Who Were Jesus’ First Disciples?

Who were Jesus’ first disciples?

  1. The first disciples Jesus called to accompany him and serve as his special witnesses were those named John and Andrew.
  2. When and where did he make his selection?
  3. Which ones were brothers, and which ones were not?
  4. The apostle John reports the names of the first five persons who were invited by Jesus to follow him.
  5. John and Andrew were the first two persons who were invited by Christ to follow him as disciples (John 1:35 – 39).
  6. Verse 40 – 42 describe Peter (also known as Simon or Simon Peter), who was followed by Philip (verses 43 – 44) and finally Nathanael (verses 45 – 46).
  • (Bartholomew – verse 45).
  • Afterwards, in Matthew 4:21 – 22, the Gospel of Matthew relates that James (a son of Zebedee and brother of John) was summoned, and then Matthew himself is called (Matthew 9:9).
  • According to the Bible, it is unknown in what sequence the last five of the original twelve disciples were called to special service.
  • Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, Judas the brother of James, Simon the Canaanite (also known as Simon the Zealot), and Judas Iscariot were among the last remaining disciples of Jesus.
  • At least seven different time periods appear to have occurred during which Jesus appears to have called his closest or first twelve apostles (disciples).
  • Andrew and John were summoned at the same time.

After his brother Andrew informed him of the Messiah, Peter was summoned to the throne.Philip was called to be a disciple the day after Peter was called to be a disciple.Jesus instructs his followers to cast a net.

Duccio da Buoninsegna lived from 1308 to 11 After Philip informed him of the Lord’s presence, Nathanael (Bartholomew) was summoned.James (son of Zebedee and brother of John) was summoned from his boat on the Sea of Galilee, where he was mending nets at the time.As Jesus was about to leave Capernaum, Matthew got a summons from God.The remaining disciples were summoned at a later point in time.To the amazement of everyone, there were three pairs of brothers among the original twelve apostles!

These men were named Peter and Andrew, James and John (the sons of Zebedee), James the son of Alphaeus, Judas brother of James (also known as LeBbaeus or Thaddaeus), and Simon the Cantaanite, among others (Simon the Zealot).In other words, seven out of the twelve disciples had a close family who was ALSO a committed follower of Christ!Several of the apostles were known to have lived in or around Capernaum at the time of their death.When Jesus began his public ministry, he made the decision to move from Nazareth to the city for the first time (Matthew 4:13 – 16).James, John, Matthew, Andrew, Peter, and Philip were the disciples that lived in close proximity to one another.

It’s also worth noting that there are four different listings of Jesus’ first twelve disciples in the New Testament, which makes for an intriguing study.Three of these lists are contained in the Gospels (Matthew 10:1 – 4, Mark 3:13 – 18, Luke 6:12 – 16), while the fourth list (which does not include Judas Iscariot) is found in the book of Acts (Acts 1:1 – 4).(Acts 1:12 – 13).

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Who Was the First Disciple to Be Called by Jesus?

  1. ‘As he was wandering along the shore of the Sea of Galilee, he happened to notice two brothers working in the fishing industry: Simon (also known as Peter) and Andrew (also known as Andrew).
  2. ″Come after me, and I will create you men who fish for men,″ he instructed them to do.
  3. They immediately abandoned their nets and followed him.″ – Matthew 4:18 – Matthew 4:18-20 It is the Feast of St.
  4. Andrew the Apostle, who was the first disciple to be called by Jesus, that we celebrate on November 30.
  5. Andrew was the first person to meet Jesus, despite the fact that we know more about his brother Peter.
  6. Andrew was with John the Baptist as they came face to face with Jesus, whom John declared to be ″the Lamb of God.″ Andrew was with John at the time.
  • Andrew returned to his home after spending time with Jesus to inform Peter of his discoveries.
  • According to John 1:40-42, Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two men who heard John’s message and followed him to the cross.
  • He immediately tracked down his own brother Simon and informed him that ″we have discovered the Messiah″ (which is translated Anointed).
  • Then he took him to Jesus and baptized him.
  • ″You are Simon the son of John; you will be known as Cephas,″ Jesus remarked as he looked him in the eyes (which is translated Peter).

Unhesitating Obedience

  1. As we can see from Matthew’s story, Andrew made no reservations about following Jesus, even if it meant abandoning his father in the process.
  2. They were fishing for fish one moment, and the next they were with Jesus, preaching the gospel and performing miracles as ″fishers of men″ in the name of Jesus.
  3. Andrew was commissioned by Jesus together with the other eleven apostles, and he was given the following tools to teach and cure in His name: The twelve were sent out after Jesus gave them the following instructions: ″Do not travel into heathen land or enter a Samaritan village.″ Instead, direct your attention to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
  4. Make the following statement as you proceed: ‘The kingdom of heaven is at hand.’ Cure the ill, revive the dead, cleanse lepers, and expel demons from your sphere.
  5. You have received without incurring any expense; you will also give without incurring any expense.
  6. (Matthew 10:5-8; Mark 10:5-8)

Andrew’s Role in the Miracle of Loaves and Fishes

  1. It is Andrew who draws the crowd’s attention to the child with the five loaves and two fishes, who is then used by Jesus to execute the miracle of feeding the five thousand.
  2. When Jesus lifted his eyes and saw that a great throng was approaching him, he said to Philip, ″Where can we go to get enough food for everyone to eat?″ (Matthew 26:35).
  3. He stated this to put him to the test, because he himself was well aware of what he was about to do.
  4. ″Two hundred days’ salaries worth of food would not be enough for everyone of them to eat a bit,″ Philip said.
  5. ″It would be impossible.″ He was approached by one of his followers, Andrew, who was the brother of Simon Peter, who said, ″There is a child here who has five barley loaves and two fish; but what good are these for so many people?″ Jesus then took the loaves and broke them in his hands, giving thanks, and distributing them to the people who were reclining, along with as much fish as they desired.
  6. (See also John 6:5-9,11)

“Go and Make Disciples of All Nations”

  1. Andrew remained at Christ’s side throughout his career, and he was there at the Last Supper and the Crucifixion, among other events.
  2. During the early years of the church’s growth, Andrew moved on to share the gospel with people in Scythia and Greece, carrying out the Great Commission to ″Go, therefore, and make disciples of all countries, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Spirit…″ (See Matthew 28:19 for further information.) Andrew’s example of steadfast discipleship might serve as a motivation for us as we walk with Christ on our own.
  3. Allow him to use us for his glory without hesitation as we follow him, communicate the truth of his gospel, and are willing to be used for his glory.
  4. Andrew is commemorated at the Basilica in the West Buttress of the South Entrance, the Mary Memorial Altar, and the St.
  5. Anne Chapel, among other places.


