Who Were The Thieves Crucified With Jesus?

Survey of Roman law

  1. A now-deleted (near) copy of this issue inquired if a claim that Roman law forbade the crucifixion of thieves was true; so, I’ll begin with that topic, which is extremely crucial to our exegesis of the Gospel stories in general.
  2. When it comes to the Roman crucifixion, there are a lot of statements on the Internet and in popular-level works.
  3. Women were not allowed to be crucified, crucifixion was only reserved for the most serious crimes (such as treason and murder), and Roman citizens were immune from the death penalty, according to certain popular beliefs.
  4. Interestingly, all of these assertions appear to have one thing in common: they are never backed up by references, much alone primary sources.
  5. All three of these statements are untrue.
  6. For the most part, I believe the allegations are founded on an unfounded combination of overgeneralization (for example, the bulk of crucifixions were carried out on non-citizen men) and it ″making sense″ to the current reader’s sense of justice.
  1. In this case, the non-citizen-only allegation does not have any bearing on the outcome (few people in Jerusalem would have been Roman citizens in 30 AD).
  2. The argument that men are the only ones who can do this is patently false (but is answered in this History.SE question).
  3. I’ll examine the argument that serious crimes are the only ones that occur here, focusing especially on examples of stealing.

Roman crucifixion was often employed as a punishment for all sorts of crimes committed by slaves and others from lower social strata, which is the true truth about this ancient practice.According to the history of crucifixion in the Mediterranean World, it was the most common form of punishment for slaves.1 Jeffrey Ross concurs, stating in his writing:2 The crucifixion appears to have been the standard punishment for slaves who were disobedient, according to the writings of the majority of Roman authors.Crucifixion was a common punishment for liberti (former slaves) and peregrini (non-citizens), and it was not reserved for just the most serious offenses.

Crucifixion was also employed on ordinary folks from time to time.1 Citing Cicero’s Against Verres, the author writes of a farm owner who, upon uncovering the deceit of the farm manager, should inflict summum supplicium (severe punishment), a word that Cicero used in the same book to allude to the practice of crucifixion.A farm manager would often be a post held by a freedman or a slave, depending on the circumstances.Additionally, Pomponius depicts a night prefect who steals from him being correctly punished with summum supplicium in Digesta seu Pandectae (in English, known as just Digest), a compilation of Roman legal law (in English, known as simply Digest).In another passage from Digest, the penalty for grave robbing is described as summum supplicium for the humilioris, a phrase that was used to refer to all lower-class people (for example, anybody who did not possess land at the time).

  1. Despite the fact that there is no formal meaning of the phrase in Roman legal code, Garnsey examined its usage and determined that it alludes to ″crucifixion, burning alive, and maybe damnation to the animals.″ The main character, a slave who has stolen some wealth, imagines himself in the future carrying a cross, rather than the riches he originally intended to take.
  2. 2 According to a piece of a legal law known as lex Puteolana, a slave owner had the authority to have the state crucified a slave for any offense, as long as the slave owner pays the expense of the punishment himself.
  3. 1 Digest contains a description of some robbers being subjected to crucifixion by the jurist Callistratus.
  4. 1 The practice of fastening (or nailing) infamous brigands to the cross at the location where they used to hang out has been accepted by the majority of authorities.
  • Nothing in the text indicates that the penalty is restricted to a certain social group or groups.
  • Crucifixion is included among the humiliores in the Lex Fabia, a legal code pertaining to runaway slaves, as a possible punishment for assisting the slave (and therefore ″taking″ the master’s property), among other things.
  • 3 According to legend, Severus Alexander ordered the crucification of a disgraced public official (thus an upper class citizen) after he was found guilty of theft.
  • When the kings were asked what punishment thieves received at their hands, they replied ″the cross,″ and the man was crucified as a result of their response.

Meaning of the Gospel accounts

  1. We have now demonstrated that thieves were capable of being crucified by the Romans, and that they were.
  2. As a result, we may focus our attention to the Gospel tales without fear of biasing our translation due to our prior knowledge of the Romans.
  3. The Greek text of Matthew 27:38 reads: vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv Then two thieves () were crucified alongside him, one on his right and one on his left, one on either side of him.
  4. In Mark 15:27, the author writes: ″ , .″ (NA27) As well as him, they hanged two thieves (), one on each side of him, one on his right and one on his left.
  5. (ESV) According to Luke 23:32, the phrase ″I am the Lord’s servant″ means ″I am the Lord’s servant.″ His two companions, both of whom were criminals (), were carried away to be put to death with him.
  6. and ‘It is written in the book of John 19:18: ″It is written in the book of John 19:18: ″It is written in the book of John 19:18: ″ That is where he and two others were crucified alongside him with Jesus sandwiched in the middle between the two.
  1. Luke just refers to them as ″criminals,″ while John is even less precise, referring to them as ″others.″ That leaves Matthew and Mark, both of whom utilize a variant of the Greek letter.
  2. According to the A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (BDAG), the word can be translated in two ways.
  3. In the first category, you’ll find ″robber, highwayman, bandit.″ Luke 10:30 serves as an excellent illustration of this usage: As a response, Jesus said, ″A man was traveling down from Jerusalem to Jericho when he became entangled with thieves (), who stripped him naked and battered him before fleeing, leaving him half dead.

More than just theft is clearly in mind here; rather, this is about aggressively seizing and retaining possession of stuff.The following passage from John 10:1 (see also 10:8) demonstrates that the word cannot simply be a close synonym for thief: ″Truly and truly, I say to you, he who does not enter the sheepfold through the entrance, but climbs in by another means, that man is both a thief () and a robber ().″ If there were no distinction between (the usual word for thief) and, Jesus’ remarks would be ridiculous, but there is a distinction between the two.Essentially, Jesus is claiming that the guy is both taking ″property″ (in this case, sheep, but in the context of the story, souls) and committing an act of violence (in context, against God).The second meaning of the word ″revolutionary″ is ″insurrectionist, guerrilla fighter.″ In John 18:40, this is most likely the meaning that the author intended: They yelled out once again, ″Not this guy, but Barabbas!″ they said.

