temple of its clutter.
- In this account, we may learn about Jesus’ righteous fury, which he expressed at the Temple of Jerusalem.
- We may also learn from people who Jesus was speaking out against and avoid making the same mistakes as those who were present in the temple at the time of Jesus’ ministry.
- By looking at the narrative of Jesus and the money changers, we may have a better understanding of righteous anger and how to respond in instances where righteous wrath is required by the Bible.
- In addition, we may understand the source of evil from this narrative, allowing us to avoid the actions of people in the temple depicted in the story.
- Despite the fact that we no longer have a temple where we may give sacrifices to God, we as Christians are still referred to as temples.
- As a result, it’s critical to understand how to care for your temples.
- The tale of Jesus and the money changers is told in four places: Matthew 21:12-13, Mark 11:15-19, Luke 19:45-48, and John 2:13-22.
- The first version is found in Matthew 21:12-13, the second in Mark 11:15-19, the third in Luke 19:45-48, and the fourth in John 2:13-22.
- Despite the fact that each of these narratives is authored by a different author, they all convey the same message about the events of the story.
- The narrative opens with Jesus entering the temple and becoming enraged by what he sees going on.
- He overturns tables and chases people who are buying and selling out of the temple.
- Among the vendors in the temple courtyards were those selling livestock, lambs, and doves, as well as those seated at tables trading money.
- As a result, he fashioned a whip out of cords and drove everyone out of the temple courts, even the sheep and calves; he also dispersed the coins of the money changers and threw their tables over.
- ‘Get these birds out of here!’ he said to people who were selling them.
- ‘Please don’t convert my Father’s house into a flea market!’ John 2:14-16 is a passage from the Bible.
- The money changers who were defrauding people at the temple were the source of Jesus’ annoyance.
- Cheating on people is immoral, but doing so at the location of the temple offended Jesus since this area had been set apart for the presence of the Almighty.
- Given that each of these testimonies was written by a different person, each one provides a unique viewpoint on the scenario that is now taking place.
- Jesus is quoted as stating ″It is said, My house shall be called a place of prayer, but you have turned it into a den of thieves,″ as recorded in Matthew, Mark, and Luke (Matthew, Mark, and Luke).
- Matthew 21:13 (KJV) Take these things away from my Father’s home; do not turn my Father’s house into a place of commerce…, as John quotes Jesus.
- This temple must be demolished, and I will rebuild it in three days.
- 1:16,19; 2:16,19 This does not imply that any of the authors made mistakes in their writing, but rather that John is giving a fresh viewpoint to the tale.
- Many people are astonished that Jesus expressed righteous wrath in this manner, despite the fact that Jesus was known for being patient and teaching others to turn the other cheek.
- However, there is a time for righteous fury, as Jesus demonstrated against the money changers.
- There are times when you are wronged and have the opportunity to turn the other cheek, but there are also occasions when you witness injustice in the world and believe that we, as Christians, have the opportunity to combat it.
- Jesus was enraged by individuals who took use of the Temple, which was his father’s home, to defraud the public.
- People are being victimized by injustices such as human trafficking and abuse nowadays.
- Given that we recognize that these events are wrong and go against what the Bible teaches, we have a chance to combat these injustices.
- Jesus is sinless; he has never committed a sin.
- He was not committing a transgression when he became enraged in the Temple.
- Jesus is held up as a model of righteous rage by many.
- Do not commit a transgression because you are enraged.
- Paul writes in Ephesians 4:26 that Today, we may oppose evil by joining groups that fight against evil, praying for those who are being exploited, and taking action when we observe someone being exploited.
- While Jesus demonstrates that it is not a sin to be angry, the book of Ephesians advises us not to transgress while we are furious.
Not Taking Advantage of Others
- We may take a look at how the money changers conducted themselves and learn what not to do in the future.
- What exactly were the money changers up to?
- As Jesus describes it, the temple has been transformed into a ″Den of Robbers″ (Mark 11:17).
- That these money changers were not only selling, but were also defrauding their consumers, is evidenced by the fact that This very premise, that cheating and stealing are bad, can be found throughout the Bible in verses and sections that support this precise concept.
- In the Ten Commandments, we learn that theft is evil; the prophets teach us that stealing is bad; and Jesus reiterates this in the New Testament.
