Who Were Jesus’ Friends?
- ″I consider you to be my buddies.″ (See also John 15:14) Jesus had a close group of 12 disciples during his time on earth, but He considers us to be friends as well.
- ″While He was not saying that His companions were His equals, He was proposing to share with them what belonged to Him,″ the NKJV Chronological Bible Notes for this verse indicate.
- And Jesus’ perspective on friendship is shown in the second part of John 15:14: ″You are my friends if you do what I order,″ which reads, ″If you do what I command.″ It’s vital to think about what friendship meant in biblical times before we get too carried away.
- According to the Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible of the New International Version, ″the terminology of friendship was extended to patron-client relationships, in which patrons fulfilled the necessities of clients.″ It is written in the NKJV Chronological Study Bible Notes that ″in the ancient Roman culture, the term ″friend″ usually denoted either a political ally who owed one favor or a more powerful patron on whom one might rely.″ The companions of Jesus, on the other hand, aren’t typically thought of as political allies or economic associates.
- Jesus adopted a notion that was recognizable to people who were in His immediate vicinity at the time and completely reinterpreted what it meant to be a friend.
- ″Jesus is our role model in terms of love…
If Christians follow His mandate to love, they will be able to enjoy the intimacy that comes with His relationship.Friendship…is not a one-time gift, but rather grows as a result of following Jesus’ call to love one another″ (NKJV Study Bible).Thanks to Thinkstock/sedmak for the image.
Who Were Jesus’ Friends? (John 15:14) – Your Daily Bible Verse – May 2
What Kind of Friends Did Jesus Have?Written by Meg Bucher I’ll call you my pals if you follow my instructions.(See also John 15:14) It’s vital to think about what friendship meant in biblical times before we get too carried away.It is written in the NKJV Chronological Study Bible Notes that ″in the ancient Roman culture, the term ″friend″ usually denoted either a political ally who owed one favor or a more powerful patron upon whom one might rely.″ The companions of Jesus, on the other hand, aren’t typically thought of as political allies or economic associates.Jesus adopted a notion that was recognizable to people who were in His immediate vicinity at the time and completely reinterpreted what it meant to be a friend.″Jesus is our role model in terms of love…
- If Christians follow His mandate to love, they will be able to enjoy the intimacy that comes with His relationship.
- is not a one-time gift, but rather grows as a result of following Jesus’ call to love one another″ (NKJV Study Bible).
- The Numbers Twelve (the Twelve) are a group of twelve people who have come together to form a group of twelve people called the Twelve.
- It is said, ″First and foremost, Simon (also known as Peter), followed by Andrew (Peter’s brother), James (son of Zebedee), John (James’s brother), Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew the tax collector, James (son of Alphaeus), and finally Thaddaeus.″ (10:2-3) (Matthew 10:2) The apostles were unqualified to serve as apprentices to the Savior of the world since they have no credentials.
They were, at best, mediocre gentlemen.However, Jesus noticed something in them, just as He does in us, that was unbeknownst to them.They abandoned everything in order to follow Him, and He transformed them into fishermen as a result of that simple act of obedience.
- There is a lot to learn about Jesus’ friendships with Peter, James, and John from the Bible’s Big Three.
- During a fishing trip on John’s father’s boat, James and John were invited to follow Christ, and the three of them decided to do so.
- (See Luke 5:1-11 for more information.) These three people were there for miracles that the rest were not able to witness.
- Jesus deliberately invites only those three people to accompany him to Jarius’ house, where He performs the miracle of raising his daughter from the dead.
- ″He didn’t allow anybody else to accompany Him but Peter, James, and John.″ (Matthew 5:37) They were also transported to the top of the mountain to see Jesus’ amazing transfiguration.
″Jesus took with Him Peter, James, and his brother John,″ the Bible says.(Matthew 17:1; Luke 17:2) They all turned out to be important figures in the early Christian church.Despite the fact that we are all followers of Jesus, not everyone is called to be leaders in the establishment of churches or to write Gospel stories.
Perhaps Jesus went out of his way to personalize their apprenticeship because he was well aware of what lied ahead for them.The One Who Jesus Devoted His Life To The Apostle John referred to himself as ″the one Jesus loved″ when he wrote his letter (John 14:13).However, John’s devotion to Jesus as a friend outweighed his words.
Among the twelve disciples, he was the only one who came to Jesus’ side in the Garden and at the foot of the crucifixion.After seeing his mother and the disciple whom he loved standing close, Jesus addressed his mother as ″Dear lady, here is your son,″ and he addressed the disciple as ″Dear disciple, here is your mother.″ It was from that point on that this disciple welcomed her into his house.″ (See also John 19:26-27.) He was summoned in the same manner as the other twelve, and he witnessed miracles alongside the great three.John, on the other hand, was the only apostle who did not suffer martyrdom.The vision that we read about in the book of Revelation was revealed to him by God.
During the foot washing ceremony at the Last Supper, John recorded something very poignant about Jesus: ″Having loved his own who were in the world, he now revealed them the full measure of his love,″ John wrote.(See also John 13:1b) Among his many talents, John possessed the most expressive command of the English language.Despite the fact that Mark gives us a fairly straightforward description of the Gospel tale, John painted a vivid image of what it was like to be near to Jesus…
a quality that is crucial to embrace and comprehend as we seek our own relationship with Him.Note from the editor: The following was taken from Meg Bucher’s Who Were Jesus’ Friends?for use in this article.
- To read the entire article, please visit this website.
- Would you want to know more?
- What is your Bible verse for the day?
- In addition, we have a podcast!
Even though the passages in this audio are different from those in the paper devotional you just finished reading, the overall commitment to taking a deeper look at Scripture each day remains the same.More information may be found by visiting the website provided below!
Jesus’ best friends: Peter, James and beloved John – Arkansas Catholic – August 13, 2011
Date of publication: August 13, 2011 Bishop Anthony B.Taylor is a Catholic priest who lives in the United States.This homily was delivered on August 6 during a Mass for seminarians and their parents, which was presided over by Bishop Anthony B.Taylor.Some folks are more familiar to you and me than others are to you and me.We all have acquaintances, friends, and loved ones to share our lives with.
- When something unexpected or upsetting happens in our life, we share certain things with everyone and more personal things with our friends, but we keep our most private moments for those who know us the best and are in the best position to understand.
- Some of Jesus’ disciples felt a stronger connection to him than others.