Now, Barabbas was a thief (a robber in Greek).While the English Standard Version (ESV) has opted to interpret it as ″robber,″ the context plainly indicates that a very terrible crime is being contemplated.Clearly, Barabbas was an extremely brutal thief – and John does not need to employ an adjective to convey this impression.Mark 15:7 provides more evidence that John is referring to insurrectionists when he uses the term, as he characterizes Barabbas as a rebel who committed murder during an insurrection.This is most likely the intended meaning of Matthew 26:55 and other comparable passages – one does not need ″swords and clubs″ to apprehend a minor thief, nor would one expect a mob to apprehend a robber in the first place.

  1. One would anticipate a mob to assault a revolutionary or insurrectionist who is unpopular with the general public.
  2. In support of the latter meaning, the BDAG quotes a number of texts from Josephus that refer to insurrectionists or guerilla combatants, among other things.
  3. The fact that Barabbas was in captivity for his role in an uprising suggests that the two men who were crucified with Jesus were also insurrectionists, which is consistent with the biblical account.
  4. If not robbers, they were at the very least violent robbers; the definition of the word ″robber″ does not allow for regular thieves.


  1. When it came to Roman law, people were crucified for a variety of offenses.
  2. The nature of the offense had a significantly less important role in determining whether or not someone was crucified than their social standing.
  3. Many Roman sources indicate that thieves could be and frequently were crucified, and there is evidence to support this claim.
  4. Accordingly, claiming that the criminals killed alongside Jesus were thieves has no legal difficulties.
  5. The character of the term, on the other hand, implies that the men who were crucified with Jesus were aggressive in nature.
  6. They were either merciless bandits/highway robbers or insurrectionists, depending on your point of view.
  1. The fact that it was used in the context of Barabbas’ release, as well as his description of himself, shows that insurrectionists is the most plausible interpretation.
  2. This conclusion is also consistent with the fact that those who attempted to explain the need for Jesus’ crucifixion with the Romans referred to him as a revolutionist in their arguments.
  3. As a result, the most reasonable conclusion is that Jesus was crucified with two rebels (according to the NIV)/revolutionaries (so NLT).

Alternatively, if one intends to maintain the thievery meaning, the word ″bandits″ (ISV, NRSV) is a rather accurate translation.Robbers and thieves are two of the most commonly used terms in English, yet neither of them adequately conveys the violent nature of the crime perpetrated by the offenders, in my opinion.


1 John Granger Cook’s Crucifixion in the Mediterranean World (2014) is a work of art. Religion and Violence: An Encyclopedia of Faith and Conflict from Antiquity is a reference book about religion and violence (2015) Jeffrey Ian Ross is the author of this piece. Three new documents that provide evidence of early Christianity (1997) S. R. Llewelyn wrote the following:

6 Lessons to Learn from the Thieves Crucified with Jesus

1 John Granger Cook’s Crucifixion in the Mediterranean World (2014, 2014). a second book, Religion and Violence: An Encyclopedia of Faith and Conflict from Antiquity, was published in 2008. (2015) Jeffrey Ian Ross is the author of this article. There are three new documents that demonstrate the early Christian religion (1997) S. R. Llewelyn’s work was published in

Arrogant and Humble

The robbers are mentioned in all four gospels, but Matthew, Mark, and John are the only ones that tell us they were crucified with Jesus.The dialogue between the convicts and Jesus is only recorded in Luke’s account (See Luke 23:32-43).Because we don’t know their identities, we’ll refer to them as ″Arrogant″ and ″Humble″ to distinguish them from one another.By the letter of the law, Arrogant and Humble deserved what happened to them.

Both a painful physical death and an eternal spiritual sentence were meted out to them as a result of their transgression.Despite the fact that Jesus did not deserve the punishment they experienced, He hung in their midst.It happened just as the prophet Isaiah predicted.This is exactly what the Father intended.He shall share in the booty with the strong, for he gave his soul to death and was reckoned with the transgressors, but he carried the sin of many and intercedes for those who have sinned against God.Isaiah 53:12 ESVA ESVA ESVA ESVA ESVA They were vicious guys who lived to steal, murder, and destroy.

They were rrogant and humble.Satan’s objectives were furthered by their actions.Jesus, on the other hand, came to offer those who would accept it with a life that was full and plentiful.

I am the entrance.If someone enters through me, he will be rescued and will be able to walk in and out as he pleases, in search of pasture.The thief is just interested in stealing, killing, and destroying.I come so that they could have life, and that they might have it abundantly.

  1. ESV translation of John 10:9-10

Jesus’ Offer to the Thieves… And to Us

Jesus extended abundant life to everyone – both the arrogant and the humble – via his sacrifice.Arrogant, on the other hand, flatly rejected it.His answer matched the sentiments of the multitude, the soldiers, and the Jewish authorities who had assembled at the foot of Jesus’ cross to witness his death.He, too, was afflicted by spiritual blindness, like them.

He was blind to the reality that was there in front of him.Humble, on the other hand, gratefully and cheerfully embraced the life Jesus promised.As a result of his confession, he accepted his guilt as well as the power and authority of Jesus, and he begged Jesus to accept him as a citizen of His kingdom.In response to this humble and remorseful thief, Jesus offered pity and charity to him.Humble was promised by Jesus that he would be welcomed into ″Paradise,″ the everlasting resting place of the faithful, upon his bodily death.This aggressive, wicked criminal was cleansed and made new in Christ (Want to be prepared to share your faith with others?

Read this).See ″The Road to Salvation for the Romans″ and ″The Top Ten Verses for Evangelism″ for further information.

6 Lessons to Learn from the Crucified Thieves

1.We all deserve eternal death – Just like Arrogant and Humble, every individual who has ever lived is a sinner who deserves to perish in hell forever.No one is virtuous, not even one; no one understands; no one seeks God, not even a single one.(Romans 3:10–11, ESV) No matter how society assesses the seriousness of our sin in comparison to God’s righteousness, we are all violent, hardened criminals who have spent years in prison.

Our transgression has resulted in the imposition of the death sentence.Because the penalty for sin is death.(Romans 6:23a English Standard Version) 2.There is nothing we can do to save ourselves – The hapless criminal was firmly nailed to a cross by his own hands.He was unable to do anything.He was unable to walk down the aisle, get baptized, or join the church, nor could he carry out good deeds.

All he could do was accept Jesus’ offer of eternal life, and that was enough.Humble arrived with empty hands and a heart that was penitent and believing.Because you have been rescued by grace through your faith, And this is not your own doing; it is a gift from God, not a product of your efforts, so that no one can take credit for it.