- Jesus does not remain silent in the face of wrongdoing, but rather punishes it.
- We can only be forgiven of our sins by the grace of God, which is demonstrated by the death of his son on the cross.
- Do not fall into the trap of taking advantage of others who are in our immediate vicinity.
- We have witnessed what has occurred to those who were in the temple, and we want to bring God glory.
The Temple Today
- During his mission, Jesus came into contact with a number of thieves, so why did he turn the tables on them and chase away the buyers and sellers in this particular encounter?
- In addition to defrauding people and breaking the 10 commandments, which the Jews were under before Jesus’ death on the cross, the fact that they were doing their business in the temple was a source of consternation for the people.
- The temple was a location where God had descended and where his presence might be felt.
- In addition, because they were cheating in a sacred and holy site, this makes the situation much worse for those who were cheating, as it provokes Jesus’ righteous indignation towards them.
- Today, we do not need to travel to a temple in order to meet with God and atone for our sins; instead, we have the Holy Spirit who lives inside us and serves as a substitute.
- Because the Holy Spirit is inside us, we serve as the temple.
- Or are you unaware that your body serves as a temple for the Holy Spirit who dwells within you and whom you have received from God?
- You do not belong to yourself since you were purchased at a cost.
- As a result, honor God via your body.
- 1 Corinthians 6:19-20 (New International Version) We are Christians who have received an incredible gift from the Holy Spirit within us, but we must always remember to give God the glory for whatever we accomplish.
- The money changers made the mistake of converting a place of worship into a ″den of thieves,″ and we don’t want to make the same error they did (Luke 19:46).
- Every chapter of the Bible has events and tales that educate us about God and help us grow in our relationship with Him.
- Towards this point, we can clearly see that Jesus is enraged, and explicitly directed his rage at the money changers.
- He even throws them out and overturns the table, yet he never commits a sin during the entire process.
- We may also respond to unfair events that exist in the world today with righteous rage if we want.
- We also learn from this tale that Jesus was enraged by the sin of taking advantage of people in the temple, and we should avoid taking advantage of people as well, especially now that the Holy Spirit has been given to us, because our bodies are now considered to be temples of the Lord.
Cleansing of the Temple – Wikipedia
- Jesus’ cleansing of the Temple tale describes his driving the merchants and moneychangers from the Temple.
- It is recorded in all four canonical gospels of the New Testament, and it is one of the most famous stories in the world.
- The scenario is a popular motif in Christian art, as may be seen here.
- After traveling to Jerusalem for Passover, Jesus and his disciples expel the merchants and consumers from the temple, accusing them of converting it into ″a den of thieves″ (according to the Synoptic Gospels) and ″a house of trade″ (according to the Gospel of John) through their commercial activities.
- According to the Synoptic Gospels, the tale is found at the conclusion (at Matthew 21:12–17, Mark 11:15–19, and Luke 19:45–48), while it is found close to the beginning of the Gospel of John (at John 2:13–16).
- Given that the Gospel of John contains more than one Passover, some scholars assume that these two passages allude to two different episodes in the Bible.
- Several sources claim that Jesus paid a visit to the Temple in Jerusalem, where he found the courtyard to be crowded with cattle, merchants, and the tables of the money changers, who were busy converting the standard Greek and Roman currency into Jewish and Tyrian shekels.
- Jerusalem was jam-packed with Jews who had traveled to the city for Passover, with estimates ranging from 300,000 to 400,000 travelers.
- In the end, he drove them all out of the temple with a whip made of cords, along with the sheep and oxen.
- And he poured out the coins of the money-changers and threw them to the ground, knocking them over.
- Then Jesus commanded those who were selling the pigeons, ″Take these things away; do not turn my Father’s home into a place of business.″ After that, Jesus walked into the house of God and drove out everyone who sold and purchased in the temple, overturning the tables of the money changers as well as the seats of those who sold doves, among other things.
- He then told them that it was written that My house would be considered a place of prayer, but that they had turned it into a den of thieves.
- In Mark 12:40 and Luke 20:47, Jesus accuses the Temple officials of thievery, and this time he identifies impoverished widows as their victims, and he goes on to offer proof for this accusation in Mark 12:42 and Luke 21:2, among other places.