- A large number of disciples, 12 apostles, and an inner circle of three best friends: Peter, James, and his favored disciple, John, were among his numerous accomplishments.
- He shared certain things with all of his followers and some things that were more personal with the apostles – for example, the Last Supper – but he kept his most private moments to himself and his closest friends and family.
- This small group of companions witnessed some of Jesus’ most spectacular moments, such as the Transfiguration described in today’s Gospel, and some of his most agonizing times, such as the Agony in the Garden.
These three were the ones who were closest to Jesus and were most aware of the personal cost he was willing to bear in order to fulfill his Father’s purpose.These three people knew more about Jesus on the inside than anybody else – they knew more about his boldness as well as his concerns – and it is this knowledge that would make Peter and James’ desertion of Jesus on Good Friday so terrible.However, his very best buddy, John, remained at his side throughout the entire process.
- And take note that John was the only apostle who died as a result of natural causes after his death at the hands of the authorities.
- This may have been because he had previously experienced a form of martyrdom – spiritual martyrdom – by risking his life to remain at the foot of the cross with Jesus.
- Later on, Peter and James would die for Christ, having finally and bravely accepted the cross from which they had before attempted to run.
- And that is the fundamental lesson of Jesus’ Transfiguration for us: the only way to glory is via the cross of Christ.
This is true for both Jesus and all of his followers – the apostles and us today – and especially for those of us who are priests and seminarians…If you are not willing to take up your cross and follow Jesus, you are not yet his disciple.For those who desire just their own glory, the prestige and authority that comes with receiving the sacrament of orders, attending seminary is not the right road for them.
This is because this is not the path that Jesus has laid out for them.You will not be able to keep your commitment of chastity until you first accept the cross as your personal symbol.You will not be able to fulfill your commitment of obedience until you first embrace the cross.
You will not be able to defend the flock that has been given to your care until you first embrace the cross of Christ.It is said in the Jewish tradition that ″the Rabbi whom everyone likes is not a Rabbi.″ If you carry your cross with love, you will one day be awarded a crown, but if you do not, you will not.Today, Peter, James, and John see Jesus being transfigured in glory, with his face gleaming like the sun and his garments as white as the light of the sun.In the next days, they would witness him transformed by anguish – sweating blood during his Agony in the Garden, whipping and crowning with thorns on Good Friday, his body damaged but his heart unbroken in his determination to fulfill his Father’s plan entirely.
And then, on Easter Sunday, people will witness him being transfigured in glory once again, just as he was on the day of his Transfiguration, but this time with the wounds that were used to rescue you and me still visible in his resurrected body.That’s when it all starts to make sense: Jesus’ glorious identity as the Son of God who will save us through a very un-glorious death, which they aren’t quite prepared to comprehend just yet.That’s why as they were coming down from the mountain of his Transfiguration, Jesus instructed them not to tell anyone about what they had seen until the Son of Man had risen from the dead.
The audio from Bishop Taylor’s homilies is made available on a regular basis on the diocese website, which is available in both English and Spanish.You may listen to them at www.dolr.org/audio/index.php (direct link).Please review our Comment Policy before making a comment.
- Comments on articles are powered by
How Jesus Modeled True Friendship
Aubrey Coleman contributed to this article.I work as a staff writer for The Daily Grace Company.As Christians, we were designed to be in relationship with one another.Throughout the course of creation, God has made it clear that we are never meant to be alone.During the course of His life and ministry on earth, Jesus was surrounded by a group of devoted disciples and companions.Whenever we share the joyful truth of the gospel, we are bound together by something more profound and lasting than blood ties.
- As followers of Christ, our friendships are built on the foundation of the gospel.
- Lewis describes it this way: ″What drives individuals to be friends is that they perceive the same truth and that they are willing to communicate it.″ Identifying the beauty and delight in friendship may be a simple process, but putting forth the work to sustain and manage our connections may be more challenging.
- Friendship requires intentionality and effort, and Jesus’ life of service serves as a paradigm for us in terms of real friendship.
- Jesus was in the room.
During His time on earth, He spent a lot of time with His friends and disciples, and He did a lot of walking and talking with them (John 3:22).His time with them allowed him to get more acquainted with and understanding of them (Luke 10:28-42).He walked with them while they served the Lord.
- He ate meals with people closest to him and relished the opportunity to spend time with them (John 12:1-3).
- Jesus was purposeful in His presence, which resulted in a greater sense of trust and sincerity among His disciples.
- He made an effort to get to know them and to show concern for them.
- Maintaining our presence in our friendships may take on numerous forms as time goes on.
- Seeing them on a regular basis may not always appear to be the case, but being active in their lives is the norm.
Jesus’ presence in the lives of His disciples didn’t manifest itself in a single way.Despite the fact that Christ’s time on earth was occupied with imparting teachings, curing the sick, and performing innumerable miracles, He was never too busy to spend time with His followers.He made Himself available to them on a consistent and intentional basis.
Our deliberateness in our presence demonstrates to our friends that we are dependable and trustworthy.Making ourselves available encourages people to reach out to us when they want assistance or support.Jesus had a servant’s mentality.
In fact, even the Son of Man did not come in order to be served, but in order to serve and give his life as a ransom for many.″ (Matthew 10:45) With the heart of a servant, Jesus approached His interactions with others.He didn’t make any demands or expectations about how He should be treated by the people around him.As an alternative, He attempted to put others before himself, demonstrating humility.In John 13:15, Jesus exemplifies service to others by washing the feet of His disciples, an act of humility and love on their part.
The authority and worth Jesus had enabled Him to elevate Himself above others, yet He never did.He showed leadership by serving, and He showed love by serving.He eventually chose to give his life for people he cared about (John 15:13.) When it came to helping others, Jesus made a point of prioritizing the needs of others before His own interests.
When it comes to friendships, we may be tempted to make it all about us and our requirements.We may have high expectations for how we would like to be treated and cared for by our friends and family.It is possible that we have unreasonable expectations and demands of other people.
- It’s possible that our attitude to friendship will look something like this: ″I’ll do this for them, if they do this for me.″ However, it is only when our attitude toward friendship becomes less transactional that we may discover freedom and delight in helping others in the same way that Christ came to serve us in his death and resurrection.
- Jesus, encouraged in Truth, says that gospel infused friendships characterized by unselfish and humble servant-mindedness provide life not just to our friends, but also to ourselves.