(Ephesians 2:8-9, New International Version) Jesus died on the cross for every sinner — The two criminals symbolize the darkest aspects of human nature.These nefarious individuals forcefully took what they desired.No one, no matter how heinous their sin, is beyond the reach of God’s mercy and love.He gladly endured the most gruesome of deaths in order to atone for the most heinous of crimes on the cross.

  1. God, on the other hand, proves his own love for us in this way: Christ died for us while we were yet sinners.
  2. (Romans 5:8 New International Version) 4.
  3. Only Jesus can save – The conceited robber mockingly demanded that Jesus demonstrate His kingdom by rescuing himself and the other two thieves, and Jesus agreed (Luke 23:39).
  4. Jesus might have simply summoned angels to assist Him if He had desired (Matthew 26:53-54).
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However, if He were to save Himself, humanity would be without hope for the rest of time.Only by remaining on the cross could Jesus bring about redemption for the world.He was the ideal alternative for the victims of the Holocaust.His death satisfied the debt we owed to God for our sins.As a result, Jesus is the only way to get salvation.The only other person who can save us is Jesus Christ, since there is no other name given among mankind by which we might be saved.

(Acts 4:12 English Standard Version) There are only two everlasting destinations — eternal life with Jesus in paradise, or eternal judgment in hell.Neutrality is not an option.We can’t afford to be on the fence.Rejecting Jesus is the same as choosing not to choose Him.Everyone will make a decision.And it is this choice that determines our eternal destiny.

The obedient thief made the decision to follow Jesus and live.The haughty thief turned his back on Jesus, so choosing eternal punishment.Whoever believes in him is not condemned; but, whoever does not believe is already condemned because they have not placed their faith in the name of God’s one and only Son in the first place.(John 3:18 New International Version) 6 – Jesus accepts the modest belief of the thief – The humble thief confessed his fault.

He had faith in Jesus because of the testimony he had heard.Jesus was ″the King of the Jews″ (Luke 23:38), the long-awaited Messiah who had been prophesied by the prophets.Humble understood that Jesus’ kingdom was spiritual and everlasting, and that it was not of this world, but of another (John 18:36).And Humble placed his faith in Jesus for the rest of his life.Please keep my name in mind when you arrive into your kingdom.

(Luke 23:42 in the English Standard Version) Humble’s hope was verified by Jesus.I truly believe that you will be with me in heaven today, and I promise you that.(Luke 23:43 in the English Standard Version) Arrogant and Humble had fairly similar lives on this planet, however their everlasting lives are vastly different from one another.

Even today, they are facing the consequences of their previous decision.Arrogant turned his back on Jesus, so choosing eternal damnation.Humble placed his faith in Jesus and was granted eternal life.Every everyone has the right to make their own decision.What do you intend to do with Jesus?(See ″How to Know Jesus″ for additional information on this everlasting decision.) Photograph courtesy of Getty Images/olegkalina Kathy Howard is a treasure hunter who lives in New York City.

  1. She is on the lookout for the creamiest chocolate, the richest coffee, and the most treasured faith tales.
  2. She also delves deeply into the Scriptures, seeking out God’s timeless truths in the process.
  3. Having earned a Master’s degree in Christian education, Kathy has been teaching the Bible for more than 30 years in a variety of settings.
  4. Among her publications is ″Heirloom: Living and Leaving a Legacy of Faith,″ which she has written with her husband, Jim.
  5. ″Heirloom″ blends together stories of religion and family history, as well as Scripture, stunning artwork, and lineage research ideas and procedures, to create a unique and unforgettable experience.
  1. Kathy and her husband live in the Dallas-Fort Worth area.
  2. They are the parents of three married children, six grandkids, and two unintentionally acquired pets.
  3. On Amazon, you may get free discipleship resources under the title ″Heirloom.″)

Jesus and the thieves on the cross. Who were the two thieves crucified with Jesus?

The notion of forever had been implanted in the minds of the two Talachs by God, just as it had been and continues to be implanted in the minds of every man; only in their case, eternity was knocking on their door and will be opened in front of their very eyes in a matter of minutes.In other words, they were drifting toward the realm of forever, and they were standing in the corridor leading up to the room of eternity when the conversation began.And, to be honest, their condition appeared to be dismal.Jesus Christ was crucified on the cross with two butchers, Dismas and Gestas, who assisted in the execution of Jesus Christ.

Furthermore, Dismas was taken to Paradise with Jesus.The names of the two robbers were Dismas and Gestas, but we only know this because of texts that do not belong in the Bible because the Bible does not mention their names in any way.The majority of the audience was against him.The troops were making fun of Him and laughing at him.Even Pilate had just recently cleansed his hands in an effort to free himself of his guilt over Jesus’ death.Jesus was humiliated by his criminal acquaintance.

And the little band of disciples had deserted him and fled the scene.Someone said that this thief lacked biblical understanding, and even if he did, Jesus was not a pleasant sight to behold.I agree.

He was on the edge of passing away.The man had renounced all he had believed in up to that point in his life and had placed his faith in Jesus as his Lord and Savior, as well as his King.

Why was Jesus crucified with the thieves?

After renounceing his right to forgive and turning Jesus up to the Jews, the Lord is entrusted to the care of His horsemen.The Sadducees, whom we will see again on Calvary, rush the caravan on its journey since it is the evening of the Passover feast and the condemned man must have given up his soul by that time, they reason.As part of the execution of Jesus, two butchers were to be crucified, both of whom had been sentenced long before and whom Pilate, out of disdain for the Jews, equates with the torturing of the one who was regarded their king.They crucified Jesus with the two thieves in order to damage his reputation and demonstrate that Jesus was likewise a rebel and a rebellious figure.

The condemned were had to carry their crosses to the execution site on their own, and their crosses were handed over to a Samnite who was aided by a small unit of Roman ostriches.The Jews lead Him to His death, but the Romans are in charge of seeing that the penalty is carried out.You may also be interested in: The plan against Jesus.

What happened to the two thieves on the cross with Jesus?

Starting with the time Pilate renounces his privilege of forgiveness and gives Jesus over to the Jews, the Lord is placed in the care of His horsemen.The Sadducees, whom we will see again on Calvary, rush the caravan on its route since it is the evening of the Passover feast and the condemned man must have handed over his soul by that time, according to tradition.Jesus was going to be crucified beside two butchers who had been sentenced long before, whom Pilate links with the torturing of the one who was regarded their king because he has disdain for them.In order to tarnish Jesus’ reputation and demonstrate that he was also a rebel and a rebel, they crucified him with the two thieves alongside him.