- Dove merchants were selling doves that had been sacrificed by the poor, who couldn’t afford more elaborate offerings, and notably by female pilgrims.
- According to Mark 11:16, Jesus subsequently imposed a ban on anybody bringing any item into the Temple, a measure that would have caused complete disruption to all commercial activity.
- This occurred in the gentiles’ outermost court, which was the most remote.
- According to Matthew 21:14–16, the Temple elders interrogated Jesus about whether or not he was aware that the children were chanting ″Hosanna to the Son of David.″ Jesus answered by adding, ″You have appointed praise to come from the lips of children and babies.″ According to followers, Jesus’ acknowledgment of divinity was made through the use of a line from the Psalm 8:2, which reads, ″from the mouths of youngsters and babies.″
- Some scholars disagree on whether or not the Temple was cleansed in two stages, and whether or not there were two different occurrences.
- Thomas Aquinas and St.
- Augustine both believe that Jesus performed a similar act twice, with the less severe denunciations of the Johannine account (merchants and sellers) occurring early in Jesus’s public ministry and the more severe denunciations of the synoptic accounts (thieves and robbers) occurring just before, and indeed expediting, the events of the crucifixion.
- Combining the claims about the Temple cleaning story in the Gospel of John with non-biblical historical sources can yield an estimate of the time period during which it took place.
- As recorded in John 2:13, Jesus traveled to Jerusalem’s Temple at the commencement of his career, and as recorded in John 2:20, he was informed, ″For forty-six years, this temple has been under construction, and you want to raise it up in three days?″ The first-century historian Flavius Josephus wrote in the Antiquities of the Jews that the temple reconstruction was begun by Herod the Great in the 18th year of his reign in 22 BC, two years before Augustus arrived in Syria in 20 BC to return the son of Phraates IV and receive in return the spoils and standards of three Roman legions (Ant 15.380).
- (Ant 15.354).
- Expansion and rebuilding of the temple were continuing activities, and the temple was under constant reconstruction until it was destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD.
- In light of the fact that the Temple had been under construction for 46 years at the time of John’s visit, it has been suggested that the visit occurred sometime between 24 and 29 AD.
- It is probable that the Temple complex had barely been constructed for a few years before it was demolished by the future Emperor Titus in the year 70 AD.
- Professor David Landry of the University of St.
- Thomas proposes the following solution: ″The fact that Jesus dies within a week of this occurrence indicates the significance of this story for the Christian faith.
- The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke all agree that this was the event that served as the ″trigger″ for Jesus’ execution.″ As explained by Butler University professor James F.
- McGrath in his explanation of the animal sales, they had to do with selling animals to be used in the Temple’s animal sacrifices.
- The moneychangers at the temple, he further says, were there to convert the many currencies in circulation into the approved currency for the purpose of paying Temple taxes.
- According to E.
- Sanders and Bart Ehrman, Greek and Roman coinage was changed into Jewish and Tyrian money.
- [source: Sanders and Ehrman] Although it is widely assumed that Jesus was reacting to the practice of money changers routinely defrauding the populace, Marvin L.
- Krier Mich posits that a significant amount of money was stored at the temple, where it could be loaned by the wealthy to the poor who were in danger of losing their land due to debt.
- Consequently, the Temple establishment collaborated with the nobility in the exploitation of the poor and working class.
- One of the first acts of the Initial Jewish-Roman War was the destruction of the debt records in the archives, which was one of the war’s first acts.
- Pope Francis does not consider the Cleansing of the Temple to be a violent act, but rather a prophetic demonstration, according to the Vatican.
- Aside from communicating God’s words through writing and speech, Israelite or Jewish nevi’im (″spokespersons″ or ″prophets″) frequently lived out prophetic activities in their daily lives.
- A popular theory held by D.A.
- Carson is that the reason that Jesus was not apprehended by Temple guards was due to a show of support from the multitude.
According to Maurice Casey, the Temple’s authorities were probably concerned that sending guards against Jesus and his disciples would spark a revolt and a carnage, whereas Roman soldiers in the Antonia Fortress did not feel the need to intervene for a minor disturbance such as this; however, Jesus’s actions are likely to have prompted the authorities’ decision to arrest Jesus a few days later and later to have him crucified by Roman prefect Pontius Pilate.