Butler’s Lives of the Saints is a collection of biographies of saints (ed. by Bernard Bangley) The Way of the Saints by Cowan

Light a Candle

  1. We cordially welcome you to Light a Candle at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in honor of this great and venerable saint.
  2. Vigil candles are lit in the chapels located throughout the Upper Church and Crypt levels of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception.
  3. In each candle, we see a symbol of the supplicants’ faith and the intensity of their prayers, which are entrusted to the loving intercession of the Blessed Mother.

Who were the first disciples of Jesus?

Peter and Andrew were the first two disciples, according to the Gospels, which are the books of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, who were also the first two apostles.

How did Jesus call the first disciples?

  1. The first four disciples that Jesus picked were two pairs of brothers who were all fishermen, and they were the first four disciples that Jesus chose.
  2. James and John were in the boat with their father Zebedee when Jesus came upon them.
  3. After hearing Jesus’ invitation, they jumped at the opportunity and abandoned everything, including their father, to follow him.
  4. Levi was the second disciple to whom Jesus extended the invitation (Matthew).

Who was Jesus first and best disciple?

After racing to the empty tomb, the Beloved Disciple is the first one to arrive at the site of the resurrection. Peter, on the other hand, is the first to enter. In John 21, the final chapter of the Gospel of John, the Beloved Disciple is one of seven fishermen who participate in a miraculous capture of 153 fish, which is recorded in the Gospel of John.

Is Peter the first disciple of Jesus?

According to Christian belief, Peter was the first disciple to whom Jesus appeared, restoring Peter’s standing once his denial of Jesus’ presence had been balanced. Peter is often considered as the founding father of the early Church, however he was quickly surpassed in this position by James the Just, also known as ″the Brother of the Lord.″

In what order did Jesus choose his disciples?

At dawn, he called his disciples to him and chose twelve of them to be apostles: Simon (whom he named Peter), his brother Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew and Thomas; James son of Alphaeus; Simon the Zealot; Judas son of James; and Judas Iscariot (who later became a traitor to the cause of Christ)….

What was the name of the first 5 disciples?

Andrew, John, Simon Peter, Philip, and Nathanael are the names of the children. These are the first five disciples, according to the Bible. They are also referred to as apostles.

Who were the first two disciples to follow Jesus?

The calling of the first disciples by the Sea of Galilee is recorded in both the Gospels of Matthew and Mark: As Jesus was strolling alongside the Sea of Galilee, he came across two brothers, named Peter and his brother Andrew. They were fishing, so they were tossing a net into the lake to catch some fish.

Who were the first four disciples?

  • The first four disciples of Jesus were A. Simon, Bartholomew, John, and James
  • B. Simon, Andrew, John, and James
  • C. Peter, Simon, John, and James
  • D. Peter, James, Levi, and John
  • E. Peter, James, Levi, and John
  • F. Peter, Bartholomew, John, and James.

Where did Jesus meet his first disciples?

The Sea of Galilee is a body of water in Israel. The calling of the first disciples by the Sea of Galilee is recorded in both the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Mark: As Jesus was strolling along the shore of the Sea of Galilee, he came across two brothers, Peter and his younger brother Andrew.

Who are the first two disciples of Jesus?

John and Andrew were the first two persons to be asked by Christ to follow him as disciples (John 1:35 – 39).

Who was the first person to follow Jesus?

The apostle John reports the names of the first five persons who were invited by Jesus to follow him. John and Andrew were the first two persons to be asked by Christ to follow him as disciples (John 1:35 – 39).

Who are the Disciples of John the Baptist?

Andrew and the Apostle John were the names of the two disciples. We know enough about them that abandoning John the Baptist in such a hasty manner would be out of character for their character. Many people believe he sent them to Jesus on purpose. Teachers used to train disciples, who would then go out and instruct others in the same way.

What did John say to his two disciples?

35 The following day, John was standing in the same spot with two of his followers. 36 As he passed by, he exclaimed, ″Look, the Lamb of God!″ as he looked at Jesus. After hearing him say this, Jesus’ two followers immediately followed him. 37 Jesus turned around and saw them following him. He asked them, ″What do you want?″ they replied.

Jesus’ First Disciples

  1. Chapter 14: The First Disciples of Jesus Following his 40-day sojourn in the desert, Jesus comes to the presence of John, the man who baptized him.
  2. Apparently, as Jesus arrives, John cries to those in attendance, ″Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!
  3. ″ As I previously stated, ″Behind me comes a guy who has advanced in ahead of me, since he existed before me.″ This is the man I am referring about.
  4. Despite the fact that John is older than his cousin Jesus, John is aware that Jesus existed prior to him in the form of a spirit person in heaven.
  5. Yet, when Jesus arrived at John’s baptismal font a few weeks earlier, it appears that John did not know with confidence that Jesus was to be the promised Messiah.
  6. ″Even I did not know who he was,″ John admits, ″but the reason I came baptizing in water was that he may be made visible to the people of Israel.″ According to John, the following occurred at the baptism of Jesus: ″I saw the spirit come down like a dove from heaven, and it rested upon him.″ Even though I had no prior knowledge of him, the very One who had sent me to baptize in water told me, ‘Whoever it is upon whom you see the spirit falling down and abiding, this is the one who baptizes in holy spirit,’ Moreover, I have witnessed it, and I have testified that this individual is the Son of God.″ Two of John’s disciples are standing next to him the next day.
  • ″Behold, the Lamb of God!″ he exclaims once more as Jesus draws closer.
  • Following Jesus at this point are these two followers of John the Baptizer.
  • Both are called Andrew, and the other is most likely the same guy who wrote down these events, who was also named John, as previously stated.
  • As far as we can tell, this John is likewise a cousin of Jesus, having been born to Mary’s sister, Salome, according to the evidence.
  • When Jesus turns around and notices Andrew and John following him, he inquires, ″What are you searching for?″ ″Rabbi, where are you going to stay?″ they inquire.
  • ″Come and see for yourself,″ Jesus says in response.
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After four o’clock in the afternoon, Andrew and John accompany Jesus to the tomb for the remainder of the day.Following that, Andrew is overjoyed to the point that he rushes to find his brother, who goes by the name of Peter.″We have discovered the Messiah,″ he informs him.