Only the condemned were permitted to carry their crosses, which were then handed over to a Samnite who was aided by an auxiliary unit of Roman Ostriches on their way to the execution location.However, the Romans are in charge of ensuring that the penalty is carried out properly.In addition, read The Assassination of Jesus.

What Are The Names of the Thieves Crucified With Christ? – Amazing Bible Timeline with World History

  • The Bible does not mention the identities of the two thieves. However, according to Bible historians, the apocryphal work The Book of Nicodemus, which is believed to have been written in the fourth century AD on the Biblical timeframe, calls the repentant or virtuous thief Dysmas or Dismas, while the thief who mocks Jesus is known as Gestas. Published by the Amazing Bible Timeline with World History, these articles are written by the publishers of the book. More information about this thorough Bible study tool may be found by clicking here. These articles are written by the publishers of The Amazing Bible Timeline with World History, and they are intended for a general audience. Quickly Together, you can see more than 6000 years of Bible and world history. On this fantastic study companion, you will have access to over 1,000 references in a circular arrangement that is unique to it.
  • Find out some intriguing information. Fun chronological linkages are demonstrated by placing biblical events with scriptural references beside world history.
  • It’s an eye-catching, simple design that will get people to stop and speak about this brilliantly laid-out Jesus historical timeline poster, which is perfect for your house, business, or church.
  • To learn more about this unusual and entertaining Bible study tool, please visit this page.


Anyone familiar with the Gospels is aware that when Jesus was crucified, he was not left alone on the hill of Golgotha, as is often believed today.The crucifixion was one of the most horrifying methods of torture and execution ever invented in the long, dark, and wicked history of mankind.Because it was so heinous, convicted Roman citizens were only very seldom killed by crucifixion in ancient Rome.In order to humiliate the person who was to be slain in this manner, he or she was stripped nude.

Long nails—really spikes—were driven into the victim’s wrists (which were regarded to be part of the hands in ancient times), and another through both ankles, which were crossed over one another, to secure the individual.These spikes were directly in the path of or through critical nerves, producing excruciating pain.The arms were stretched to the point that they were frequently forced out of their sockets by the weight of the body.This usually occurred after scourging had occurred, with the flesh shredded, ripped and left raw.In order to breathe and avoid suffocation while hanging from a cross, the victim had to push upward on the spike pushed through their ankles to keep their feet from slipping off.The scourging was made even more painful by the rough wood that was used for the cross.

A crucified person might be left hanging on the cross for several hours or even days at a time.The person’s legs would be broken by those in charge of the execution in order to expedite the process of death for the individual.Because the sentenced person’s legs were shattered, he or she was no longer able to press upward on the ankle spike in order to breathe.

Death would result from asphyxia, blood loss, dehydration, shock, and other harmful consequences on the human body.Jesus was crucified in the center of three thieves, with He being the middle one.This, as well as His eventual burial in the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea, a wealthy man who had become one of Christ’s disciples, include elements of prophesied fulfillment (Isaiah 53:9, 12; Matthew 27:57-61).However, it is not the end of the story in this instance.

  1. Right in the midst of the news coverage of one of the greatest and most significant events in human history, we see elements of the ensuing redemption demonstrated for us in the pages of Holy Writ—the repentance and reward of one thief, and the impenitence of the other—that point to the ensuing redemption being demonstrated for us.
  2. The thieves are given names in apocryphal texts, notably Gestas or Gesmas (the impenitent) and Dismas (the repentant), as well as a few of additional names in addition to those mentioned above.
  3. Gestas was traditionally positioned to Jesus’ left, and Dismas was positioned to His right.
  4. We do not know who they are or what their identities are at this time.

The Gospels provide us with the only reliable information we have on these two individuals.Only two other people were crucified with Jesus, according to John’s Gospel (John 19:18).While in the Gospels of Matthew and Mark, they are referred to as robbers rather than thieves (in the King James Version), which is not a contradiction, because robbers are fundamentally thieves who employ threats and/or force, and theft is always included in their actions (as in the case of robbers).According to the following texts, both of these thieves were unrepentant and disrespectful, at least at the beginning of their criminal careers: The Gospel of Matthew 27:38-44: Then two thieves were crucified alongside Him, one on each side of Him, one on the right and one on the left.People who went by cursed Him, shaking their heads and shouting, ″You who demolish the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourselves!Come down from the cross, if You are the Son of God,″ says the Apostle Paul.

″He rescued others, but He cannot save himself,″ exclaimed the chief priests, joining in with the scribes and elders in their mockery of Jesus.If He truly is the King of Israel, He must now come down from the cross, and we will believe Him and acknowledge Him as such.″He placed his confidence in God; now, if He wills, let Him be delivered; because He has declared himself to be the Son of God.″ Even the thieves who were crucified with Him used the same language to despise Him and mocked Him.Besides Him, they crucified two thieves, one on His right and the other on His left, as recorded in Mark 15:27 and 32b…Even those who were crucified beside Him despised and despised Him.Despite the fact that Jesus had done so much good throughout His earthly mission, the majority of religious leaders of His day refused to identify Him as the expected Messiah of prophecy, and many other people had an unfavorable view of Him despite the fact that all those who believed in Him did.

This was the Lord’s very own creation turning against Him!When Christ had the power to do so, it would have been simple for Him to come down from the cross and wipe out everyone who stood against Him, but His eagerness to do the Father’s will and His love for the lost compelled Him to remain on the cross and be sacrificed as a sacrifice for the sins of the world (Matthew 26:36-56; John 3:16-17; Hebrews 12:1-2).One of the robbers’ spiritual eyes were awakened in the midst of all of this, for reasons that remain unclear.His heart was dealt with by the Holy Spirit in such a way that he did not resist, but rather listened.