- Jesus’ example of good friendship included supporting His companions in the truth, which was a very significant endeavor.
- Over and over again in the historical record of Jesus’ life, He was repeating Scripture to His friends and reminding them of their eternal trust in Him.
(See also John 16:33) Jesus’ replies to queries were frequently excerpts from the Old Testament that were taken directly from the Bible.He was well aware of the hope and healing that may be found in God’s Word, and he was well aware that the truth revealed in it was what the disciples most needed to hear.Encourage our friends to look at the Greatest Truth by living with a gospel-centered perspective on their lives.
- Words of our own are only briefly beneficial to our acquaintances, though.
- God’s Word contains the most powerful and long-lasting words we can use to care for and build them up, and we should use them to do so.
- His Word provides comfort to the troubled.
- His Word imparts insight to those who are simple.
- His Word brings comfort to those who are grieving.
- Our delights are given meaning by His Word.
- His Word gives our companions far more hope than we could ever imagine or imagine ourselves giving them.
- Last but not least, Jesus prayed for His companions.
- He prayed for them on a regular basis and with great sincerity.
He even went up to the Father in prayer before the cross, asking for their forgiveness (John 17).Despite the fact that Jesus, being omniscient by nature, knew everything there was to know about His companions, He nevertheless took the time to listen to their needs and worries.Because He was aware of their plight, He interceded on their behalf with the Father, lifting their burdens and anxieties to Him.True friends are those who pray for one another.
Praying especially for our friends demonstrates a higher level of concern for them.Prayer relieves us of the strain we may have placed on ourselves to fix their issues or make a positive difference in their lives.Requesting God’s help on our friends’ behalf helps us to develop humility and a sense of dependence on the Lord for strength and wisdom.God’s great gift to us is the friendship of this world.It’s great, gorgeous, and vulnerable all at the same time.
We have the ability to quickly skew what is valuable in our relationships.Our hunger for authentic and complete friendship should never cause us to lose sight of the hope that we have in Jesus Christ.Jesus is the best buddy anybody could ask for.In light of this, we may cultivate meaningful friendships with people that are grace-filled and purposeful in nature; the type of relationship that takes us outside of ourselves and guides us to the same truth that we both hold dear.To this end, as we strive to be better and more devoted friends, may we draw knowledge from the wisest Friend, Jesus, and may we find hope for real friendship in his life and work.
Who is in your ″5″? Jesus had 3
In my piece, How Many Friends Can You Really Have?, I discuss how many friends you can really have.According to Dr.Robin Dunbar’s research, having fewer friends is preferable to having a large number of friends since you can only sustain up to five deep connections at a time.This number reminds me of an old T-Mobile ″Fave 5″ commercial, in which you could pick your five favorite individuals to include in your mobile phone plan by answering a few simple questions.I’m willing to wager that five people are not your closest buddies!
Jesus’ Model for Friendships
The structure of Jesus Christ’s relationships with the twelve apostles provides us with an intriguing model for our own friendships, which we may apply to our own situations.Throughout the course of his connection with these twelve ″ordinary guys,″ he converted them from fishermen, tax collectors, and political fanatics into individuals who changed the course of history.The names of the twelve apostles are as follows: first, Simon (also known as Peter) and his brother Andrew; second, James son of Zebedee and his brother John; third, Philip and Bartholomew; fourth, Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; fifth, James son of Alphaeus and Thaddaeus; sixth, Simon the Zealot and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him; and finally, Simon the Zealot and Judas Iscariot, who betra —Matthew 10:2-4 (New International Version) New International Version (New International Version) (NIV) The apostles (or disciples, as many prefer to call them) are listed in the Bible in three groups of four, with the first four always being Peter, Andrew, James, and John.Because they were the first to be called to follow Christ, this original set of four apostles had a unique relationship with Him and with one another.When the apostles are recorded together by name in the biblical records, Peter and his brother Andrew, as well as James and his brother John, are always mentioned first, followed by James and his brother John (in addition to Matthew 10:2-4 above; also see Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:14-16; Acts 1:13).But keep in mind that Jesus also had a smaller number of close companions who stayed at His side.
5 Groups of Friends
Using the following concepts and an unusual graphic, author Lee B. Spitzer presents us with an engaging visual for placing people in our friendship circles in his book, Making Friends, Making Disciples.
- Best Friends (center circle or bull’s-eye): the two or three most important people in one’s life
- Special Friends are the three to five closest friends who are not in the center circle.
- Social Friends are the 7–12 persons with whom one spends a significant amount of time
- The 50–200 persons one knows by name and with whom one may socialize or work (acquaintances) are considered casual friends.
- Non-friends and foes are those who do not belong in the circles.
Have you ever thought about how you might organize your friendships into groups?
Jesus’ Inner Circle of 3
- Blogger Jeff Atchison writes in Why Peter, James, and John? that Jesus, the Perfect Leader, demonstrated the significance of narrowing down on a smaller ″inner circle″ in order to get the most intimate teaching possible. This ″inner circle″ was made up of only three people: Peter, James, and John, who were there for several significant events that the other disciples were not. The raising of Jairus’ daughter from the dead (Mark 5:37-42
- Luke 8:50-55)
- Christ’s Transfiguration on the Mount (Matthew 17:1-2)
- Christ’s agony in prayer at the Garden of Gethsemane (Matthew 26:36-39
- Mark 14:32-36)
- Christ’s ascension to the right hand of the Father (Matthew 26:36-39
- Mark 14:32-36)
For example, according to Michael Hyatt, leadership development expert and former president and chief executive officer of Thomas Nelson Publishers, in his book The Leadership Strategy of Jesus, Jesus took His inner circle on special outings (Matthew 17:1), allowed them to witness his greatest glory (Mark 9:2–3), and even His deepest temptations (Mark 14:33–34).When Jesus was in His inner circle, He prayed with them (Luke 9:28ff) and taught them things that He did not teach to the rest of the group (Matthew 17:2, Mark 5:37–43).Jesus even took the time to introduce the three to His heavenly family (Matthew 17:3).According to Hyatt, the three men were Jesus’ closest companions and confidants at the time.It seems like you’re setting a wonderful example for your God Buddies!Do you have a small group of close confidants — your ″inner circle,″ if you will — who you can confide in when you are confronted with your most difficult temptations?
- Comments are always welcome in the section below!