″ Moreover, he leads Peter to Jesus.Perhaps about the same time, John locates his brother James and takes him to Jesus; however, as is typical of John, he chooses to leave out this personal detail from his Gospel..The following day, Jesus comes across Philip, who is originally from Bethsaida, the same place from whence Andrew and Peter came.″Be my follower,″ he says, inviting him to join him.Philip then locates Nathanael, who is also known as Bartholomew, and informs him that they have located ″the one of whom Moses, the Law, and the Prophets wrote, Jesus, the son of Joseph, from Nazareth,″ according to the Bible.

Nathanael feels apprehensive.″Is it possible for anything positive to come out of Nazareth?″ he wonders.″Come and have a look,″ Philip encourages.When they are approaching Jesus, Jesus comments on Nathanael, saying, ″Behold, an Israelite with absolute confidence, in whom there is no deception.″ ″Can you tell me how you came to know who I am?″ Nathanael inquires.″I saw you before Philip summoned you, while you were sitting beneath the fig tree,″ Jesus says in response.

Nathanael is taken aback.″Rabbi, you are the Son of God, and you are the King of Israel,″ he proclaims to the congregation.″Do you believe me when I say I saw you behind the fig tree?″ says the narrator.

  1. Jesus inquires.
  2. ″You shall witness things that are far greater than these.″ Later on in the chapter, Christ promises: ″Most certainly I say to you men, You will see heaven opened up and the angels of God ascending and descending to the Son of man.″ Jesus, accompanied by his freshly gained disciples, departs the Jordan Valley and journeys to Galilee very shortly after this event takes place.
  3. John 1:29-51 is a biblical passage.
  4. Who were the earliest followers of Jesus Christ?

How is Peter, as well as maybe James, presented to Jesus in this passage?▪ What does Nathanael believe to be the evidence that Jesus is the Son of God?

Who were Jesus’ 12 Original Disciples?

To be His disciples, Jesus chose twelve ordinary men who had lives, families, and occupations to be His apostles.They didn’t do anything exceptional to earn Jesus’ favor; instead, they just listened, obeyed, and followed.During His earthly ministry, the twelve were with Him testifying to others and performing miracles as well as healing the sick.They also had their feet washed by Him and participated in Holy Communion.What were the names of the twelve men that Jesus chose?

Simon Peter Simon was born in Bethsaida, Galilee, and was one of Jesus’ original four followers, and he was one of the most important figures in his life.After being chosen by Jesus, he was given the name Peter.When Jesus asked Peter to follow Him, he was fishing with his brother Andrew near the Sea of Galilee when he received the summons.He abandoned everything in order to follow Jesus (Mark 1:16-18).He is the disciple about whom the most is said in the Bible.

He is well remembered as the disciple who confessed three times to knowing Jesus in order to avoid being jailed.After rejecting Jesus three times, Peter broke down in tears because he recalled what Jesus had promised him: ″Before the rooster crows this day, you will claim three times that you do not know who I am.″ (Luke 22:56-62).This occurred in order for God to humble Peter.Peter was so full of himself that he promised Jesus that he would never deny Him and that he would even die with Him on the cross (Matthew 26:35).Although there is no mention of Peter’s death in the Bible, some biblical historians think he did die as a result of his faith at some point.

There is a popular belief that Peter died on a crucifixion and specifically requested that he be crucified upside down because he believed he was unworthy of being crucified right-side up like Jesus.Peter is well-known for being present when Jesus walked on water.After walking on water with Jesus, Peter became scared and began to sink (Matthew 14:29).While Jesus was being arrested, Peter was the one who chopped off a soldier’s ear with his sword (Matthew 14:30).

(John 18:10).Peter was the disciple who was tasked with writing the books of 1 and 2 Peter in the Bible.Some experts are skeptical that Peter actually penned the volumes, yet there is enough evidence to suggest that he did write them after all.Andrew Andrew was a disciple of Jesus who belonged to the group of twelve.Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, was born in Bethsaida, Galilee, and was present when Jesus picked Simon Peter to be one of His disciples.

  1. Andrew was Simon Peter’s brother, and he was present when Jesus chose Simon Peter to be one of His disciples.
  2. He, too, abandoned everything in order to follow Jesus.
  3. He, like his brother, worked as a fisherman.

Despite his importance, he is seldom mentioned in the Bible.Although it is not explicitly stated, it appears that Andrew was in the upper chamber with the other disciples to select a substitute disciple after Judas committed suicide (Acts 1:12-24).In John 1:41, he is credited with being the first person to acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah.In the Bible, there is no mention of his death at all.

The Bible does state that he left with the other disciples to avoid persecution the night Jesus was arrested by the chief priests and the elders, which is consistent with what the Bible says about his character (Mark 14:50).Mark 3:17-19 refers to him as one of Jesus’ followers, and he is identified as such.Zebedee’s son, James, is the subject of this story.James is one of two brothers who were fisherman when they were summoned by Jesus to be His disciples, and he is the younger brother.

  • After summoning Simon Peter and Andrew, Jesus picked him as his successor.
  • A group of fishermen were at the Sea of Galilee fixing nets when Jesus appeared to them.
  • James was with his brother John and his father Zebedee when Jesus came up to them.
  • Peter and Andrew were both from Bethsaida, and he was from the same city as they were.
  • His life is also just briefly recorded in the Bible, much like Andrew’s.
  • Nevertheless, it is stated that he was murdered by King Herod with a sword (Acts 12:2).
  • We also know that Jesus dubbed him and his brother as ″sons of thunder,″ which means ″sons of lightning″ (Mark 3:17).
  • On the night Jesus was arrested by the chief priests and elders, he fled with the other disciples to avoid capture (Mark 14:50).
  • Because he was the one who asked Jesus if he and John could sit on either side of Jesus’ throne in heaven, it is ironic that James fled with the other disciples the night Jesus was arrested (Mark 10:35-40).
  • James was not prepared to go through the same ordeal that Jesus had to go through.
  1. John Jesus chose John to be His disciple at the same time that He chose John’s brother James to be His disciple.
  2. They were both on a boat with their father, repairing their nets, when Jesus called them to follow Him so that they could become fishermen for other people.
  3. John along with his brother dropped everything and immediately followed Jesus (Matthew 4:21-22).

(Matthew 4:21-22).Jesus gave John the same nickname “sons of thunder” like his brother (Mark 3:17).(Mark 3:17).The Bible mentions a lot about John.

He was known as the disciple that Jesus loved (John 13:23).(John 13:23).John was faithful and was always by Jesus’ side.He did not leave Jesus while he was being crucified on the cross.