In the midst of his suffering, looking out over the furious throng and hearing their vile remarks, witnessing Jesus’s grieving relatives, and taking in the sublime dignity of the Savior as He hung alongside him, we can only imagine about what was going through his mind and heart at that moment.It represented a significant shift in his perspective and a blessing for him, as well as a seal on the doom of his unrepentant companion: 32-33, 39-43 (Luke 23:32-33): There were also two other people, both criminals, who were taken to their deaths with Him.In the end, when they arrived to the spot known as Calvary, they crucified Him along with the criminals, one on the right hand side and one on the left…Afterwards, one of the convicts who were about to be hung blasphemed Him and said, ″If You are the Christ, rescue Yourself and us.″ But his counterpart scolded him, saying: ″Do you not even fear God, considering as how you are both under the same condemnation?″ And we are rightfully so, for we obtain the proper recompense for our acts; but, this Man has done nothing wrong.″ Then he turned to Jesus and asked, ″Lord, please keep me in mind when You come into Your kingdom.″ And Jesus said to him, ″With certainty, I tell to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise,″ which means ″with Me in Paradise.″ Jesus died first, and then the others who were crucified with him died after their legs were broken to hurry their deaths, which was done to hasten their deaths (John 19:30-37).The criminal who repented will be rewarded with a wonderful prize.

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But where is—or was—Paradise, and what happened to it?Prior to Christ’s atonement, there were two different chambers under the surface of the planet.The first was Hell for those who died in their sins, and the second was Paradise for the virtuous dead, according to the Bible.

The presence of all the Old Testament saints, such as Saul, David, Isaiah, Noah and so on, would have been significant.When His atonement was completed, Paradise was empty and the OT saints were transported to heaven, with many of them emerging from their tombs for the first time following His resurrection (Matthew 27:50-54; Hebrews 11:39-40).He is now in Heaven while his impenitent counterpart remains in Hell until the last judgment before the judgment seat of Christ when he will be hurled into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:11).(Revelation 20:11-15).After discussing the factual, historical, and theological parts of this event, I will shift my attention to the practical, or the portion of the story where the rubber meets the road, as the saying goes.How many Christians preach about God’s love while also celebrating the execution of a convicted criminal?

  1. It makes no difference whether you believe in the death penalty or not; an execution is not anything to be happy about.
  2. Except for the grace of God, none of us will make it out of this world alive (Jeremiah 17:9), and on top of that, a soul is being expelled into eternity, and if the person is unrepentant, damnation awaits them on the other side of death’s door.
  3. Furthermore, Jesus made mention of visiting people who were imprisoned (Matthew 25:31-46).
  4. The Lord did not specify what those who were to be visited were imprisoned for, and you will notice this when you read the verse above.
  5. There are some Christians who believe He was solely referring to those who are persecuted and imprisoned, like as Paul and others, when He said this.
  1. The difficulty is that this ″only″ scenario does not appear elsewhere in the Scriptures, which is a concern.
  2. Let’s face it: we’re in a bind.
  3. There are some professing Christians who believe that many, if not all, convicted criminals should be left to rot in jail.
  4. There are some of the individuals who are innocent and unfairly condemned; there aren’t many, but there are some.

So, where does that leave them?What about the remainder of those who are guilty?What if some of them repent and are saved?

  1. Is it your intention to refer to them as having ″jailhouse religion″?
  2. Who are you to make such a pronouncement?
  3. Are you the creator of the universe?

And what happens if a convicted criminal expresses an interest in attending your church, particularly if that individual is a convicted sex offender or a former prostitute?Is it possible for them to become members of your church at all?If that’s the case, will he or she be required to sign legal paperwork and be under the watchful eye of an armed security team?

  1. You’re going to welcome convicted felons in front of their faces, but you’re going to speak about them behind their backs, aren’t you?
  2. Otherwise, are you just going to tell them that you don’t want ″their kind″ in your congregation?
  3. Let me tell all of you modern-day Pharisees what you need to know: All Christians are members of the body of Christ, including those of us who have had a tarnished past!
  4. It is possible that we still have records on this planet and that we still have repercussions to cope with, yet our records have been completely erased in heaven.

In particular, the fact that Jesus rescued the soul of a condemned felon and that this was recorded in the Bible is noteworthy.Isn’t it difficult to sweep us under the rug when we’re involved?As for the so-called ″jailhouse religion″ that you believe all of us convicts adhere to, let me explain you what it is.

Yes, there are people who ″fake it until they make it,″ but that is no different from the pretenders who show up to church every week out here in the country.Because of Jesus’ saving grace, many of us have experienced significant transformation.Some of the most energetic and Spirit-filled church services I’ve ever witnessed took place in prisons and jails.

  • No, I would not want to be imprisoned once more in order to go through that ordeal.
  • Instead, I would want to witness that type of power and moving of the Holy Spirit a lot more frequently out here in the wilderness!
  • Jesus died for all of us, regardless of whether or not we have a criminal record.
  • In heaven, all lost individuals have a criminal record: they are not only guilty of sin, but they are also guilty of sin.
  • Hell is the jail, the lake of fire is the prison, and the sentence is eternal life without the possibility of release from the prison.
  1. Furthermore, the locations are inaccessible by any means.
  2. Is it true that all Christians are called to prison ministry or jail ministry?
  3. No.

Is it possible for everyone to come?No.But, if nothing else, at the very least, pray for those who are imprisoned.

For those of you who have been there, please consider giving back if you are able.One of the reasons for the existence of It Ain’t Over Ministries is to address this issue.If you find yourself judging, stop.It will come back to haunt you in a very negative manner (Matthew 7:1-2).

Remember that one of the robbers who were crucified beside Jesus Christ was rescued by Him.If the other had repented as well, he would have been saved as well, but he did not.It is only through Jesus Christ that you may be saved from your sins, and if you are truly remorseful, He will save you regardless of what you have done in your life.

  • Do not allow anyone to persuade you to think differently.
  • We are all in desperate need of Jesus.
  • In God’s economic scheme, all souls are of equal worth to one another.
  • Take a look at the price He was willing to pay for us.
  • Who are we to place a monetary value on people or to determine whether or not someone is worthy of being welcomed by God and the Church in general?
  • Please visit this page to learn more about the Crucifixion of Christ and its significance.

You asked: Who are the two thieves crucified with Jesus?

In apocryphal literature, the impenitent thief is given the name Gestas, which first comes in the Gospel of Nicodemus, and his accomplice is given the name Dismas, which first appears in the Gospel of Nicodemus. It is believed by Christian tradition that Gestas was crucified to the left of Jesus and that Dismas was crucified to the right of Jesus on the cross.

Were the two thieves nailed to the cross?

Following tradition, Jesus was crucified to his right, while the other thief was crucified to his left, with the Good Thief to his right. … The footrest is tilted, with one footrest pointing up towards the Good Thief and the other footrest pointing down towards the Other Thief.

What happened to Gestas?

