Zebedee – Wikipedia
Hans von Kulmbach, Mary Salome and Zebedee with their Sons James the Greater and John the Evangelist, c.1511 Zebedee (ZEB-id-ee; Ancient Greek: Ζεβεδαῖoς, romanized: Zebedaîos; Hebrew: זְבַדְיָה, romanized: Zəḇaḏyâ), according to all four Canonical Gospels, was the father of James and John, two disciples of Jesus.The gospels also suggest that he was the husband of Salome: whereas Mark 15:40 names the women present at the crucifixion as ″Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and of Joses, and Salome″, the parallel passage in Matthew 27:56 has ″Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee’s children.″ The Catholic Encyclopedia concludes that the Salome of Mark 15:40 is probably identical with the mother of the sons of Zebedee in Matthew.Zebedee was presumably a fisherman, ″probably of some means.″ Although named several times in the gospels, the only times he actually appears are in Matthew 4:21-22 and Mark 1:19–20, where he is left in the boat after Jesus called James and John.Mark’s note that Zebedee was left with the ″hired men″ implies the family had some wealth.
Zebedee lived at or near Bethsaida.
O is most likely a transliteration of the Hebrew name Zâayâ, according to Spiros Zodhiates (The Complete Wordstudy Dictionary), or the truncated version Zabdî (), according to the BDB Theological Dictionary, and thus means ″Yahweh (or the Lord) has bestowed,″ according to the BDB Theological Dictionary.Other frequent meanings of the name include ″plenty″ (according to Hitchcock’s Bible Names Dictionary) and ″my gift″ (according to Smith’s Bible Dictionary).
- Mary Salome and Zebedee
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zebedee (a figure from the New Testament).
Who Was Jesus’ Biological Father?
Taking a look at the nativity tales in the books of Matthew and Luke The staff of the Biblical Archaeology Society will meet on February 17, 2022.132223 views and 101 comments Was Joseph Jesus’ real father or was he adopted by Mary and Joseph?Joseph plays a significant role in the nativity tales told by Matthew and Luke, respectively.In this 16th-century painting by Lorenzo Lotto, he is represented at the birth of Jesus with his wife, Mary.Featured image courtesy of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC.
Is it possible that Joseph Jesus was Jesus’ biological father?If not, who was Jesus’ biological father, and how did he come to be?The annunciation tales recorded in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke describe how Jesus was conceived without the involvement of a human male.
Our present understanding of genetics and biology differs from ancient beliefs on the biology of conception, which were founded on Aristotelian philosophy in the first place.The whole human DNA of Jesus would have been required for him to be deemed totally human by our current standards, rather than a semi-divine or exceptional entity.While Mary would have provided the X chromosome, who provided the Y chromosome, which was required for reproduction?
- In his essay ″How Babies Were Made in Jesus’ Time,″ written by Andrew Lincoln of the University of Gloucestershire, which appears in the November/December 2014 edition of BAR, he addresses these issues.
- The author investigates what early Christians believed about conception, beginning with the nativity tales in Matthew and Luke, and demonstrates how attitudes toward this issue have evolved through time.
- What was the identity of Jesus’ biological father?
- As modern readers, we could be perplexed as to how the result of a virginal conception could be considered fully human, given that the Y chromosome did not originate from a human father.
- According to Andrew Lincoln, this issue would not have been a source of concern to an ancient audience or to the authors of the nativity accounts in Matthew and Luke because: Given the patriarchal culture in which they lived, they would have had some form of the mainstream Aristotelian theory of conception.
According to this viewpoint, the male sperm serves as the formative factor for all life.The female menstrual blood provides the substance for the fetus, while the womb serves as the vehicle for the semen’s nourishment and development.The logos (rational cause) and pneuma (vital heat/animating spirit) sent by the man’s sperm are received by the woman’s body, which serves as a container.In this way, the male serves as the active and efficient cause of reproduction, while the female serves as the source of the substance that the male seed defines.
- In this way, the male and the female are complementary.
- For the most part, the mother provides the body material essential for the development of a human fetus, whereas the father provides the life force.