  1. He was there with Mary, Jesus’ mother, when Jesus told him to take care of her.
  2. Mary lived with John and took care of her after Jesus died (John 19:26-27).
  3. (John 19:26-27).
  4. He was with Jesus at the Last Supper and had the honor to sit next to Him (John 13:23).
  5. (John 13:23).
  6. He also was with Jesus at the wedding in Cana of Galilee (John 2:1-11).

(John 2:1-11).John was with the other disciples in the upper room to pick another disciple after Judas killed himself (Acts 1:12-24).(Acts 1:12-24).Along with Andrew, John was a disciple of John the Baptist (John 1: 34-40).(John 1: 34-40).

He also wrote the Gospel of John, 1, 2, and 3 John and the Book of Revelation.He wrote the book of Revelation while exiled on the island of Patmos (Revelation 1:9).(Revelation 1:9).Like Simon Peter, some scholars doubt John was the writer of the Gospel of John and 1, 2, and 3 John, but there is enough evidence to show that he did write them.Philip Philip was from the town of Bethsaida, a town near the Sea of Galilee (John 1:44).

(John 1:44).He was another disciple that Jesus found while walking and told Philip to follow Him (John 1:43).(John 1:43).After meeting Jesus, Philip immediately went to tell his friend Bartholomew about Jesus (John 1:45-46).(John 1:45-46).

Philip was the disciple that introduced the Greeks to Jesus.Some of the Greeks who came to Jerusalem for the Passover celebration went to Philip to ask him if they could meet Jesus (John 12: 20-21).(John 12: 20-21).Philip was also with Jesus during the feeding of the five thousand.Jesus tested Philip by asking him where they should buy bread to feed the crowd of the five thousand (John 6:5–7).He was with other disciples in the upper room to pick a replacement disciple for Judas (Acts 1:12-24).

(Acts 1:12-24).Bartholomew (Nathanael) (Nathanael) Bartholomew or Nathanael was a friend of Philip.He was from the town of Cana in Galilee (John 21:2).

  • (John 21:2).
  • Bartholomew met Jesus because of Philip’s invitation for him to come and meet the one Moses and the prophets wrote about in the Old Testament (John 1:45–46).
  • He asked Phillip, “Can anything good come from Nazareth?” Philip answered, “Come and see” (John 1:46).
  • (John 1:46).
  • He is another disciple that is not mentioned much in the Bible.
  • He was with the other disciples in the upper room to choose a replacement disciple after Judas killed himself (Acts 1:12-24).

(Acts 1:12-24).He is mentioned in a list of Jesus’ disciples in Mark 3:17-19.Thomas Thomas was also known as Didymus.He was from the city of Cana located in Galilee (John 21:2).(John 21:2).

He is known as the disciple who was a doubter.He got the reputation because he doubted the other disciples claim to see Jesus after He was risen.Thomas would not believe them without proof.

He wanted to see and feel with his own eyes and hands Jesus’ scarred hands (John 20:25).(John 20:25).Once he saw Jesus, he believed Jesus was risen.Then Jesus told Thomas, “You believe because you see me.Those who believe without seeing me will be truly blessed” (John 20:29).(John 20:29).

Thomas was with Jesus and the other disciples when Jesus comforted them in John 14:1-6.He reminded them before being arrested to be crucified that He was leaving them and that should not be troubled because they knew where He was going.Thomas asked Jesus, “Lord, we don’t know where you are going.So how can we know the way?” Jesus answered Thomas by saying, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life.The only way to the Father is through me.

  • If you really knew me, you would know my Father, too.
  • But now you do know him, and you have seen him.” Matthew Matthew was a tax collector in the city of Capernaum.
  • He was the son of Alpheus (Mark 2:14).
  • (Mark 2:14).
  • His other name was Levi.
  1. Jesus was walking along when He noticed Matthew sitting at his tax collector’s booth.
  2. Jesus told him to follow Him.
  3. Matthew got up, left his booth, and followed Jesus (Matthew 9:9).
  4. (Matthew 9:9).
  5. Matthew is another disciple that is not mentioned a lot in the Bible.
  • There is little known about him, except he had a big dinner for Jesus at his house with other tax collectors and all the other disciples (Luke 5:29).
  • (Luke 5:29).
  • Matthew was present with the other disciples when choosing a new disciple to replace Judas (Acts 1:12-24).
  • (Acts 1:12-24).
  • He is mentioned in a list of Jesus’ disciples in Mark 3:17-19.
  1. Like the other disciples, he fled when Jesus was being arrested by the chief priests and the elders (Mark 14:50).
  2. (Mark 14:50).
  3. Matthew wrote the Gospel of Matthew.
  4. Some scholars doubt he wrote it but there is enough evidence to show that he did.
  5. James, the Son of Alpheus James, the Son of Alpheus is the second disciple named James.
  6. This James was known as “the less” meaning he was probably younger or little in statue (Mark 15:40).
  • (Mark 15:40).
  • He is only mentioned a few times in the Bible.
  • We know his mother was Mary (Mark 15:40).
  • (Mark 15:40).
  • He was also with the other disciples in the upper room to pick a replacement disciple for Judas after his death (Acts 1:12-24).
  • (Acts 1:12-24).
  • He also fled like the other disciples when the chief priests and the elders were arresting Jesus (Mark 14:50).
  • (Mark 14:50).
  • Jude Jude is known in the Bible by many different names.
  • Some of his other names are Lebbaeus, Thaddaeus, Judas, and the son of James (Matthew 10:3, Mark 3:18, Acts 1:13).
  • (Matthew 10:3, Mark 3:18, Acts 1:13).
  • The Bible does not talk about him much either.
  • He is mentioned in Acts 1:12-24 and was one of the disciples who was in the upper room to pick a replacement for Judas who had killed himself.

His name is also mentioned in the list of Jesus’ disciples in Mark 3:17-19.Simon the Zealot There is not much mentioned about Simon in the Bible.He was a Canaanite and known as a Zealot (Matthew 10:4).

  1. (Matthew 10:4).
  2. He is the father of Judas Iscariot, the one who betrayed Jesus (John 6:71).
  3. (John 6:71).
  1. He is mentioned as another disciple that was in the upper room to pick a replacement disciple for Judas after his death (Acts 1:12-24).
  2. (Acts 1:12-24).
  3. He is also identified as one of Jesus’ disciples in Mark 3:17-19.
  4. Judas Iscariot Judas Iscariot was the son of Simon Iscariot the Cananaean (John 6:71, Matthew 10:4).
  5. (John 6:71, Matthew 10:4).
  6. He served as the financial manager for Jesus and the other disciples.