Gestas was nailed on the cross to the left of Christ. Gestas, in contrast to Dismas, did not acknowledge Christ as Saviour and did not repent of his sins once they were revealed. Only one thing he desired was to be rescued from his agonizing death on the cross.

What did the two thieves on the cross say to Jesus?

One was as guilty as sin, while the other was the only guy who had ever lived who was completely innocent. The thief’s prayer to be remembered was met with the response, ″Assuredly, I say to you, today you will be with me in paradise,″ Jesus said (Lk. 23:43).

Why was Jesus crucified with the thieves?

In an attempt to reduce Jesus to the status of a thief and a rebel, he was crucified between two thieves on a cross. However, the individuals who made the choice were unaware that they were bringing a prophesy to fruition.

Who was with Mary when Jesus was crucified?

According to certain traditions, as shown in the Irish hymn Caoineadh na dTr Muire, the Three Marys are the three women who are mentioned in the Gospel of John as being present at Jesus’ crucifixion: Mary of Bethany, Mary of Magdala, and Mary of Magdala. Mary Magdalene, also known as Mary (the mother of Jesus).

Did Jesus carry a cross or a beam?

Crucifixion instruments (known in Latin as crux and in Greek as stauros) are usually believed to have been constructed from an upright wooden beam to which a transom had been attached, resulting in a ″cruciform″ or T-shaped construction.

Who was Jesus talking to on the cross?

In response, seeing his mother and the disciple whom he adored standing nearby, Jesus addressed his mother as follows: ″Woman, behold thy son.″ Later, the disciple was informed that his mother had arrived. As a result, from that moment forward, the disciple adopted her as his own (home). This well-known text is considered to be one of the most significant Marian texts in all of Scripture.

Who helped Jesus carry his cross?

The Romans forced Simon of Cyrene (Hebrew:, Standard Hebrew imôn, Tiberian Hebrew imôn; Greek: o, Simn Kyrnaios; died 100) to carry Jesus of Nazareth’s cross as he was carried to his crucifixion, according to all three Synoptic Gospels.

What did they do with Jesus garments?

After they had crucified Jesus, the soldiers removed his clothing (ta himatia) and split them into four pieces, giving one half to each soldier, as well as his coat (ta himatia) (kai ton chitona). The garment was now completely seamless, having been woven from the top down.

Where is the cross Jesus was crucified on?

LAWTON: According to the New Testament, Jesus was crucified outside of Jerusalem at a location known as Golgotha, which is derived from the Aramaic word for ″place of the skull.″ Calvaria is the Latin word for skull, and in English, many Christians refer to the location of the crucifixion as Calvary, which is the Latin word for skull.

How old was Jesus when he was crucified?

The majority of experts believe Jesus was crucified between 30 and 33 AD, which corresponds to 1985 to 1988. Given that we may infer Jesus was around 30 years old when he was baptized and began his ministry, we can safely presume he was well into his 30s when he was killed.

Where did Jesus go after death?

Jesus was elevated by God after his death, according to the Christian tradition, which is expressed in the major Christian creeds and confessional declarations. God raised Jesus from the dead and transported him into heaven, where he assumed his place at the right hand of God.

Why was Jesus crucified outside the city walls?

Jesus walked beyond the gate to suffer and die for us in order to purify us of our sin and give us with a place to call home for the rest of our lives. Following Him outside the gates, we are commissioned to share our faith with those who live in the very world that Christ has called us to serve as missionaries.

Who were the other two who were crucified with Jesus?

Dismas and Gestas were the two robbers who were crucified beside Jesus. When Dismas approached Jesus, it is thought that he prayed for forgiveness before Jesus promised him that he would be with Himself in paradise that day.

How many people were crucified with Jesus and who are they?

He was crucified alongside four other people. There are two thieves and two malefactors. According to Luke’s version, one of the thieves cursed Him while the other did not, however Matt. 27:44 and Mark 15:32 both claim that BOTH of the thieves insulted Him and fled.

Who was crucified with Jesus upside down?

Because he felt unworthy of dying in the same manner as Jesus Christ, according to legend, St. Peter was crucified upside down. Learn more about the crucifixion.

What did the two thieves say to Jesus on the cross?

In the Gospels of Matthew and Mark, both of the thieves insulted Jesus; Luke, on the other hand, reports that one of the convicts hanging there reviled Jesus, saying, ″Jesus, you are a fool.″ ″Is it possible that you are not the Messiah?Save yourself and us from ourselves.″ Articles on ThaJokes are based on information that we have gathered from various sources on the internet.When it comes to data collection, we rely on reputable sources.The material provided on this website may be partial or erroneous, despite the ongoing care and attention we devote to its compilation.

Is there anything in this article that you think is wrong or incomplete?If you have any questions, please contact us at [email protected] thajokes team

Most frequently asked questions

Was Peter nailed to the cross?

Nero’s hands delivered the crown of martyrdom to Peter, according to Jerome (327–420), who was nailed to the cross with his head pointing to the ground and his feet lifted on high, declaring that he was unworthy of being crucified in the same manner as his Lord.

What does the name Gestas mean?

Gestas is derived from the Greek word Gesta, which literally translates as ″to whine or groan.″ It is believed that Dismas was derived from a Greek word that meant ″sunset″ or ″death.″

What happened to Dismas and Gestas?

Moreover, in the Orthodox tradition, where bigger icons of the Crucifixion might portray two crosses flanking Christ’s, these figures are not uncommon. According to legend, Dismas, who stands on Christ’s right, repents and finally joins Christ in Heaven, but Gestas blasphemes and ends up in Hell as a result of his actions.

What crime did Barabbas commit?

A treason allegation against Rome had been brought against Barabbas, who had been convicted of the same crime for which Jesus had been tried and crucified. The punishment was crucifixion, which resulted in death.

What happened on Good Friday?

On Good Friday, those who believe in the Bible believe that Christ was crucified at the foot of the cross. According to the Gospels, Judas betrayed the son of God just before he was put to die for his crimes. Christians believe that Jesus died on the cross in order to redeem mankind from sin.

See also:  How Old Was Matthew When He Met Jesus

Who are the two person crucified with Jesus?

What happened to Gestas on the cross?

After dying with curses and sneers directed at God, Gestas was unable to join Dismas in Paradise, as he had done. His play teaches us that simply being hung close to Christ is not enough to redeem us from our sins. He was crucified because he was guilty; he was aware that he was guilty, but he did not repent of his actions.

Who were Dismas Gestas?