- Many people, including those who were raised on the birth tales in Matthew and Luke, believed that Jesus was completely human since his mother provided him with all of his physical essence.
- As Lincoln explains, ″In terms of ancient biology, even if Jesus did not have a human father, he would have been considered to be completely human.″ He was born of Mary, who gave the human material, and God provided the animating essence in this instance instead of a human father by the intervention of the divine Spirit.″ The New Testament does not specify if Joseph Jesus was the biological or only the adoptive father of Jesus.
- The annunciation tales in Matthew and Luke say that Jesus was conceived without the involvement of a human father; nevertheless, later in the Gospel of Luke, Joseph is identified as Jesus’ biological father and parent (Luke 2:27, 33, 48; 4:22).
- The pedigree of Joseph demonstrates that Jesus is derived from King David (Luke 3:23–38), and this is confirmed by the Gospel of Luke.
- Do these narratives conflict with the legends of the annunciation?
- Tradition has claimed that Joseph was Jesus’ adopted father, which would explain how these seemingly discordant tales might be reconciled.
Lincoln proposes another solution in his article: he argues that understanding the genre of the Gospels might assist in making sense of this seeming discrepancy.The Gospels can be compared to other ancient Greco-Roman biographies, such as Plutarch’s biographies of Theseus, Romulus, and Alexander the Great, because they represent a subset of ancient Greco-Roman biography.In these cases, the principal individual is presented with two conception tales, one of which is normal and the other supernatural in nature.″Did Jesus Exist?
- ″ is a good read.
- Article by Lawrence Mykytiuk from the January/February 2015 edition of BAR entitled ″Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible.″ When two conception tales for the same figure were told about the same individual, it was not unusual in Greco-Roman histories, and Lincoln indicates that this was a manner of imparting significance and worth to people ″who were considered to have acquired greatness later in life.″ In this genre, persons who had done great things in their adult lives deserved to have a conception tale that was equally outstanding—if not better—than their adult lives.
- Certainly, Lincoln’s method is intriguing—especially when applied to the nativity accounts of Matthew and Luke.
- Read the whole article ″How Babies Were Made in Jesus’ Time″ by Andrew Lincoln in the November/December 2014 edition of BAR to get Lincoln’s complete discussion of the subject and to discover more about what early Christians thought about conception.
- —————— Members of the BAS Library: Andrew Lincoln’s essay ″How Babies Were Made in Jesus’ Time″ is in the November/December 2014 edition of Biblical Archaeology Review and is worth reading in its entirety.
- Not a member of the BAS Library yet?
- Become a member of the BAS Library now.
Learn more about ancient views of conception in the BAS Library:
J.Edward Barrett, ″Can Scholars Take the Virgin Birth Seriously?″ (Can Scholars Take the Virgin Birth Seriously?).The Bible Review published an article in October 1988 titled ″How Early Christians Viewed the Birth of Jesus,″ by James E.Crouch, published in Bible Review in October 1991.Pieter Willem van der Horst’s paper ″Did Sarah Have a Seminal Emission?″ is available online.
The Bible Review published an article in February 1992 titled Become a member of the BAS Library now.If Jesus was a real person who lived in the first century, would it be feasible to recognize him from the countless stories and traditions about him that have accumulated over 2,000 years in the Bible and church teachings?Check out the study website for the historical Jesus to read free articles about Jesus in Bible history on a daily basis.
This Bible History Daily piece was first published on November 3, 2014, and has since been updated.
Who Were The Twelve Disciples (Apostles) Of Jesus?
- Simon Peter’s father, Jonas, was a fisherman who resided in Bethsaida and Capernaum with his family
- Simon Peter was the son of Jonas.
- Thomas Didymus, who lived in Galilee, was a gloomy and befuddled individual who was nevertheless well-known for his heroism.
- The decision was made to appoint Matthias to replace Judas Iscariot after he committed suicide.
The apostles of Jesus were summoned by Jesus on various times to assist Him in His own ministry, regardless of where they came from or what their professional backgrounds were.Jesus recognized their potential and promised them that He would make them fishers of men if they continued to follow Him.We’ve seen throughout history how they were instrumental in the establishment of contemporary churches via the dissemination of the good news.Despite their efforts, they were subjected to a variety of persecutions in their efforts to spread the Good News.