The Friends of Jesus
In this captivating continuation of her Life-Changing Bible Story series, America’s favorite inspirational novelist and1 New York Times bestselling author paints vividly realized portraits of six of Jesus’ closest friends and companions, bringing biblical truths to life and bringing biblical truths to life in the process.Friends are the individuals with whom we spend the majority of our time, with whom we fight, and with whom we are most familiar in our everyday lives.Among others who traveled with Jesus and participated in His daily ministry are Peter, John the Baptist, Matthew, Judas, Mary Magdalene, and Lazarus, each of whom had a captivating narrative to share about their time with Him.It was inevitable that some would question or mistrust Him…and that one would even betray Him.Kingsbury brings these interesting characters to life in ways that will not only help you get more familiar with the principles contained in Scripture, but will also help you become more familiar with Christ.A comprehensive and instructional Bible study combined with intriguing and insightful character profiles of Jesus’ associates allows you to gain a greater grasp of the scriptural lessons involving these interesting people, according to Kingsbury.
- The Friends of Jesus will help you appreciate the Bible and understand how it pertains to your relationships with the most important people in your life.
- It is an emotionally powerful, thought-provoking, and spiritual novel that will move you to tears.
How Early Church Leaders Downplayed Mary Magdalene’s Influence by Calling Her a Whore
She was Mary of Magdala, one of Jesus of Nazareth’s early disciples, and she was one of the most famous women in the world.It is said that she journeyed with him, witnessed his Crucifixion, and was one of those who were informed of his Resurrection, all according to the Scriptures.Everybody, from early church officials and historians to authors and filmmakers, has contributed to the revision and expansion of the tale of Mary Magdalene throughout history.On the one hand, they downplayed her significance by stating she was a prostitute, a wrecked woman who repented and was rescued by Christ’s teachings.On the other hand, they emphasized her value by claiming she was a prostitute, a ruined woman who repented and was saved by Christ’s teachings.Mary Magdalene, on the other hand, is represented in several early Christian scriptures as more than just a mere follower; she is also depicted as Jesus’ close companion—which some have taken to suggest his wife.
- Which begs the question: is there any truth to either of these tales?
- What exactly do we know about Mary Magdalene, the lady who is considered to be the most intriguing woman in the Bible?
- WATCH: Jesus: A Biography on the HISTORY Vault
What the Bible Says About Mary Magdalene
However, only the Gospel of Luke discussed Mary Magdalene’s role in Jesus’ life and ministry, listing her among ″some women who had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities″ (Luke 8:1–3).All four canonical gospels of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) noted Mary Magdalene’s presence at Jesus’ Crucifixion, but only the Gospel of Luke discussed her role in his life and ministry.According to Luke, when Jesus drove out seven devils from her, Mary joined a group of women who went with him and his twelve disciples/apostles, ″proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God.″ They were ″proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God.″ However, although Magdalene is not a surname, it is associated with the city of Magdala, which is located in Galilee, in the northernmost area of ancient Palestine, and from whence Mary hailed (now northern Israel).In the words of Robert Cargill, an associate professor of classical and religious studies at the University of Iowa who is also the editor of the Biblical Archaeology Review, ″Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus’ early supporters.″ ″She was mentioned in the Gospels, which indicates that she was significant.There were hundreds, if not thousands, of followers of Jesus, but we don’t know the names of the majority of them, according to what we know.As a result, the fact that she has been identified is significant.″ Mary Magdalene had an important role in the tale of the Resurrection, which took place after Jesus’ crucifixion, which she observed from the foot of the cross with many other women, and after all of Jesus’ male disciples had fled from the scene.
- In accordance with the gospels, Mary went to Jesus’ tomb on Easter Sunday, either alone herself (according to the Gospel of John) or in company with several women, and discovered that the tomb was vacant.
- The ladies are the ones who go to the disciples and inform them what has happened, as Cargill points out.
- That’s crucial since they were the ones who found that Jesus had resurrected from the dead.
- According to the Gospel of John, Jesus personally comes to Mary Magdalene after his Resurrection and urges her to inform his followers of his appearance (John 20:1-13).
- READ MORE: What Did Jesus Look Like When He Was Alive?
Mary Magdalene as sinner
Because of Mary Magdalene’s obvious significance in the Bible—or maybe because of it—some early Western church leaders attempted to minimize her power by presenting her as a sinner, notably as a prostitute, according to the Bible.In Cargill’s words, ″There are many academics who think that because Jesus empowered women to such a great extent early in his career, it made some of the males who would govern the early church uncomfortable later on.″ In response to this, there were two different reactions.She was to be turned into a prostitute, for example.″ Early church leaders conflated Mary with other women mentioned in the Bible in order to portray her as the original repentant whore.These women included an unnamed woman, identified in the Gospel of Luke as a sinner, who bathes Jesus’ feet with her tears, dries them, and applies ointment to them (Luke 7:37-38), as well as another Mary, Mary of Bethany, who also appears in Luke.Pope Gregory the Great clarified this confusion in a sermon in 591 A.D., saying, ″We think that the Mary, whom Luke names the wicked woman and whom John calls Mary, is the Mary from whom seven demons were evicted according to Mark.″ ‘By becoming a prostitute, she has diminished in importance.’ It has a negative impact on her in some manner.Look at what she did for a job, and you can see why she couldn’t have been a leader,″ Cargill adds.
- ″Of course, the second option was to advance Mary to the next level.
- Some believe she was actually Jesus’ wife or friend, rather than his mother.
- ″She had a particular place in the world.″ READ MORE: The Bible Claims That Jesus Was a Real Person.
- Is there any further evidence?
Mary Magdalene as Jesus’s wife
While some early Christians wanted to downplay Mary’s influence, others sought to emphasize her as a source of inspiration.Several centuries after Jesus’ death, the Gospel of Mary, a document dating from the second century A.D.that was discovered in Egypt in 1896, ranked Mary Magdalene higher in wisdom and influence than Jesus’ male disciples.She was also extensively featured in the so-called Gnostic Gospels, a collection of books thought to have been authored by early Christians as far back as the second century A.D.but which were not discovered until 1945, near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi, and which were written in Greek.According to one of these manuscripts, referred to Mary Magdalene as Jesus’ friend and said that Jesus loved her more than the other disciples.
- This document is known as the Gospel of Philip.