Interpretation of John 2:15
- A history of the understanding of the Johannine passage since Antiquity was presented by Andy Alexis-Baker in 2012 at Loyola University Chicago, where he is currently a clinical associate professor of theology. It is Origen (3rd century) who makes the first remark on the passage: he rejects the passage’s historicity and sees it as a metaphorical representation of a person who has been set free from worldly things as a result of Jesus’ sacrifice. The contrary is true: John Chrysostom (v. 391) defended the historical authenticity of this passage
- however, when considering whether Jesus had used the whip against the merchants in addition to the other beasts, he specified that it was done in order to demonstrate his divinity and that Jesus was not to be imitated
- According to Theodore of Mopsuestia (in 381) – who responded, during the First Council of Constantinople, to the bishop Rabbula, who was accused of striking his clerics and attempting to justify himself by the purification of the Temple – and Cosmas Indicopleustes (in 550), the event is non-violent and historical: Jesus whips sheep and bulls, but he does not speak to merchants and does not overturn their tables
- Augustine of Cato the Great, Donatist bishop of Cirta, espoused a non-violent Christianity and criticized Catholic Christianity for transgressing this non-violence. Petilian of Constantine was born in a non-violent Christian family. The Bishop of Hippo responded by reading the cleansing of the temple as a time when Jesus was acting as a persecutor against the merchants of the temple, which the Bishop of Hippo agreed with. Following Augustine’s interpretation, according to Alexis-Baker, Christians have justified ever-increasing violence. For example, Pope Gregory VII (in 1075), quoting Pope Gregory I, relies on this passage to justify his policy against the simonic clergy, who he compares to merchants in terms of wealth and power. Another group of medieval Catholic personalities, such as Bernard of Clairvaux, who preached the crusade, arguing that battling the ″pagans″ with the same passion that Jesus demonstrated against the merchants was a means of redemption, will do the same.
- When accused of aiding in the burning alive of Michael Servetus, a theologian who denied the divinity of Jesus, during the Protestant Reformation, John Calvin (in 1554), following in the footsteps of Augustine of Hippo and the Gregories, defended himself by citing (among other things) the purification of the temple.
- After doing a grammatical examination of the text, Andy Alexis Baker claims that, while the bulk of English-speaking Bibles depict Jesus lashing people as well as animals, the original text is more complicated, and that the text does not depict a violent deed by Jesus towards the merchants.
According to later sources
- Several later additions to the story of the episode are widely viewed as mythical or polemical by academics, and thus are not included here.
- Yeshu is said to have entered the Temple with 310 of his followers, according to the Toledot Yeshu, a parody gospel that was probably written down about 1,000 years later but that may have been based on second-century Jewish-Christian gospel if not oral traditions that may have gone back as far as the formation of the canonical narratives themselves.
- In addition, Epiphanius claims that Christ’s followers had entered the Temple, and in particular the Holy of Holies, and that James had donned the high priest’s breastplate as well as the high priestly diadem on his head and had actually entered the Holy of Holies, and that John the Beloved had become a sacrificing priest who wore the mitre, which was originally the high priest’s headdress.
- Yeshu was also accused of stealing the shem hamphorash, the’secret name of god,’ from the Holy of Holies in the Toledot Yeshu, which is located in the Temple of Solomon.
- The purification of the Temple is a typical occurrence in the Life of Christ that is presented under a variety of titles. El Greco painted various variations on this theme: In the paintings Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco, London), Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco, Madrid), Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco, Minneapolis), Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco, New York), Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco, Washington), Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco, New York), Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Gre
- Various labels have been given to this incident in Christ’s life, and it has been represented numerous times. A number of different variations were painted by El Greco: In the paintings Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco, London)
- Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco, Madrid)
- Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco, Minneapolis)
- Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco, New York)
- Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco, Washington)
- Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco, Washington)
- Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple (El Greco
- Christian perspectives on poverty and wealth – Christians have had a variety of viewpoints on material wealth throughout history.