Andrew was Peter’s younger brother as well as the son of Jonas.Prior to being called by Jesus to be one of the disciples, he and his family resided in Bethsaida and Capernaum and worked as fisherman together.Andrew was a member of Jesus’ inner circle during his lifetime, and he was instrumental in bringing people to Christ and introducing them to the master.After being captured and sentenced to death by Governor Aepeas on the cross, Andrew died in the Greek town of Patra, earning the title ″martyr.″
He was also known as Nathaniel, and he was the son of Talmai, who resided in Cana, Galilee, at the time of Jesus’ birth.Due to the fact that his father was the king of Geshur, and that his daughter was David’s wife, he came from a royal family.Jesus spoke to him as a genuine Israelite in whom there is no deception.He was a famous scholar who died as a martyr after being flayed alive with knives while searching for the truth in the scriptures.
James, Son of Zebedee
James was the son of Zebedee and Salome, and he was a brother of John the Apostle.He was born in the city of Jerusalem.Fisherman who resided in Bethsaida, Capernaum, and Jerusalem.He was a member of the Jewish community.The inner circle included him, and he was given preferential treatment as a result of his membership.
He was a guy who exemplified the fruits of the Holy Spirit with a level of trust that was astounding.He preached throughout Jerusalem and Judea before being killed by Herod, making him the first of the twelve apostles to be martyred.
James, Son of Alpheus
James was the son of Alpheus and Mary, and he was a brother of Jude, who was also an apostle at the time.He lived in Galilee and was one of Jesus’ lesser-known disciples, yet he was a man of great character who set an example for others and was a fiery and excellent leader.He also died as a martyr since his corpse was sawed into pieces, and the saw became his apostolic emblem as a result of his death.
A brother of the apostle James, John was the son of Zebedee and Salome and a son of Zebedee and Salome.Fisherman who resided in Bethsaida, Capernaum, and Jerusalem.He was a member of the Jewish community.He is referred to as the beloved disciple since he was a member of Peter’s inner group and was close to him.He was a driven and ambitious individual with a fiery temper and a hard heart for those who disagreed with him.
He was the author of the books of John, the first John, the second John, the third John, and the book of Revelation.Although an assassination attempt was made on his life, God preserved him and he died of natural causes.
Judas Iscariot was the son of Simon, who resided in the town of Kerioth in the tribe of Judah.He is referred to as the traitor since he betrayed Jesus by kissing the hands of the adversary in exchange for thirty pieces of silver and then hung himself as a result of his actions.Jesus was aware that Judas was about to betray Him before he ever did it himself.He was a conceited individual who want to be acknowledged by the Governor.
Jude, sometimes known as Thaddeus or Lebbeus, was the brother of James, the son of Alpheus, and the son of Alpheus.He resided in Galilee, and nothing was known about him or about his life.He proclaimed the gospel in a variety of locations, including the Euphrates River, and many people were healed as a result.Many others came to believe in the name of the teacher.He continued to preach the gospel until he was murdered by arrows in the city of Ararat.
Matthew, also known as Levi, was the son of Alpheus, who resided in Capernaum and was the son of Alpheus.He was a tax collector, and in Jewish tradition, tax collectors were despised for being unfair.Despite this, Jesus recognized potential in him and picked him as his disciple.He was the author of the Gospel of Matthew, as well as the first person to record the teachings of Jesus in the Hebrew language, and he gave his life in the service of the master’s beliefs.
The decision was made to appoint Matthias as Judas Iscariot’s replacement after he committed suicide.A record of Matthias’ presence with Jesus throughout his public ministry can be found nowhere in the New Testament.Matthias was picked from among the other candidates, including Joseph and Barabbas, who were also under consideration.Matthias is said to have spread the gospel along the beaches of the Caspian Sea, according to historical accounts.He was alive till the year 80 A.D.