He is also known as the disciple who betrayed Jesus with a kiss and handed Him up to the chief priests and elders for the sum of thirty pieces of silver (Matthew 26:53).(Luke 4-6).Jesus was well aware that Judas was planning to betray Him.

The disciples were informed by Jesus during the Last Supper of the fact that one of them would betray Him.He then turned to Judas and said, ″Whatever you are about to do, do it as swiftly as you possibly can″ (John 13:27).When Judas saw that the chief priests and the elders were plotting to murder Jesus, he felt horrible and attempted to return the silver coins.They did not want the money returned because it was ″blood″ money that had been paid to have Jesus crucified on their behalf.Judas betrayed Jesus by throwing the money into the Temple and then hanging himself (Matthew 27:4–5).

Dr. William Steuart McBirnie is a Ph.D. candidate (1973). The Twelve Apostles are on the run from someone. Tyndale Momentum is gaining momentum.

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Teresa Sturek

Teresa is the creator and executive director of True Christian Magazine, and she is passionate about assisting people in their quest for greater Bible understanding.Her home is in Katy, Texas, where she lives with her husband, Michael, and their two dogs.If so, who were the twelve first disciples of Jesus?If you feel blessed, please consider making a donation to True Christiam Magazine’s work.It is through your tax-deductible contribution that the magazine will be able to continue to deliver biblical content to assist individuals in standing strong on the truth of the Gospel.

Saint Luke

Top Questions

Who was St. Luke?

Why was St. Luke influential?

Where is St. Luke buried?

Luke the Evangelist, also known as Saint Luke the Evangelist, was a Christian author who lived in the first century CE and whose feast day is celebrated on October 18.He was a companion of St.Paul the Apostle and considered to be the most literary of the New Testament writers.He is commemorated on October 18 as the author of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles.There is very little information available regarding his life.

In accordance with allusions in the Pauline Letters, he has traditionally been viewed as a physician and as a Gentile.He is likely to have accompanied Paul on a number of missionary missions.He is the patron saint of physicians and painters, among other things.

Scriptural sources

(Feast day: October 18) St.Luke the Evangelist, also known as Saint Luke, was a first-century Christian missionary who lived during the first century CE.St.Luke was a companion of St.Paul the Apostle and one of the most literary writers of the New Testament, and he is considered to be the author of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of Apostles in Christian tradition.

Only a few details are known regarding his life.A physician and a Gentile, according to tradition founded on allusions in the Pauline Letters, he was.A number of Paul’s missionary excursions are likely to have been accompanied by him.In addition to physicians and artists, he is a patron saint of musicians.

How Early Church Leaders Downplayed Mary Magdalene’s Influence by Calling Her a Whore

She was Mary of Magdala, one of Jesus of Nazareth’s early disciples, and she was one of the most famous women in the world.It is said that she journeyed with him, witnessed his Crucifixion, and was one of those who were informed of his Resurrection, all according to the Scriptures.Everybody, from early church officials and historians to authors and filmmakers, has contributed to the revision and expansion of the tale of Mary Magdalene throughout history.On the one hand, they downplayed her significance by stating she was a prostitute, a wrecked woman who repented and was rescued by Christ’s teachings.On the other hand, they emphasized her value by claiming she was a prostitute, a ruined woman who repented and was saved by Christ’s teachings.

Mary Magdalene, on the other hand, is represented in several early Christian scriptures as more than just a mere follower; she is also depicted as Jesus’ close companion—which some have taken to suggest his wife.Which begs the question: is there any truth to either of these tales?What exactly do we know about Mary Magdalene, the lady who is considered to be the most intriguing woman in the Bible?WATCH: Jesus: A Biography on the HISTORY Vault

What the Bible Says About Mary Magdalene

However, only the Gospel of Luke discussed Mary Magdalene’s role in Jesus’ life and ministry, listing her among ″some women who had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities″ (Luke 8:1–3).All four canonical gospels of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) noted Mary Magdalene’s presence at Jesus’ Crucifixion, but only the Gospel of Luke discussed her role in his life and ministry.According to Luke, when Jesus drove out seven devils from her, Mary joined a group of women who went with him and his twelve disciples/apostles, ″proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God.″ They were ″proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God.″ However, although Magdalene is not a surname, it is associated with the city of Magdala, which is located in Galilee, in the northernmost area of ancient Palestine, and from whence Mary hailed (now northern Israel).In the words of Robert Cargill, an associate professor of classical and religious studies at the University of Iowa who is also the editor of the Biblical Archaeology Review, ″Mary Magdalene was one of Jesus’ early supporters.″ ″She was mentioned in the Gospels, which indicates that she was significant.There were hundreds, if not thousands, of followers of Jesus, but we don’t know the names of the majority of them, according to what we know.

As a result, the fact that she has been identified is significant.″ Mary Magdalene had an important role in the tale of the Resurrection, which took place after Jesus’ crucifixion, which she observed from the foot of the cross with many other women, and after all of Jesus’ male disciples had fled from the scene.In accordance with the gospels, Mary went to Jesus’ tomb on Easter Sunday, either alone herself (according to the Gospel of John) or in company with several women, and discovered that the tomb was vacant.The ladies are the ones who go to the disciples and inform them what has happened, as Cargill points out.That’s crucial since they were the ones who found that Jesus had resurrected from the dead.According to the Gospel of John, Jesus personally comes to Mary Magdalene after his Resurrection and urges her to inform his followers of his appearance (John 20:1-13).

READ MORE: What Did Jesus Look Like When He Was Alive?

Mary Magdalene as sinner

Because of Mary Magdalene’s obvious significance in the Bible—or maybe because of it—some early Western church leaders attempted to minimize her power by presenting her as a sinner, notably as a prostitute, according to the Bible.In Cargill’s words, ″There are many academics who think that because Jesus empowered women to such a great extent early in his career, it made some of the males who would govern the early church uncomfortable later on.″ In response to this, there were two different reactions.She was to be turned into a prostitute, for example.″ Early church leaders conflated Mary with other women mentioned in the Bible in order to portray her as the original repentant whore.These women included an unnamed woman, identified in the Gospel of Luke as a sinner, who bathes Jesus’ feet with her tears, dries them, and applies ointment to them (Luke 7:37-38), as well as another Mary, Mary of Bethany, who also appears in Luke.Pope Gregory the Great clarified this confusion in a sermon in 591 A.D., saying, ″We think that the Mary, whom Luke names the wicked woman and whom John calls Mary, is the Mary from whom seven demons were evicted according to Mark.″ ‘By becoming a prostitute, she has diminished in importance.’ It has a negative impact on her in some manner.