- Possibly the most contentious statement in the scripture was that Jesus used to kiss Mary ″frequently on her.″ Damage to the writing rendered the final word illegible, while some scholars have substituted the word ″mouth″ for the unreadable term.
- In the years after its publication, Dan Brown’s enormously popular mystery The Da Vinci Code has been consumed by tens of millions of readers worldwide.
- The premise of the novel revolves around the long-held belief that Jesus and Mary Magdalene had children together.
- This concept was also at the heart of The Last Temptation of Christ, a novel written by Greek writer Nikos Kazantzakis in 1955 that was subsequently made into a film directed by Martin Scorsese, as well as the cinematic adaptation of the novel.
And then there was the discovery of a previously unknown papyrus fragment in 2012 that was considered to be a copy of a second-century narrative in which Jesus refers to Mary Magdalene as ″my wife,″ according to Karen King, a professor at Harvard Divinity School.She ultimately changed her mind after being bombarded with criticism and concluded that the so-called ″Gospel of Jesus’s Wife″ was most likely a fake after defending the document’s validity.
Mary Magdalene as trusted disciple
The Bible, on the other hand, provided no indication that Mary Magdalene was Jesus’ wife.One can’t get a sense of that type of connection from any of the four canonical gospels, despite the fact that they include the women who travel with Jesus and, in some cases, their husbands’ names as well.The depiction of Mary Magdalene as a prostitute endured for decades after Pope Gregory the Great declared it official in his sixth-century sermon, though neither Orthodoxy nor Protestantism embraced it once their respective religions separated from the Catholic Church later in the sixth century.At long last, in 1969, the Church acknowledged that the text of the Bible did not support such interpretation..Mary Magdalene is now venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, and her feast day is observed on July 22nd in all four of these denominations.According to Cargill’s conclusion, ″Mary appears to have been a disciple of Jesus.″ ″What’s noteworthy is that Jesus had both male and female disciples in his ministry, which was not often the case at the time,″ says the author.
- He notes that while the prostitute and wife hypotheses have been around for centuries, they are tales and customs that have developed long after the fact: ″Neither of them is anchored in the Bible itself.″ MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: The Evolution of Christian Thought
Denial of Peter – Wikipedia
According to the four Gospels of the New Testament, the Apostle Peter committed three acts of denial against Jesus, collectively known as the Denial of Peter (also known as Peter’s Denial).As recorded in all four of the Canonical Gospels, at Jesus’ Last Supper with his followers, he predicts that Peter would deny knowledge of him, claiming that Peter will reject him before the rooster crows the next morning.As a result of Jesus’ imprisonment, Peter denied knowing him three times.However, after the third denial, Peter heard the rooster crow and remembered the prophecy as Jesus turned to gaze directly at him.Peter then burst into tears of frustration.The Repentance of Peter is the name given to this final occurrence.
- For ages, important works of art have shown the tumultuous emotions that accompanied Peter’s rejection and subsequent remorse.
- For example, Caravaggio’s Denial of Saint Peter, which is now on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, is a good example.
- This episode has inspired sequences in different films about the life and death of Jesus Christ (for example, when Francesco De Vito played Peter in The Passion of the Christ) and references in musical compositions, both religious and secular, that have been inspired by the occurrence.
When Jesus predicted during the Last Supper that Peter would deny and disown him, he was referring to the events recorded in the Gospel of Matthew 26:33–35, the Gospel of Mark 14:29–31, the Gospel of Luke 22:33–34, and, most recently, the Gospel of John 18:15–27.The narratives of Jesus’ denial in the Gospels are distinct from one another.According to the Gospel of Matthew, Peter said, ″Even though the whole world turns against you because of you, I will never abandon you.″ If you don’t disavow me three times this evening, you will disown me three times the next morning, Jesus said.″I tell you the truth,″ Jesus said in response.Nevertheless, Peter stated, ″Even if it means dying with you, I would never abandon you.″ All of the other disciples agreed with this statement.Jesus was taken into custody later that night.
- The following is the text of the first rejection to a servant girl in Luke 22:54–57: Then they apprehended him and took him away, taking him into the residence of the high priest.
- Peter kept a safe distance between them, and after they had built a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter joined them in their seated position.
- A servant girl happened to see him sitting there in the dim light of the fireplace.
- ″This man was with him,″ she stated after taking a good look at him.
- ″This man was with him.″ He, on the other hand, disputed it.
″Woman, I’m not familiar with him,″ he said.According to Mark 14:69–70, the second denial to the same girl is as follows: ″When the servant girl noticed him there, she exclaimed again to others standing about, ″This person is one of them.″ He denied it once more.According to Matthew 26:73–75, the third rejection to a number of individuals is forceful, and he swears as he does so: After a short while, others who were still waiting there approached Peter and stated, ″Surely you are one of them, because your accent reveals your identity.″ Then he began calling down curses on himself, and he vowed to them, ″I don’t know the man!″ He then began to curse himself.
- Immediately, a rooster began to crow.
- That’s when Peter remembered the words Jesus had said to him earlier: ″You will repudiate me three times before the rooster crows.″ And then he walked outside and sobbed uncontrollably.
- The following is how the Gospel of Luke recounts the time of the last denial: Luke 22:59–62 A few minutes after that, another person stated, ″Certainly this man was with him, for he is a Galilean.″ ″Man, I haven’t got a clue what you’re talking about!″ Peter said.
- The rooster crows right as he finishes his sentence.
- In a sudden turn, the Lord fixed Peter with his gaze.
″You will repudiate me three times before the rooster crows today,″ the Lord had spoken to Peter earlier.Peter remembered what the Lord had said to him.And then he walked outside and sobbed uncontrollably.
The story of the three rejections is given in the Gospel of John 18:13–27, which is as follows: In the company of another disciple, Simon Peter followed Jesus.Because this disciple was well-known to the high priest, he was permitted to accompany Jesus inside the high priest’s courtyard, but Peter was required to remain outside at the entrance, waiting for Jesus.The other disciple, who was well-known to the high priest, returned, talked with the girl who was on duty at the time, and led Peter inside the temple.
″You aren’t one of his disciples, are you?″ the young lady who answered the door said of Peter.Then he clarified, ″I’m not.″ … ″You are not one of his disciples, are you?″ the question was posed to Simon Peter as he stood warming himself.He categorically rejected it, stating, ″I am not.″ ″Didn’t I see you with him in the olive grove?″ he was asked by one of the high priest’s slaves, who happened to be a relative of the guy whose ear Peter had cut off.At that point, a rooster began to call out again, and Peter rejected it once more.