- Gessius Florus
- gospel harmony
- Jesus’ ministry
- Gessius Florus
- The Complete Gospels, Polebridge Press (1994), ISBN 0-06-065587-9
- Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament, Doubleday (1997), ISBN 0-385-24767-2
- Brown, Raymond E. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall (1990), ISBN 0-13-614934-0
- Ched Myers, Binding the Strong Man: A Political Reading of Mark’s Story of Jesus, Orbis (1998), ISBN 0-88344-6220
- Page 49 of The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary by Craig A. Evans, published in 2005 under the ISBN 0-7814-4228-1. Sanders, E. P. The Historical Figure of Jesus, published in 1993 under the title The Historical Figure of Jesus, Penguin, 1993 under the title The Historical Figure of Jesus, published in 1993 under the title The Historical Figure of Jesus, Penguin, 1993 under the title The Historical Figure of Jesus, published under the title The Historical Figure of Jesus, published under the title The Historical Figure of Jesus, published under the It is necessary to search for the authentic deeds of Jesus in order to understand the Acts of Jesus. a b c d e f g h I j k l j k l j k l j k l j k l j k l j k l j k l j k l j k l j k l j k l j k l j k l j k l j k The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger and L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 pages 140–141
- Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus by Craig A. Evans 2008 ISBN 0-415-97569-7 page 115
- The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger and L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN Because of some uncertainty about how Josephus referred to and computed dates, as stated by Köstenberger and Kellum (page 114), various scholars come up with slightly different dates for the exact start of Temple construction, varying by a few years in their final estimation of the date of the Temple visit. According to the Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, page 246 states that Temple construction was never completed and that the Temple was constantly being rebuilt until it was destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD/CE, and that the 46 years should refer to the actual number of years from the start of the construction. The Riddles of the Fourth Gospel: An Introduction to John by Paul N. Anderson 2011 ISBN 0-8006-0427-X page 200
- Herod the Great by Jerry Knoblet 2005 ISBN 0-7618-3087-1 page 184
- Herod the Great by Jerry Knoblet 2005 ISBN 0-7618-3087-1 page 184
- Herod the Great by Jerry Knoblet 2005 ISBN 0-7618-3087-1 page 184
- Page 77 of Jesus in Johannine Tradition by Robert Tomson Fortna and Tom Thatcher, published in 2001 under the ISBN 978-0-664-22219-2
- David Landry’s article ″God in the Details: The Cleansing of the Temple in Four Jesus Films″ appeared in the Journal of Religion and Film, Vol. 13, No. 2, October 2009, and was published by the University of Nebraska at Omaha. The original version of this article was published on October 6, 2016.
- retrieved on September 26th, 2016
- ″Jesus and the Money Changers,″ by James F. McGrath, is available online (John 2:13-16) Accessed on the 23rd of March, 2021, is ″Bible Odyssey / (2014).″ Ehrman, Bart D. Jesus, Interrupted: Revealing the Hidden Contradictions in the Bible (And Why We Don’t Know About Them), HarperCollins, 2009. ISBN 0-06-117393-2
- Ehrman, Bart D. Jesus, Interrupted: Revealing the Hidden Contradictions in the Bible (And Why We Don’t Know About Them), HarperCollins, 2009. The Challenge and Spirituality of Catholic Social Teaching, Chapter 6, Orbis Books, 2011, ISBN 9781570759451
- Mich, Marvin L. Krier, The Challenge and Spirituality of Catholic Social Teaching, Chapter 6, Orbis Books, 2011, ISBN 9781570759451
- ″Angelus Address: Jesus Cleanses the Temple of Jerusalem,″ according to Pope Francis. Zenit, 4th of March, 2018. Virginia M. Forrester translated the text from the Italian.