Look at what she did for a job, and you can see why she couldn’t have been a leader,″ Cargill adds.″Of course, the second option was to advance Mary to the next level.Some believe she was actually Jesus’ wife or friend, rather than his mother.″She had a particular place in the world.″ READ MORE: The Bible Claims That Jesus Was a Real Person.Is there any further evidence?

Mary Magdalene as Jesus’s wife

While some early Christians wanted to downplay Mary’s influence, others sought to emphasize her as a source of inspiration.Several centuries after Jesus’ death, the Gospel of Mary, a document dating from the second century A.D.that was discovered in Egypt in 1896, ranked Mary Magdalene higher in wisdom and influence than Jesus’ male disciples.She was also extensively featured in the so-called Gnostic Gospels, a collection of books thought to have been authored by early Christians as far back as the second century A.D.but which were not discovered until 1945, near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi, and which were written in Greek.

According to one of these manuscripts, referred to Mary Magdalene as Jesus’ friend and said that Jesus loved her more than the other disciples.This document is known as the Gospel of Philip.Possibly the most contentious statement in the scripture was that Jesus used to kiss Mary ″frequently on her.″ Damage to the writing rendered the final word illegible, while some scholars have substituted the word ″mouth″ for the unreadable term.In the years after its publication, Dan Brown’s enormously popular mystery The Da Vinci Code has been consumed by tens of millions of readers worldwide.The premise of the novel revolves around the long-held belief that Jesus and Mary Magdalene had children together.

This concept was also at the heart of The Last Temptation of Christ, a novel written by Greek writer Nikos Kazantzakis in 1955 that was subsequently made into a film directed by Martin Scorsese, as well as the cinematic adaptation of the novel.And then there was the discovery of a previously unknown papyrus fragment in 2012 that was considered to be a copy of a second-century narrative in which Jesus refers to Mary Magdalene as ″my wife,″ according to Karen King, a professor at Harvard Divinity School.She ultimately changed her mind after being bombarded with criticism and concluded that the so-called ″Gospel of Jesus’s Wife″ was most likely a fake after defending the document’s validity.

Mary Magdalene as trusted disciple

The Bible, on the other hand, provided no indication that Mary Magdalene was Jesus’ wife.One can’t get a sense of that type of connection from any of the four canonical gospels, despite the fact that they include the women who travel with Jesus and, in some cases, their husbands’ names as well.The depiction of Mary Magdalene as a prostitute endured for decades after Pope Gregory the Great declared it official in his sixth-century sermon, though neither Orthodoxy nor Protestantism embraced it once their respective religions separated from the Catholic Church later in the sixth century.At long last, in 1969, the Church acknowledged that the text of the Bible did not support such interpretation..Mary Magdalene is now venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, and her feast day is observed on July 22nd in all four of these denominations.

According to Cargill’s conclusion, ″Mary appears to have been a disciple of Jesus.″ ″What’s important is that Jesus had both male and female disciples in his ministry, which was not always the case at the time,″ says the author.He notes that while the prostitute and wife hypotheses have been around for centuries, they are tales and customs that have developed long after the fact: ″Neither of them is anchored in the Bible itself.″ MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: The Evolution of Christian Thought

Seventy disciples – Wikipedia

The seventy disciples or seventy-two disciples, also known as the seventy apostles or seventy-two apostles in Eastern Christian traditions, were early messengers of Jesus who were described in the Gospel of Luke as being sent forth by him.The right Greek phrase is evdomikonta (v) apostoli or evdomikonta mathetes, which stands for evdomikonta mathetes.Several passages in the Gospel of Luke, the only gospel in which they are mentioned, claim that Jesus appointed and dispatched them in pairs on a specific mission that is explained in the text.Depending on the narrative you read, the number of disciples ranges between 70 and 72 people.They are commonly referred to as disciples in Western Christianity, but they are commonly referred to as apostles in Eastern Christianity.

Although both titles are descriptive, when using the original Greek words, they differ in their scope.An apostle is one who has been sent on a mission (the Greek word for this is ″apesteilen″), whereas a disciple is one who is a student, the two traditions disagree on the scope of the terms apostle and disciple.’ As a result of these events, the Lord designated an additional seventy-two people, and he dispatched them two by two into every city and area where he was to appear.And he told them that the crop was really plenty, but that the laborers were in little supply.As a result, pray to the Lord of the harvest that he would send workers into his harvest.

I’m sending you out as lambs amid wolves, as you’ve heard.Carry no purse, no scrip, no shoes, and don’t even bother to salute anybody along the route.Whenever you enter a house, the first thing you should say is: Peace be to this house.And if the son of peace is present, your peace will rest upon him; if he is not present, your peace will be returned to you.And they continue to live in the same house, eating and drinking anything they can get their hands on: because the laborer is deserving of his wages.Take care not to relocate from one residence to another.

And whichever city you enter, if you are welcomed, you should consume whatever is placed in front of you.And treat the sick who are present, and tell them that the kingdom of God has drawn near to them.Nevertheless, if you visit a city and are not welcomed there, you should walk forth into its streets and say: Even the dust of your city, which clings to us, we wash off against you.However, keep in mind that the kingdom of God is near at hand.

According to what I’ve heard, Sodom will be able to bear the pain a lot better than that city on that day.Corozain, and Bethsaida, may you suffer the consequences of your actions.Because if the wonderful wonders that have been accomplished in you had been wrought in Tyre and Sidon, they would have done penance long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes, just as you have done.Tyre and Sidon, on the other hand, will be able to bear the consequences of the judgment more easily than you.And you, Capharnaum, who has been raised to the heights of heaven, will be sent into the depths of hell.

  1. And he who listens to you hears me; and he who rejects you rejects me; and he who despiseth me, despiseth the one who dispatched me.
  2. And the seventy-two came back with delight, proclaiming: ″Lord, even the devils are submissive to us in thy name,″ they said.
  3. And he told them, ″I saw Satan as if he were a bolt of lightning falling from heaven.″ For behold, I have given you authority to tread on serpents and scorpions and all of the enemy’s strength, and nothing will be able to harm you.

Although spirits are subject to you, do not take pleasure in this; rather, take pleasure in the fact that your names are written in the book of life.In the same hour, he exulted in the presence of the Holy Spirit and declared: ″I confess to thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, since thou hast kept these things from the wise and prudent, and hast shown them to children.″ Yea, Father, for it hath shown fair to thee in thine sight.’ The group is only mentioned once in the Bible, and it is in this passage.The number is seventy in some Alexandrian manuscripts (such as the Codex Sinaiticus) and Caesarean text traditions, while it is seventy-two in the majority of Alexandrian and Western texts (including the Bible).According to the Letter of Aristeas, the number seventy-two may have come from the seventy countries in Genesis 10 or the numerous other occurrences of the number seventy in the Bible, or it may have come from the seventy-two translators of the Septuagint mentioned in the letter.