He was the son of Jonas, a fisherman who resided in Bethsaida and Capernaum around the time of Christ’s birth.He was a member of Jesus’ closest circle, and he traveled as far as Babylon in the course of his missionary and evangelistic efforts.He was the author of two writings in the Bible, the first of which was 1st Peter and the second of which was 2nd Peter.He was crucified on a cross, and he specifically requested that he be crucified head downwards since he felt he was unworthy to die in the same manner as his teacher.
Philip, like Peter and Andrew, was a native of Bethesda, Maryland.In the Gospel of John, he takes on the appearance of a live personality.He was the first guy that Jesus instructed to follow him, and he thought that He was the one prophets described by Moses had been describing all along.As someone who had both a warm heart and a pessimistic mentality, he was driven to do good for others but found himself frustrated by the inability to understand how such things could be accomplished.Despite the fact that he was hanging, he ordered that his corpse be wrapped in papyrus rather than linen, as was the case with Jesus.
Simon the Zealot
The life of Simon the Zealot is only known through what is described in the Bible, and nothing is known about him outside of that.He was a Canaanite who lived in Galilee at the time of Jesus’ birth.Zealots were ardent Jewish nationalists who had a heroic disdain for the agony they endured while fighting for what they believed to be the integrity of their faith.He was one of them.However, in the end, he emerged as a man of faith who died as a martyr, having realized that God would not accept forced labor.
Thomas Didymus, who lived in Galilee, was a gloomy and befuddled individual who was nevertheless well-known for his heroism.While he couldn’t believe until he saw Jesus, after seeing the resurrection of Jesus, his doubts were transformed into faith when he saw the risen Christ.His efforts culminated in his being appointed to construct a palace for the King of India, and his life was cut short by being speared in the back by his Lord.
Get to Know Jesus’ 12 Apostles, Including Peter, John and More
The 12 apostles were chosen by Jesus Christ from among his early disciples to be his closest colleagues and confidants.Jesus completely commissioned the apostles (Matthew 28:16-2, Mark 16:15) after an extensive discipleship course and following his resurrection from the dead, in order to promote God’s kingdom and spread the gospel message across the globe.The names of the 12 disciples may be found in Matthew 10:2-4, Mark 3:14-19, and Luke 6:13-16, among other places.These individuals would go on to become the founding fathers of the New Testament church, but they were not without their flaws and failings as well.Strangely enough, neither a scholar nor a rabbi was among the twelve apostles who were selected by God.
These folks have no exceptional abilities.It was a group of everyday folks who were neither religious nor sophisticated, just like you and me.God, on the other hand, picked them for a specific purpose: to fan the fires of the gospel, which would spread across the face of the planet and continue to burn brightly for millennia to come.
In order to carry out God’s extraordinary plan, he chose and employed each of these ordinary people.
Meet the 12 Apostles of Jesus Christ
Take a few minutes to learn about the 12 apostles of Jesus and the traits that characterized each of them. Learn from the guys who were instrumental in igniting the flame of truth that continues to burn inside hearts today and urges others to come and follow Christ.
Peter was, without a doubt, a ″duh″-principle that the majority of people can relate to.From one moment to the next, he was walking on water by faith, and then he was drowning in insecurity.Peter is well renowned for his impulsive and passionate behavior, which culminated in his denial of Jesus when the stakes were high.Still, as a follower, he was cherished by Christ, and he was given an honorable place among the twelve apostles.In the Gospels, Peter, who serves as a spokesperson for the Twelve, stands out.
When the names of the guys are read out loud, Peter’s name is always the first.It was he, James, and John who constituted the core of Jesus’ inner group of closest friends.They were the only ones who were granted the opportunity to see the transfiguration as well as a few other amazing revelations from Jesus.
Following the resurrection, Peter rose to prominence as a fearless preacher and missionary, and he went on to become one of the most influential figures in the early church.History records that when Peter was sentenced to death by crucifixion, he requested that his head be bent toward the ground because he did not believe he was worthy to die in the same manner as Jesus.
In order to become the first disciple of Jesus of Nazareth, the apostle Andrew deserted John the Baptist, yet John the Baptist didn’t seem to mind at all.He was well aware that his purpose was to direct people to the Messiah.Andrew, like many of us, grew up in the shadow of his older brother, Simon Peter, who was more well-known.Andrew is identified as Peter’s brother in all four Gospels.The couple came from Bethsaida, which is a village located north of the Sea of Galilee.