Following Jesus’ resurrection, the Gospel of John 21:15–17 recounts how Jesus questioned Peter three times whether he loved him, implying that Peter was rehabilitated as a result of his confession of sin.
Context and traditions
For the most of the three years that Jesus spent in ministry, recruiting and instructing disciples, he was observed, criticized, and harassed by intellectuals and priests who were interested in his teachings.In certain circles, his beliefs were seen as heretical, and his efforts in collecting a community of disciples were interpreted as having political motivations.The capture and trial of Jesus were the pinnacle of this hostility toward him.Peter was one of the twelve disciples who were most intimately acquainted with Jesus.He was also one of the most devoted to Jesus.His denials come in the face of the charge that he was ″with Jesus,″ a word that refers to the connection of discipleship that binds them together.
- According to the Gospel of Matthew, Peter rejected Jesus ″in front of everyone,″ so giving a public witness and validating his denial with an oath of allegiance.
- Matthew emphasizes the importance of public witness as an essential element of discipleship throughout his Gospel, as stated in Matthew 10:32–33: ″If you want to be a disciple, you must bear witness in public.″ ″Whoever acknowledges me in front of other people, I will also acknowledge him in front of my heavenly Father.
- But whomever disowns me in the eyes of mortals, I will disavow him in the eyes of my heavenly Father.″ Peter’s rejection runs directly counter to Matthew’s description of what it means to be a follower of Jesus Christ.
- The Gospel of Matthew has also previously documented Jesus’ teaching on the prohibition of using an oath: ″You have heard that it was taught to those of old, ‘You shall not swear falsely, but shall execute your vows to the Lord,’″ Matthew explains in his introduction.
- But I say to you, make no vows under any circumstances: not by sky, because it is God’s throne, nor by earth, because it is His footstool, nor by Jerusalem, because it is the city of the great King, nor by anything else.
You also should not swear by your head because you cannot make a single hair white or black with your hands.However, keep your ‘Yes’ to a ‘Yes,’ and your ‘No’ to a ‘No.’ Because anything that is greater than these comes from the wicked one.Although Peter’s rejection is described in the New Testament, it is not portrayed in its entirety.
- Peter’s adversaries in the discussion of his discipleship develop from a maid to a maid plus a spectator, and then to a large group of people.
- His denial evolves from a plea of ignorance to a denial with an oath, and then to cursing and swearing, culminating in a complete denial that he ever knew Christ.
- The significance of three denials resides in their overwhelming intensity; they serve to emphasize the disciple’s determination to deny Jesus (see Biblical numerology).
- The sound of the rooster then comes as a surprise to Peter, who realizes that Jesus had foretold the three denials.
- While this episode has been interpreted as an incident that sheds light on Peter’s unique role and distinguishes him from the other disciples, it has also been interpreted as an incident that parallels the Gospel of Mark 16:7, in which the angel instructs the women to ″go and tell his disciples and Peter″ about Jesus’ resurrection.
For the first time in this episode, as he does so frequently throughout the Gospel of Mark, the apostle Peter serves as the focal point of the narrative, and an essential Christological image is presented: the denials of Peter contrast with the frank confessions of Jesus during his trial by the Sanhedrin, portraying his faithfulness as prophet, Son, and Messiah.The threefold denial of Peter serves as the impetus for Jesus’ three repeating queries to Peter at the Sea of Galilee following His resurrection: ″Simon, son of John, do you love me?″ ″Simon, son of John, do you love me?″ The event was initially interpreted by Peter as punishment for his three denials (also due to the use by Jesus of Peter’s old name ″Simon″), but it was later interpreted as Jesus’ redemptive act, allowing Peter to publicly declare in front of his fellow disciples that he truly did love his Lord and thus become fully restored to his faith community.It is also reflected in Peter’s triple rejection to eat the animals after seeing a sheet covered with animals in Acts 10, which is likewise a form of triple denial.
A Gnostic source, the Apocalypse of Peter from the Nag Hammadi collection, also has the three ‘denials,’ but the roles are reversed in the context of meditation and experiencing the Master’s inner vision.In the Gnostic Apocalypse of Peter, Jesus tells Peter that he is not ready for inner sight since he has been denied three times in one night, 72,5.Both the fact that Peter was refused ″three times″ and the fact that he was there ″in this night″ imply a connection to the canonical depiction of the Denial of Peter.
Prayers and traditions
As a result, Bishop Lancelot Andrewes authored the following prayer: ″O Lord Jesus Christ, gaze upon us with those eyes of thine that thou dost look upon Peter in the hall; that we may repent with Peter and, by the same love, be forgiven; for the sake of thine unending kindness.″ Amen.Saint Ambrose said that ″in the Church, there are water and tears: the water of Baptism and the tears of repentance,″ referring to the tears shed by Peter during his repentance in the context of the Sacrament of Penance.″In the Church, there are water and tears,″ he continued.The ″tears of repentance,″ as illustrated by Peter, have traditionally been regarded as a symbol of both sadness and consolation, and as a sign of crimes confessed and pardon sought at the same time.It is the Denial of Peter that marks the fourth station of the Scriptural Way of the Cross, which was established in 1991 by Pope John Paul II as a variation of the Stations of the Cross and which is performed each Good Friday at the Colosseum in Rome.As part of the vigils held during Holy Week in Jerusalem, some pilgrims stop at a site historically regarded to be the site of Peter’s Repentance.
- This place is not far from the home of Caiaphas, the High Priest of Israel, who was engaged in the Sanhedrin trial of Jesus.