When interpreting the Vulgate, Jerome chose the number seventy-two as the starting point.Luke 10:4 refers to what has been stated to the seventy (two) in passing, whereas Luke 22:35 refers to the Twelve in passing: Originally from Rome, Hippolytus was a pupil of Irenaeus, who had been taught by Polycarp, who had been a disciple of the Apostle John.Prior to their discovery in a monastery on Mount Athos in 1854, Hippolytus’s works were thought to have been lost forever.The Refutation of All Heresies, his major work, was readily accepted (once the false attribution to Origen was resolved); however, his two small works, On the Twelve Apostles of Christ and On the Seventy Apostles of Christ, are still regarded as dubious, and have been placed in the appendix of his works in the voluminous collection of the early church fathers’ writings.

  • The following is the whole text of Hippolytus’ On the Seventy Apostles of Christ, which can be found here: Matthias, who would eventually take Judas Iscariot’s position as one of the twelve apostles, is also frequently included among the seventy because John Mark is commonly referred to as Mark the Evangelist, which is why he is also included among the seventy.
See also:  How Long Ago Did Jesus Live?

Doubting Thomas – Wikipedia

A person who is skeptic ‘Thomas’ refers to the Apostle Thomas, who is depicted in the Gospel of John as refusing to believe the resurrected Jesus had appeared to the ten other apostles until he could see and feel the crucifixion wounds.This is a reference to the Apostle Thomas’ refusal to believe until he could see and feel the crucifixion wounds of Jesus.Since at least the 15th century, the incident (officially known as the Incredulity of Thomas) has been shown several times in art, with depictions reflecting a variety of theological interpretations.

Gospel account

The incident is recounted in John’s Gospel, chapter 20, although it is not included in the other three synoptic Gospels.The following is the text of the King James Version of the Bible: 24 However, Thomas, one of the twelve disciples known as Didymus, was not there when Jesus appeared.25 As a result, the other disciples informed him that they had witnessed the Lord.But he told them that until he showed them the print of the nails on his hands and allowed them to insert their finger into the print of the nails and shoved his hand into his side, he would not trust them.26 And after eight days, his disciples were again in the house, this time with Thomas, when Jesus entered through the closed doors and stood in the middle of them, saying, ″Peace be unto you.″ 27 And he says to Thomas, ″Reach here your finger, and look at my hands; and reach here your hand, and press it into my side.″ ″Do not be faithless, but believing,″ he says.

28 And Thomas responded by saying, ″My Lord and my God,″ in response to him.29 Then Jesus says to him, ″Thomas, because you have seen me, you have believed; lucky are those who have not seen and yet have believed.″ Commentators have pointed out that John does not specify if Thomas actually ″push″ his hand into the pot.Prior to the Protestant Reformation, the common belief, reflected in artistic depictions, was that he had done so, a belief in which most Catholic writers continued to believe, whereas Protestant writers frequently believed that he had not.During the Protestant Reformation, the common belief was that he had not.Although there was some debate as to whether or not Thomas had ″felt″ as well as ″seen″ the physical evidence of Jesus’ resurrection, the Catholic interpretation was that, while Jesus asserts the superiority of those who have faith in the absence of physical evidence, Jesus was nonetheless willing to show Thomas his wound and allow him to feel it.

Physical experiences such as pilgrimages, worship of relics, and ritual were utilized by theologians as scriptural justification for the use of physical experiences such as ritual and devotion of relics to reinforce Christian beliefs.Although evangelical-leaning Anglican Thomas Hartwell Horne treated Thomas’s skepticism, which he extended somewhat to the other apostles, as evidence both of the veracity of the gospels, as a ″forger″ would be unlikely to have invented the gospels, and of the veracity of the gospels, as a ″forger″ would be unlikely to have invente the gospels, evangelical-leaning Anglicans emphasized Jesus’ statement of the superiority In the early church, Gnostic authors were adamant that Thomas did not genuinely examine Jesus, and they emphasized on this in apocryphal narratives, which may have had the effect of pushing their non-Gnostic opponents in the opposite way of their beliefs.While much of the theological interpretation of the episode has focused on it as a demonstration of the reality of the resurrection, it has also been given a eucharistic interpretation, seen as an allegory of the sacrament of the Eucharist, which has remained a recurring theme in commentary since the 4th and 5th centuries, respectively.


It has been prevalent in art from at least the early 6th century, when it occurs in mosaics at the Basilica of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna and on the Monza ampullae, where it is formally known as ″The Incredulity of Saint Thomas.″ These paintings, as well as subsequent Baroque depictions, of the topic, usually represented at the time Thomas inserts his fingers into Jesus’ side, were meant to underline the need of bodily sensations and evidences for the believer, as indicated above, in order to convince him of his faith.When Jesus raises his hand to disclose his side wound in the Ravenna mosaic, it is often, but not always, done in such a manner that the wounds on his hands and feet may also be seen; this is especially true when the wounds on his feet are visible.It was shown in a variety of situations in medieval art, including Byzantine icons, and was particularly popular during the Renaissance.All of the apostles were frequently featured in places where there was enough space, and occasionally Thomas’ acceptance of the Resurrection is depicted, with Thomas bowing and Jesus blessing him.Although this iconography does not explicitly state whether the event shown is the result of an investigation or not, it most likely implies that it does not, particularly in Protestant art.

The two figures’ stances have changed several times since the late Middle Ages, and a variety of different versions may be found (see gallery).One of a number of scenes sometimes arranged around a central Crucifixion of Jesus, the typical ″touching″ representation is one of the scenes depicted on the Irish Muiredach’s High Cross, and it is also the subject of a large relief in the famous Romanesque sculpted cloister at the Abbey of Santo Domingo de Silos.It could be paired with Jacob Wrestling with the Angel in works depicting pairs of typologically related scenes from the Old and New Testaments, but in a 10th-century Ottonian ivory diptych, it is paired with Moses receiving the Law, comparing both the two Biblical Testaments and the support for the faith derived from both textual ″sacred writ″ and physical evidence.With one side of his robe pulled back, displaying the wound in his side and his other four wounds (known as the ostentatio vulnerum), Jesus was removed from images with Thomas and transformed into a pose adopted by only Jesus, who frequently inserts his own fingers into the wound in his side (known as the ostentatio vulnerum).A common feature of single iconic figures and subjects such as the Last Judgement (where Bamberg Cathedral has an early example from about 1235), Christ in Majesty, the Man of Sorrows, and Christ with the Arma Christi emerged, and it was used to emphasize Christ’s suffering as well as the fact that he had been raised from the dead.