Andrew was the one who led Peter to faith in Christ, but then he stood back to allow his raucous brother to rise to prominence among the apostles and in the early church.Despite the fact that the Gospels don’t say much about Andrew, reading between the lines reveals a man who was thirsty for truth and found it in the living water of Jesus.Throughout Andrew’s life, we see how an ordinary fisherman who abandoned his nets on the coast eventually rose to become a wonderful fisher of men.
Each of the synoptic Gospels mentions James as a follower of Jesus who was among the first to follow him.In order to distinguish himself from the other James, James the son of Zebedee was a member of Christ’s inner circle, which also included his brother John the apostle and the apostle Peter.James the son of Zebedee was often referred to as James the Greater to distinguish him from the other James the son of Zebedee.As a result, not only did James and John get a distinctive moniker from the Lord — ″sons of thunder,″ but they also had the honor of being at the forefront and center of three miraculous occurrences throughout the life of Jesus.In addition to these distinctions, James was the first of the 12 apostles to be murdered for his religion in A.D.
44, making him the first of the apostles to be crucified.
The apostle John, brother of James, was referred to by Jesus as one of the ″sons of thunder,″ but he preferred to refer to himself as ″the disciple whom Jesus loved,″ which is what he called himself.Because he is frequently referenced after James, it seems likely that John was younger than James.When Jesus summoned the brothers, they were working as fishermen with their father Zebedee when he called them.The fiery temperament of John, along with his deep devotion to the Savior, earned him a valued position inside Christ’s inner circle.In addition to his huge influence on the early Christian church, he has a larger-than-life personality that makes him an intriguing character study.
His compositions reflect a variety of characteristics.For example, on the first Easter morning, with his characteristic fervor and passion, John hurried Peter to the tomb when Mary Magdalene reported that it had been discovered to be vacant.After claiming victory and bragging about it in his Gospel (John 20:1-9), John meekly permitted Peter to be the first to enter the tomb, demonstrating his humility.According to legend, John outlived all of his followers, dying in his old age at Ephesus, where he proclaimed a gospel of love and lectured against heresy while preaching and teaching.
Philip was one of the earliest disciples of Jesus Christ, and he didn’t spare any time in encouraging others, such as Nathanael, to follow in his footsteps.Philip is given a more prominent part in the Gospel of John than he is in the other three Gospels put together.In John 14:8–9, Philip approaches Jesus and requests, ″We would be happy if you show us the Father, Lord.″ ″Have I been with you all this time, Philip, and yet you still don’t know who I am?″ Jesus responds.Every single person who has seen me has seen the Father.″ (NLT) However, despite the fact that nothing is known about him following Christ’s ascension, Bible historians think Philip preached the gospel in the region of Phrygia in Asia Minor, where he died as a martyr at the city of Hierapolis.One thing we can be confident of is that Philip’s pursuit for the truth brought him directly to the Messiah who had been promised.
Nathanael or Bartholomew
Nathanael, who is thought to be Bartholomew’s disciple, had a startling first contact with Jesus, according to tradition.Nathanael was suspicious when the apostle Philip invited him to come and see the Messiah, but he went along with it nonetheless.In the presence of Jesus, the Lord remarked, ″Here is a real Israelite, in whom there is nothing false.″ Philip was the one who presented him.Right away, Nathanael wanted to know, ″How did you find out about me?″ As soon as he responded, Jesus caught his attention, saying, ″I saw you when you were still under the fig tree prior to Philip calling you.″ Nathanael came to a complete halt as a result of this.″Rabbi, you are the Son of God; you are the King of Israel,″ he said, shocked and amazed.
Despite the fact that Nathanael was barely mentioned in passing in the Gospels, he was transformed into a devoted follower of Jesus Christ in that moment.