In apocryphal literature, the impenitent thief is given the name Gestas, which first comes in the Gospel of Nicodemus, and his accomplice is given the name Dismas, which first appears in the Gospel of Nicodemus. It is believed by Christian tradition that Gestas was crucified to the left of Jesus and that Dismas was crucified to the right of Jesus on the cross.

Who was Barabbas and what did he do?

In the New Testament, Barabbas is a prisoner who is named in all four Gospels and who was selected by the multitude to be freed by Pontius Pilate as part of a traditional pardon before the feast of Passover.

What is the meaning of Dimas?

D(i)-mas. Origin:Portuguese. Popularity:7864. Meaning:Sunset.

Who is Dimas in the Bible?

Demas, also known as Demos, was a man who was referenced by the Apostle Paul in the New Testament of the Bible, and who appears to have been active in his ministry for a period of time. A reference to Demas may be found in three of the canonical Pauline epistles: He is referred to as a ″fellow worker″ in the book of Philemon.

What happened to Mary Magdalene after the crucifixion?

Life of Mary Magdalene following the events of the Gospels. According to Eastern legend, she followed St. John the Apostle to Ephesus, where she died and was buried. St. John the Apostle is said to have accompanied her. French folklore states that she evangelized the region of Provence (southeastern France) and lived her final 30 years in an Alpine grotto, which is untrue.

Were any apostles married?

Our knowledge of Peter’s marriage makes him the only one of the original apostles who we can be positive was married. He was also accompanied by his wife during several of his evangelizing journeys, which we know about.

Why did they choose Barabbas over Jesus?

Consequently, in attempt to calm the throng, he offered to liberate one of the prisoners. Barabbas was the unanimous choice of the audience. Furthermore, this explains why Muslims believe that Jesus was not killed, but rather that someone died in his place, but Christians believe that Jesus was crucified.

What does the name Jesus mean?

Most dictionaries will interpret Jesus’ name (which was presumably more correctly rendered as ″Joshua″ than ″Jesus″) as ″God is salvation,″ which appears to be a more accurate translation. Using the term ″God is salvation″ implies that God is in a state of being saved by someone else. Joshua is a Hebrew word that meaning ″Yah rescues.″

What is the meaning of Barabbas?

Barabbas (brbs) is a word in American English that refers to a convicted person who was pardoned by Pilate in order to pacify the mob, which demanded that he be released instead of Jesus. Mark 15:6–11 and John 18:40 are two passages to consider. The frequency with which words are used.

Was Dismas Gentile?

Despite the fact that DISMAS was born a Gentile and the oldest son of a wealthy Jewish merchant, and so had the potential to live a joyful and comfortable life, he was corrupted by his cousin Gestas and ended up as a fugitive.When he was 15 years old, he decided to leave his hometown and his family behind.Dismas and Gestas were apprehended after years of committing crimes and robbing people.

What happened on Palm Sunday?

It is celebrated on Palm Sunday to commemorate Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem, when palm branches were laid along his way, before to his arrest on Holy Thursday and crucifixion on Good Friday. People tossed their cloaks on the ground and placed palm branches on the road in front of him as he made his way down the route. Others cheered and swung palm branches in the air above them.

What day of the week Jesus died?

Jesus died on a Friday, according to both Mark and John. This was the Day of Passover (15 Nisan), the morning following the Passover dinner that had taken place the night before.

What did Jesus do on Easter Sunday?

Easter Sunday commemorates the resurrection of Jesus. According to the gospels, when Jesus was killed, his body was taken down from the cross and put in a cave where it remains today. There were Roman soldiers stationed at the cave’s entrance, and a large stone was placed over the opening to ensure that no one could steal the body.

Who were the thieves crucified with Jesus – Who

There were two thieves crucified with Jesus on the cross, and they died alongside him.While their names were not recorded in the Bible, we do know about them from the time when one of them ridiculed and humiliated Jesus, only to be corrected by the other, who begged Jesus to remember him in his kingdom, therefore earning himself the opportunity to enter heaven.The taunts came from one of the prisoners who hanged there: ″Aren’t you the Christ?″ he was asked.″Save yourself as well as us!″ LUKE 23:39 LUKE The particular identification of the men who were crucified beside Jesus, as well as the nature of their offenses, remain a mystery.

Despite the fact that they both died on their crosses, the two men had quite different outcomes.The three Gospels that mention the ″thieves″ (as tradition has come to call to them) refer to them in three distinct ways, depending on which Gospel you are reading.In Matthew’s account, the two men were either ″robbers″ or ″rebels,″ depending on how the text is rendered in English.They were referred to as ″criminals″ in Luke’s account, while ″those crucified with″ Jesus was characterized ambiguously in Mark’s.If the two men crucified next to Jesus were real rebels, it is plausible that they were guilty of the crime (treason) for which Jesus was falsely accused, despite the fact that it is impossible to prove this convincingly.When Jesus was initially insulted, both criminals were stubborn and participated in the insults shouted at him.

Perhaps they did not believe Jesus was ″worthy″ of being killed beside them, but we will never know what fueled their rage.Alternatively, it is possible that their anguish merely displayed the worst of their personalities.However, for whatever reason, one of the offenders had a change of heart, which is only recounted in the book of Luke.

Angry with his fellow prisoner, he turned to Jesus and pleaded to be remembered in His kingdom, a stunning display of his last-minute confidence that nothing, not even death, could prevent God’s kingdom from entering our world via the man who was dying next to him.The promise made by Jesus to the believing convict (Luke 23:43) has an intriguing ambiguity that deserves to be explored further.Today has a very straightforward definition, but what it relates to is a little more difficult to decipher.That Jesus and the criminal will be meeting in paradise later in the day may be interpreted as a sign of their friendship.

  1. Alternatively, Jesus may have just been stating, ″Today I’m telling you…″ in effect.
  2. Because of the lack of punctuation in the earliest Greek manuscripts, it is difficult to discern this complexity of the verse’s meaning.

The Two Men Crucified Next To Jesus Were

According to the Gospel of Luke, two additional men were crucified with Our Blessed Lord, one on either side of Him, and both died at the hands of the Romans.Traditionally, the thief to Christ’s right has been referred to as the ″Good Thief,″ while the thief to Christ’s left has been dubbed the ″Unrepentant Thief.″ While the names of the Good Thief and the Unrepentant Thief are not mentioned in the Gospels, legend claims that the one was named Saint Dismas and the latter, Gestas.Despite the fact that both men were subjected to the same brutal death and were both in the presence of Christ, their attitudes to their circumstances were vastly different.″Are You not the Messiah?″ Gestas asks Our Lord, who responds, ″Are You not the Messiah?″ ″Save Yourself as well as us.″ (Matthew 23:39) Gestas requests that he be taken down from his crucifixion.