In art and music
- For hundreds of years, artists have used the incident as the inspiration for their works of art. Additionally, musical versions of the Passion tale have been performed to portray it. Many different materials and methods have been used to represent it, ranging from the 6th century mosaic at the Basilica of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo to Russian icons and oil paintings by many different ancient artists. The topic was occasionally featured in cycles depicting the Life of Christ or the Passion, and was frequently the only scene in the cycle that did not include the figure of Christ. A candle is presented to the servant girl who recognizes Peter in Rembrandt’s 1660 painting of The Denial of Saint Peter, which is now on display at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. Rembrandt’s painting was inspired by engravings of the c.1623 version of the painting by Gerard Seghers, and it illuminates Peter’s face. During Peter’s speech, two soldiers glance at him suspiciously, while Jesus is portrayed in the background, his hands chained behind him and turning to gaze at Peter. Peter’s features are turned away from Jesus, and he gestures with his left hand, despite the fact that his look is not one of hostility toward Jesus. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York has acquired Caravaggio’s Denial of Saint Peter, painted in 1610. A favorite aspect of Caravaggio’s image, according to the author George Weatherhead, is the way Peter’s face are twitching with nervousness and uncertainty, knowing of the shameful lie he is saying. His lips tremble, and his eyes search for the hardness of truth, but they are unable to locate it. It is worth noting that Caravaggio utilized the same head of a lady as he used in his representation of The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist to portray the servant girl in this picture. A similar subject, the Repentance of Peter, depicting the conclusion of the incident, was not frequently seen before Catholic Counter-Reformation art, when it became popular as an affirmation of the sacrament of Confession in the face of Protestant attacks on the Church. This came as a result of a treatise written by the Jesuit Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542–1621), which was widely read. As a half-length picture with no additional figures (often with hands joined as at right), the painting often depicts Peter in tears
- it was frequently combined with another example from Bellarmine’s book, Mary Magdalen, who is also regretful (see image at right). Numerous composers have set the Passion tale to music, and the result is a diverse range of styles. Peter’s denial is depicted with tremendous poignancy by J.S. Bach in both the St Matthew Passion and the St John Passion, both of which are composed by him. Gardiner (2013) writes on page 365, ″Inevitably, we suffer with Peter
- nonetheless, the difficult issue Bach invites us to confront is whether any of us would have emerged from his tragedy with better credit? ″. Various depictions of Saint Peter’s denial in art, include Jan van der Venne’s ″Denial of Saint Peter,″ Knüpfer’s ″Denial of Saint Peter,″ and Gerard van Honthorst’s ″The Denial of Saint Peter,″ all from the 1618–20 period.
- The Confession of Peter
- Thomas the Doubting
- Harmony in the gospels
- Jesus foretells his own death.
- The life of Jesus as depicted in the New Testament
Unlike the Synoptics, Peter does not appear to respond to the crowing of the rooster in the Gospel of John; he is also neither mentioned as recalling Jesus’ prediction or as expressing sorrow over his denials.
- ″The Denial of St. Peter″ is a play by William Shakespeare. The North Carolina Museum of Art is located in Raleigh, North Carolina. Cullmann 1969, p. 105
- Perkins 2000, p. 85
- Lange 1865, p. 499
- Boda & Smith 2006, p. 110
- Binz 1989, p. 54
- Herrington 1992, p. 900
- Witherington 1998, p. 350
- ″The Apocalypse of Peter″. The Nag Hammadi Library is a treasure trove of knowledge. Gnosis, retrieved on 2018-04-19
- ″Catechism of the Catholic Church,″ retrieved on 2018-04-19. ″Station 4, Jesus is refused by Peter,″ Vatican website, retrieved on 2018-04-19.
- ″Station 4, Jesus is denied by Peter,″ Boda and Smith 2006, page 223. Pope Francis’ Stations of the Cross. Vatican. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
- Monti 1993, p. 150.
- Durham 2004, p. 162.
- Weatherhead 1834, p 232.
- Varriano 2006.
- Hall 1983, p. 315.
- Varriano 2006, p 110.
- Jonathan Aitken (2006), Prayers for People Under Stress, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-0-8264-8275-4
- Stephen J. Binz (1989), The Passion and Resurrection Narratives of Jesus: A Commentary, Liturgical Press, ISBN 978-0-8146-1771-7
- Mark J. Boda and Gordon T. Boda (2006), Repentance in Christian Theology, Liturgical Press, ISBN 978-0-8146-5175-9
- Edwin a&c black, ISBN 978-1-85075-476-3
- Cullmann, O. (1969), Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich (eds. ), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. VI, translated by Bromiley, Geoffrey William, Wm. B. Eerdmans, ISBN 978-0-8028-2248-2
- Durham, John I. (2004), The Biblical Rembrandt: Human Painter in a Landscape of Faith, Mercer University (2000). Peter is known as the ″Apostle of the Whole Church.″ Varriano, John L. (2006), Caravaggio: The Art of Realism, Pennsylvania State University Press, ISBN 978-0-271-02717-3
- Weatherhead, George Hume (2001), Caravaggio: The Art of Realism (Bloomsbury, ISBN 978-0-567-08743-0)
- (1834), A Pedestrian Tour Through France and Italy, Simpkin & Marshall
- Witherington, Ben (1998), The Acts of the Apostles, Wm. B. Eerdmans, ISBN 978-0-8028-4501-6
- Witherington, Ben (1998), The Acts of the Apostles, Wm. B. Eerdmans, ISBN 978-0-8028-4501-6
- Witherington, Ben (1998), The Acts of the Apostles, Wm.
John, the Disciple Whom Jesus Loved
John is likely the most well-known of Jesus’ original Twelve Apostles, second only to Peter in terms of popularity.He and his brother, James, were there with Peter at some of the most pivotal periods of the Savior’s earthly ministry, and he has been historically connected with five distinct books of the New Testament, including the Gospel of Matthew.1 The following passage from John 13:23 suggests that he was personally close to the Lord: ″Now there was resting on Jesus’ bosom one of his followers, whom Jesus loved.″ It is this picture that has persisted down the years in Christian art, which frequently depicts John as a young man, typically reclining in the arms of Christ.This is the genesis of his one-of-a-kind moniker, John the Beloved, but his witness and purpose reveal characteristics of discipleship that we can all learn from and use.