Customs official Levi, who later became known as the apostle Matthew, worked in Capernaum and assessed taxes on imports and exports based on his own judgment.For his involvement with Rome and betrayal of his compatriots, he was despised by the Jews.However, when Matthew the dishonest tax collector heard two words from Jesus, ″Follow me,″ he immediately abandoned everything and followed Jesus.He wished to be welcomed and loved, just like the rest of us.Matthew regarded Jesus as someone who was worthy of sacrifice, and as a result, he renounced his luxurious life in order to serve and follow him.
It is customary to refer to the apostle Thomas as ″Doubting Thomas″ because he hesitated to accept that Jesus had risen from the dead until he was able to see and touch the actual wounds of Christ.However, when it comes to disciples, Thomas has had a bad record throughout history.After all, every one of the apostles, with the exception of John, deserted Jesus during his trial and execution at Calvary.Thomas had a tendency to go to extremes.Later, he had displayed daring faith by risking his life to accompany Jesus into Judea, demonstrating his commitment to Jesus.
A valuable lesson may be learned from Thomas’s life.If we are sincerely seeking the truth and are completely open with ourselves and others about our troubles and uncertainties, God will faithfully meet us and show himself to us, just as he did for Thomas, we will be blessed.
James the Less
James the Less is one of the most obscure apostles in the Bible, and he is also known as James the Less.The only things we know for definite about him are his name and the fact that he was there in the upper chamber of Jerusalem following Christ’s ascension to the right hand of the Father.In his book Twelve Ordinary Men, John MacArthur speculates that his relative obscurity may have been the defining characteristic of his life.James the Less’ full obscurity may disclose something important about his character, and this is a possibility.
Simon the Zealot
Who doesn’t like a good mystery novel or two?The actual identity of Simon the Zealot, the Bible’s own mystery apostle, is one of the most perplexing questions in the book of Genesis.Only a few details are given about Simon in the Bible.His name is referenced three times in the Gospels, but solely to provide a brief description of who he is.In Acts 1:13, we learn that he was there with the apostles in the upper apartment of Jerusalem following Christ’s ascension to the right hand of the Father.
We can only assume about Simon’s background and his identification as a Zealot based on those few information.
Thaddeus or Jude
The apostle Thaddeus, who is included with Simon the Zealot and James the Less, completes a cluster of the disciples who are the least well-known. Thaddeus is described as a tender-hearted, kind man who possessed a childlike humility in Twelve Ordinary Men, a book written by John MacArthur about the apostles.
Judas Iscariot is the apostle who betrayed Jesus with a kiss.Some would argue that Judas Iscariot committed the greatest error in human history as a result of this supreme act of treachery.Judas has elicited conflicting reactions from people throughout history.Some people feel a strong sense of hatred for him, while others feel pity for him, and some people even consider him a hero.What matters is that, regardless of how you feel about Judas, one thing is certain: believers would benefit greatly from taking a close look at his life.
Alphaeus – Wikipedia
- It is written in the New Testament that Alphaeus (from Greek: o) is a man who is credited with fathering two of the Twelve Apostles, who are named Matthew the Evangelist and James the son of Alphaeus.
- He is implied to be the father of:
- Joseph or Joses
- He is also known as the father of Abercius, Helena, and other children according to Christian legend.
Typically, in the Western Catholic faith, there are two individuals called Alphaeus who are considered to have existed.Each had a son named James and another named Matthew.One of them was James’ father and the other Matthew’s father (Levi).However, despite the fact that both Matthew and James are referred to as ″sons of Alphaeus,″ there is no Biblical account of the two being referred to as brothers, even in the same context as the accounts of John and James or Peter and Andrew who are referred to as brothers.This despite the fact that Eastern Christian history generally holds that Matthew and James were brothers.
According to legend, Alphaeus was the spouse of Mary Clopas’ daughter, who was born in the Medieval era.It has recently been suggested that Alphaeus was actually Clopas, based on the identification of Mary, Mary Magdalene’s mother, as the third woman in Matthew’s account and Salome wife of Zebedee beside the cross in Matthew’s account with Mary of Clopas, the third woman in John’s account based on parallel Gospel accounts.Alphaeus was originally thought to be Clopas, but it has now been suggested that he was actually Mary of Clopas.It is often assumed by post-medieval academics and interpreters that the appellation ‘Mary of Clopas’ refers to Mary as Clopas’ wife rather than his daughter.In the King James Version of the Bible, Mary is referred to as Cleophas’ wife.