Dismas, on the other hand, does not request that he be removed from power.Dismas rebukes Gestas and announces Christ’s innocence, and in one of the most surprising and beautiful moments of the Gospel, he refuses to be pulled down from his certain and terrible death, which is one of the most startling and beautiful moments of the Gospel.Rather, he begs to be brought up into the presence of Christ, pleading, ″Jesus, remember me when You come into Your kingdom.″ (Matthew 23:42) St.Dismas receives a response from Jesus, who says, ″Amen, I say to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise.″ Those who follow in the footsteps of Saint Dismas, who took his cross and placed his trust not in this world, but in God’s promise of eternal life, will learn this lesson.Which of these two is the most like you?Do you want to come down from your cross and continue to be a part of this earthly existence, or do you want to embrace your cross and be brought up to Christ in the life that is ahead of you?

To help you accept the crosses that you will carry in this life, and to set your heart on Heaven in the next life, the Norbertine Fathers of Saint Michael’s Abbey would like to give you a FREE Saint Dismas prayer card, so that you may seek the intercession of the Good Thief. To download the free prayer card, just click the button below.

Download the Saint Dismas Prayer Card for free here.

Immersed in the 900-year tradition of our order, the Norbertine Fathers live a monastic common life of liturgical prayer and care for souls. Our abbey in Orange County consists of nearly fifty priests and thirty seminarians studying for the priesthood.  

For more than fifty years, St. Michael’s Abbey Norbertine Fathers have served the Christian faithful in Southern California—“lifting high the Holy Eucharist over the miseries and errors of this world” (Pope Saint John Paul II).Our community’s apostolic ministries are many and various—from running a preparatory school for young men to teaching religious education in prisons—but they all find their source in our common life of prayer and fraternal charity.

St. Michael’s Abbey is celebrating its 150th anniversary in 2017.

Impenitent thief – Wikipedia

The impenitent thief is a guy who appears in the New Testament narrative of Jesus’ crucifixion and is described as such.Two criminal bandits are executed on the cross with Jesus, according to the Gospel story.Mocking him is recorded in the first two Gospels (Matthew and Mark), in which they both join the rest of the mob.One taunts Jesus for not rescuing himself and them, while the other (known as the contrite thief) begs for compassion, according to the version of the Gospel of Luke.

In apocryphal literature, the impenitent thief is given the name Gestas, which first comes in the Gospel of Nicodemus, and his accomplice is given the name Dismas, which first appears in the Gospel of Nicodemus.It is believed by Christian tradition that Gestas was crucified to the left of Jesus and that Dismas was crucified to the right of Jesus on the cross.The impenitent thief’s name is Gesmas, according to Jacobus de Voragine’s Golden Legend, which may be found here.The impenitent thief is frequently referred to as the ″bad thief,″ in contrast to the ″good thief,″ since he does not repent of his actions.The apocryphal Arabic Infancy Gospel refers to Gestas and Dismas as Dumachus and Titus, respectively, in reference to their respective names in the Bible.Traditional accounts, such as those in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s poem The Golden Legend, claim that Dumachus was one of a band of thieves that assaulted Saint Joseph and the Holy Family on their journey into Egypt in the year 430.

New Testament narrative

Most scholars agree that the Gospel of Mark has the earliest version of the account, which is generally assumed to have been written about AD 70.He claims that Jesus was crucified with two bandits, one on either side of him, according to the author.Passersby and chief priests make fun of Jesus for claiming to be the Messiah while failing to rescue himself, and the two criminals who were crucified with him participate in the fun.There is a reference to the Book of Isaiah in several verses, which is seen as a fulfillment of prophesy (Isaiah 53:12: ″And he.

was numbered with the transgressors″).The Gospel of Matthew, which was written about the year 85, repeats many of the same points.The specifics are different in the Gospel of Luke version, which takes place between verses 80 and 90: one of the bandits rebukes the other for insulting Jesus, and asks Jesus to remember him ″when you come into your kingdom.″ Jesus responds by assuring him that he would be with him in Paradise the following day, on the same day.This bandit is known as the repentant thief, while the other is known as the impenitent thief, according to tradition.The Gospel of John, which is considered to have been written about AD 90–95, also claims that Jesus was crucified alongside two others, but this story does not provide any description of them or any evidence that they spoke.

See also

  • List of names for the Biblical nameless


  1. Joe Gorra and William Lane Craig are two of the most famous people in the world (1 September 2013). Answers to Difficult Questions about God, Christianity, and the Bible from a Reasonable Perspective.
  2. ″William Lane Craig and Bart Ehrman Debate ″Is There Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus?″″. physics.smu.edu.
  3. ″William Lane Craig and Bart Ehrman Debate ″Is There Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus?″″. physics.smu.edu. Retrieved on the 24th of June, 2020.
  4. a b c d a b c d a b c d a b c d a b c d Bart D. Ehrman, Ph.D. (2008). Whose Word Is It, Anyway? : The Inside Story of Who Changed the New Testament and Why, and How.
  5. The Golden Legend by A&C Black, page 143, ISBN 978-1-84706-314-4
  6. A&C Black
  7. A&C Black
  8. A&C Black
  9. A&C Black
  10. A&C Black
  11. A&C Black
  12. A&C Black
  13. A&C Black
  14. In Professor Bart D. Ehrman’s The Historical Jesus, Part I, p. 6, published by The Teaching Company in 2000, he argues that Jesus was a historical figure. In the words of Ehrman, ″Scholars are virtually convinced that they were written many decades after Jesus’ death: Mark, AD 65–70
  15. Matthew and Luke, AD 80–85
  16. and John, AD 90–95.″ (2000: 5). For example, ″Perhaps we might start with the oldest Gospel to have been written, which most academics think was the Gospel of Mark.″
  17. Mark 15:27–32
  18. Isaiah 53:12
  19. Matthew 27:38–44
  20. Luke 23:33–45
  21. John 19:18–25

It is included into this article through reference to a work that is now in the public domain: James Wood, ed (1907). ″Dumachus″. The Nuttall Encyclopaedia is a reference work. Publishers: Frederick Warne (London an

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