John, Son of Zebedee
- Yohanan, John’s Hebrew given name, translates as ″God has been generous.″ The majority of the information we have about him comes from the first three Gospels, which describe the account of the Savior’s mortal ministry mainly from the same point of view as the rest of the Bible. They are all in agreement that John was the son of Zebedee, a successful Galilean fisherman who owned his own boat and was able to hire day workers to aid him and his sons in their task. John and his brother, James, were also partners with the brothers Peter and Andrew in their fishing company, and when Jesus asked them to be His full-time disciples, they all quit their businesses to follow Him. 2 The mother of James and John, Zebedee, became a follower of Jesus, interceding with Jesus on their behalf and being present at the Crucifixion. While Zebedee is not mentioned in the Gospels again, she is mentioned in the New Testament. 3 The mother of James and John, who is usually referred to by the name Salome, may also have been a sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus, making them first cousins of Jesus and relatives of John the Baptist. She is usually referred to by the name Salome. 4 Many of the Lord’s early miracles and teachings were observed by John within a short period of time following his original call. The experience of seeing these miracles and listening to talks such as the Sermon on the Mount undoubtedly prepared John for the time when Jesus chose him to be one of His Twelve Apostles. 5 The three apostles who were present at significant moments of Jesus’ earthly ministry were Peter, James, and John. They formed an inner circle of close disciples who witnessed the Lord’s power over death firsthand at the raising of Jairus’ daughter and at the raising of Lazarus, to name a few examples. 7
- On the Mount of Transfiguration, where they saw Jesus revealed in His glory and heard the voice of the Father testify that Jesus was His Son, in whom He was delighted, they witnessed the manifestation of Jesus in His glory. 8
- On the Mount of Olives, where He delivered His final prophesy regarding the end of the world. 9, at Gethsemane, where they were in the vicinity when the Savior began His tremendous work of atonement. 10
God has been generous, as John’s Hebrew given name, Yohanan, indicates.The first three Gospels, which narrate the tale of the Savior’s mortal ministry mainly from the same point of view, provide the majority of the information we have about him.They are all in agreement that John was the son of Zebedee, a successful Galilean fisherman who owned his own boat and was able to hire day laborers to assist him and his sons in their fishing business.All four brothers were partners in their fishing company when Jesus asked them to be His full-time disciples.John and his brother James were also partners with the brothers Peter and Andrew.2 ZEBEDEE’s mother, Mary, became a follower of Jesus after her boys’ deaths and interceded with Jesus on their behalf.
- She was also there at the Crucifixion, despite the fact that she is not mentioned in the Gospels anymore.
- 3 While she is usually referred to by the name Salome, it is possible that she was a sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus, making her children first cousins of Jesus and relatives of John the Baptist.
- She is usually referred to by the name Salome.
- 4 Many of the Lord’s early miracles and teachings were experienced by John shortly after his original call.
- The experience of seeing these miracles and listening to talks such as the Sermon on the Mount undoubtedly prepared John for the time when Jesus chose him to be one of His Twelve Apostles.
6 The three apostles who were present during important times of Jesus’ earthly ministry were Peter, James, and John.They constituted an inner circle of close disciples who witnessed the Lord’s power over death personally at the raising of Jairus’ daughter and at the raising of Lazarus.7; On the Mount of Transfiguration, where they saw Jesus revealed in His glory and heard the voice of the Father testify that Jesus was His Son, in whom He was delighted, they witnessed the manifestation of Jesus’ divinity.
- 8; On the Mount of Olives, where He delivered His final prophesy regarding the end of the world; The Garden of Gethsemane, where they were present as the Savior started His tremendous work of atonement.
The Gospel that has usually been assigned to John does not mention him by name, which is an interesting fact to consider.The two sons of Zebedee are only mentioned once in the Gospel of John, and that is in the concluding chapter, when they are mentioned as two of the seven disciples who encountered the resurrected Lord beside the Sea of Galilee.Even in that case, though, they are not identified by their last name.But tradition has claimed that John was the unnamed ″disciple whom Jesus loved,″ who was there at the Last Supper, the Crucifixion, and the empty tomb as well as at Jesus’s last apparition in the Sea of Galilee, as confirmed by references in Restoration scripture14.15 His possible identity as the ″other disciple″ who, with Andrew, was a follower of John the Baptist and heard him testify that Jesus was the Lamb of God (see John 1:35–40) is also a possibility, as is the possibility that he was the disciple who accompanied Peter after Jesus’ arrest and assisted Peter in gaining access to the court of the high priest (see John 18:15–16).As revealed in John’s Gospel, the beloved disciple is shown to be a close, intimate companion of the Lord.
- John, along with Martha, Lazarus, and Mary, is mentioned directly in this Gospel as someone whom Jesus adored and cherished (see John 11:3, 5).
- His location at the table during the Last Supper demonstrated not only honor but also proximity to the other participants.
- His role as a powerful witness to the most crucial events of Jesus’s mission is revealed in other passages: he was at the foot of the cross to witness Jesus’s death as a sacrifice for sin, hurried to the tomb after the Resurrection to check that it was empty, and saw the resurrected Savior.
- At least two times during its course, the Gospel of John mentions that it is based on the eyewitness testimony of the beloved disciple and emphasizes that his witness has been confirmed as true16, something that echoes Joseph Smith’s retitling of the gospel as ″The Testimony of John,″ which was first published in 1830.
- 17 While historians continue to argue the identification of the beloved disciple, if he was in fact the Apostle John, he was at the very least the source of the content in the Gospel, if not the actual author of the document.
18 Why, therefore, did he go unidentified, never being referred to be the Apostle John in any official capacity?It’s possible that Jesus did this in part because he intended his personal experiences to serve as models for believers and followers throughout history.Through his decision to stay anonymous, he could allow us to project ourselves into his experiences, learning how to love and be loved by the Lord, and then obtaining our own testimony, which we would then be expected to share with others as well.
The Epistles: 1, 2, and 3 John
Similarly to the Gospel of John, none of the three letters attributed to John ever directly refer to him by his given name.But even though it is written in the manner and subject matter of the Gospel, 1 John is strongly related with it in terms of its style and content, which include the significance of love and obedience, themes that the Savior emphasized in John’s narrative of the Last Supper.Written after the Gospel, 1 John begins by declaring the author’s testimony of the Lord Jesus Christ, ″which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and which our hands have handled, of the Word of life″ (1 John 1:1; emphasis added).The author then goes on to describe the author’s testimony of the Lord Jesus Christ, ″which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and In addition to reiterating the opening lines of the Gospel of John, the author emphasizes his profound, personal, and bodily witness of Jesus Christ, who was actually the Word of God taken into the human body.There was an apparent internal rift among the early Christians, who were the book’s intended readership, due to a segment that held false ideas about Jesus having left the Church.19 It is not just a witness but also an authority in the book of 1 John, who is called upon to rectify incorrect doctrine and resist dangers to faith posed by anti-Christs and false spirits (see 1 John 2:18-27 and 4:1–6).
- Moreover, he