- Lockyer, Herbert. ISBN 9780310281115
- Dansby, Jonathan, All the Parables of the Bible, Zondervan, 1988, ISBN 9780310281115
- Dansby, Jonathan, ″All the Parables of the Bible.″ In CASEY, P. M. (1997), ″Culture and Historicity: The Cleansing of the Temple″, he discusses the historical context of Jesus’ cleansing of the temple. It is possible that the Temple Incident in John 2:13–15 is a case of violence, nonviolence, or both. The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 59 (2): 306–332. ISSN 0008-7912. Alexis-Baker, Andy (2012), ″Violence, Nonviolence, and the Temple Incident in John 2:13–15,″ academia.edu. The Journal of Biblical Interpretation, volume 20, number 1, pages 73–96. The Incredible Shrinking Son of Man (p. 40) by Robert Price
- Alexander, P. ″Jesus and his Mother in the Jewish Anti-Gospel (the Toledot Yeshu)″ in eds. C. Clivaz et al., Infancy Gospels, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck GmbH & Co. KG, 2011, pp. 588–616
- Goldstein, Morris ″Jesus and His Mother in the Jewish Anti-Go The Jewish Tradition’s View of Jesus Bauckham, The Testimony of the Beloved Disciple, p. 45
- Robert Eisenman, Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians, and Qumran: A New Hypothesis of Qumran Origins, New York, NY: The Macmillan Company, 1950
- Bauckham, The Testimony of the Beloved Disciple. Grave Distractions Publications, Nashville, TN, p. 10
- Nashville, TN: Grave Distractions Publications, 2013. Zindler, Frank R. The Jesus the Jews Never Knew. Cranford, NJ: American Atheist Press, 2003, pp. 318–319, 428–431.
Luke 4:29 They got up, drove Him out of the town, and led Him to the brow of the hill on which the town was built, in order to throw Him over the cliff.
- New International Version (New International Version) They rose to their feet, drove him out of town, and led him to the crest of the hill on which the town was constructed, where they threw him down the cliff into the valley below.
- New Living Translation (New Living Translation) They surrounded him and dragged him to the edge of the hill on which the town was constructed, where they threw him to the ground.
- They had meant to force him down the cliff, but they failed.
- Version standardized in English And they rose up and drove him out of town, dragging him to the crest of the hill on which their town was built, where they threw him down the cliff into the valley below.
- Berean Study Bible (also known as the Berean Study Bible) They rose to their feet, drove Him out of town, and carried Him to the crest of the hill on which the town was built, where they planned to toss Him from the cliff into the valley below.
- The Literal Bible of the Bereans Following their ascent, they drove Him out of the city and carried Him to the crest of the hill on which their town had been constructed, where they threw Him from the cliff into the valley below.
- The King James Version of the Bible And they stood up and threw him out of the city, leading him to the brow of the hill on which their city was constructed so that they could throw him to the ground headfirst.
- New The King James Version (KJV) is a translation of the King James Bible.
- And they got up in anger and drove Him out of the city; then they carried Him to the top of the hill on which their city was built, intending to toss Him from the cliff into the valley below.
- The New American Standard Bible is a translation of the New Testament into English.
- they rose to their feet and drove Him out of the city, bringing Him to the summit of the hill on which their city had been constructed, where they would toss Him from the cliff, which they did successfully.
- NASB 1995Then they rose up and drove Him out of the city, leading Him to the brow of the hill on which their city had been constructed, with the intent of throwing Him from the ledge.
- NASB 1977 (National Association of School Boards) They rose up and threw Him out of the city, leading Him to the top of the hill on which their city had been constructed, where they planned to toss Him from the cliff into the valley below.
- The Bible with an amplification system Afterward, they rose to their feet and drove Him from the city, leading Him to the summit of the hill on which their city had been constructed, where they planned to throw Him from the cliff.
- The Christian Standard Bible is a translation of the Bible in the Christian tradition.
It was then that they rose to their feet, drove him out of town, and led him to the brink of the cliff that their town was constructed on, with the intention of hurling him off the edge.Holman The Christian Standard Bible is a translation of the Bible in the Christian tradition.They rose to their feet, drove Him out of town, and hauled Him to the edge of the cliff that their town was constructed on, with the intent of hurling Him off the cliff into the sea.The American Standard Version is the version used in the United States.
- Afterward, they stood up and threw him out of the city, leading him to the crest of the hill on which their city was constructed, where they would fling him to the ground headfirst.
- The Aramaic Bible translated into plain English And they arose and dragged him out of the city, bringing him to the crest of the mountain on which the city was built, where they threw him from the cliff into the valley below.
- They got up and hurled him out of town, according to the contemporary English version.
- They brought him to the edge of the cliff on which the town was constructed, with the intention of throwing him off the cliff from that point.
- The Bible of Douay-Rheims And they stood up and threw him out of the city, dragging him to the brow of the hill on which their city was constructed so that they might throw him to the ground headfirst.
- Translation of the Good News On the day of Jesus’ departure from the town, they rose up and led him to the summit of the hill on which their town was constructed.
Originally, they intended t