The best-known image of Christ and St.Thomas in the Renaissance is the famous sculpted couple by Andrea del Verrocchio (1467–1483) for the Orsanmichele in Florence; the theme is uncommon in free-standing sculpture.This guild church also served as a commercial tribunal, and the display of tangible evidence gave the subject a particular importance to courts and justice.As a result, the subject appeared on a number of other structures in Tuscany that served as judicial institutions.St Thomas was also associated with the Medici dynasty, who had a significant role in the commission, yet it appears that the painting by Salviati represents anti-Medici sentiment at the time of its creation in the 1540s.During the Counter-Reformation, the theme saw a resurgence in popularity as an affirmation of Catholic teaching against Protestant rejection of the Catholic practices that the story was considered to support, as well as Protestant trust in ″faith alone.″ According to the Catholic version, even while Jesus affirms the superiority of those who believe without seeing or touching anything, he was nonetheless ready to show Thomas his wound and let him to feel the pain of it.

There are many other depictions of the subject, particularly by the Utrecht Caravaggisti, who painted in a Protestant environment, such as the Flemish Caravaggist Matthias Stom, whose two versions of the subject are now on display in Madrid and Bergamo.The Incredulity of Saint Thomas by Caravaggio (c.1601–1602) is now the most famous depiction (unusually showing Thomas to the viewer’s right of Jesus), but there are many others, especially by the It was painted by both Rembrandt (in the Pushkin Museum) and Rubens (in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp, as the centerpiece of the Rockox Triptych).


  • Kneeling and touching one another, Martin Schongauer and his studio, a panel from an altarpiece from the late 15th century
  • A 19th-century Danish Lutheran ″non-touching″ composition
  • ″The disbelief of Thomas″ from an English manuscript, c.1504
  • ″The incredulity of Thomas″ from an English manuscript, c.1504

Medieval drama

  • Because of the dramatic character of the tale, it was frequently included in medieval dramas that told the story of Jesus’ life.
  • It takes the entirety of ″Play 41″ of the York Mystery Cycle, which is thought to have been written somewhere between 1463 and 1477 and consists of 195 six-line stanzas, to tell the story.
  • Several of the shorter cycles omit it, while the Chester Mystery Plays require 70 lines to convey it all.
  • Due to the biblical story, two late medieval tales or fables arose, both of which are shown in artwork.

Girdle of Thomas

  • For this reason, it was frequently shown in medieval dramas that told the tale of Jesus’ life because of its dramatic aspect.
  • There are 195 six-line stanzas in ″Play 41″ of the York Mystery Cycle, which was written somewhere between 1463 and 1477 and takes the entire play to explain the story.
  • There are a few shorter cycles that miss it, while the Chester Mystery Plays take 70 lines to cover it completely.
  • Due to the biblical story, two late medieval tales or fables arose, both of which were depicted in art.

Incredulity of Jerome

  • Saint Francis of Assisi (1181/1182 – 1226) had a vision in 1224, after which he acquired stigmata on his own body, repeating the wounds of Jesus, which he kept until his death.
  • According to the many who saw them, the wounds on his hands and feet were as if the nails still remained in place, and the nail-like projections could be moved.
  • An early biographer of Francis, Saint Bonaventure (1221 – 1274), reported that a soldier called Jerome was sceptical and moved the ″nails″ about.
  • Jerome is thought to be shown examining Francis’ feet in the frescos of the Bardi Chapel of Santa Croce, Florence by Giotto and his workshop, and appears in some other Franciscan works.

See also

  • Life of Jesus in the New Testament



  1. The following passages are cited: John 20:24–29
  2. Most 2009, pages 79–80
  3. Salisbury 2006, page 95
  4. Horne 1836, pages 111–111
  5. Soper 1938, page 188
  6. a b Jacks & Caferro 2001, p. 159
  7. Gurewich 1957, page 358
  8. Gurewich 1957, page 358
  9. Gurewich 1957, page 358
  10. Gurewich 1957, page 358
  11. Gure The original version of this article was archived on February 23, 2015.
  12. a b Rylands 1977, p. 249
  13. a b O’Rahilly 1938, p. 191
  14. a b Jacks and Caferro 2001, pp. 157–158
  15. b Rylands 1977, p. 249
  16. c Rylands 1977, p. 249.


  • Andrew Butterfield’s full name is Andrew Butterfield (April 1992). ″Verrocchio’s Christ and St Thomas: Chronology, Iconography, and Political Context″ is a monograph that examines the life and work of the artist. The Burlington Magazine, issue 1069, pages 225–233. Vol. 134, no. 1069. JSTOR 885119
  • Cassidy, Brendan, ″A Relic, Some Pictures, and the Mothers of Florence in the Late Fourteenth Century,″ Gesta, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1991), pp. 91–99, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the International Center of Medieval Art, JSTOR
  • Gurewich, Vladimir, ″A Relic, Some Pictures, and the Mothers of Florence in the Late Fourteenth Century,″ Gesta, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1957). ″Observations on the Iconography of the Wound in Christ’s Side, with Special Reference to Its Position,″ a paper published in the journal Iconography. The Warburg and Courtauld Institutes’ journal, The Warburg Review. Gurewich, Vladimir
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  • Gurewich, Vladimir (1963). ″Rubens and the Wound in Christ’s Side. A Postscript.″ ″Rubens and the Wound in Christ’s Side. A Postscript.″ The Warburg and Courtauld Institutes’ journal, The Warburg Review. It was published in The Warburg Institute 26 (3/4): 358. doi:10.2307/750501
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  • Most, Glenn W. (2009). Thomas the skeptic. ISBN 978-0674041257
  • O’Rahilly, Alfred. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674041257
  • (June 1938). ″The Stigmata of Saint Francis,″ as it is known. Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review is a scholarly journal published in Ireland. Irish Province of the Society of Jesus, Journal of the Society of Jesus, 27 (106): 177–198. Pickard, John (JSTOR 30097539)
  • JSTOR 30097539 (August 1916). ″The Doubting Thomas: The Bronze Group by Andrea del Verrocchio″ is a painting by Andrea del Verrocchio. The American Magazine of Art, volume 7, number 10, pages 410–414. Rylands, Philip (JSTOR 20559503)
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