The surviving fragments of the work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord of the Apostolic Father Papias of Hierapolis, who lived between 70 and 163 AD, claim that the two men are the same person: ″Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus, who was the mother of James the bishop and apostle, as well as Simon and Thaddeus, and one Joseph.″ According to J.B.Lightfoot, an Anglican theologian, the portion given above is a forgery of the original.It is suggested by the Catholic Encyclopedia that the names Clopas and Alphaeus are distinct in their etymological origins, but that they might refer to the same individual.Other sources suggest that the names Alphaeus, Clophas, and Cleophas are alternative efforts to convert the Aramaic H in the Aramaic Hilfai into Greek aspirated, or K, as in the Greek alphabet.
Salome (disciple) – Wikipedia
There is a figure in the gospels who is discussed in this article. Salome can be found in a variety of contexts (disambiguation).
|Greek fresco of St Salome
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The Crucifixion is shown on the Buhl Altarpiece, which dates back to the 1490s.Salome is one of the two women with a halo on the left side of the image.As a disciple of Jesus in the New Testament, Salome appears very briefly in the canonical gospels and apocryphal literature, yet she is a fascinating character.She is mentioned by Mark as having been present at the crucifixion and as being one of the women who discovered Jesus’ tomb to be vacant.In addition, she has been linked to other women who are referenced but not named in the canonical gospels, according to recent interpretation.
In particular, she is frequently recognized as Zebedee’s wife and as the mother of James and John, two of the Twelve apostles who were born to her.Salome (also known as Mary Salome) was considered to be one of the Three Marys, all of whom were daughters of Saint Anne, and so a sister or half-sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus, according to medieval belief.
‘Salome’ might be a Hellenized version of a Hebrew given name derived from the root word (shalom), which means ‘peace.’ In addition to the famed dancing ″Daughter of Herodias,″ both a sister and a daughter of Herod the Great were named Salome, as was Queen Salome Alexandra (d. 67 BC), the last independent monarch of Judea, who was also known as Salome.
In the canonical gospels
Salome is mentioned in Mark 15:40–41 as one of the women who were present at Jesus’ crucifixion and who also ministered to him: ″There were also women who were watching from a distance, among them Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and of Joses, and Salome, who had also followed Him and ministered to Him while he was in Galilee, as well as others.As well as a large number of other ladies who accompanied Him to Jerusalem.″ (15:40–41, according to the King James Version) ″Among them was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee’s children,″ according to the same line in Matthew 27:56: ″Among them was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee’s children.″ Following this conclusion, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913), the Salome of Mark 15:40 is most likely similar to the mother of Zebedee’s boys who is also referenced in Matthew 20:20, in which she requests Jesus to let her sons to join her on the right hand of God in Paradise.Several women are referenced during the crucifixion in the Gospel of John; this time they are identified as Jesus’ ″mother and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.″ (John 19:25 King James Version) Salome is commonly identified as the sister of Jesus’ mother, making her Jesus’ aunt according to one popular view.Traditional interpretations link Mary the wife of Cleophas (the third woman in John’s Gospel) to Mary the mother of James son of Alphaeus (the fourth woman in John’s Gospel) (the third woman in the Gospel of Matthew).Salome is mentioned in the Gospel of Mark as one of the women who went to Jesus’ tomb to anoint his body with spices after the Sabbath had passed.
″And when the sabbath had passed, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had purchased sweet spices, so that they might come and anoint him.″ (Mark 16:1 King James Version) They noticed that the stone had been rolled aside, and a young man in white approached them and informed them that Jesus had risen from the dead, and instructed them to inform Jesus’ followers that he would meet them in Galilee if they did not already know.Matthew 28:1 mentions two women who are previously referenced in Matthew 27:56 as the mother of James and Joses: Mary Magdalene and the ″other Mary,″ who was previously recognized in Matthew 27:56 as Mary the mother of James and Joses.Salome is never referred to as a ″disciple″ (mathts) in the canonical gospels, and therefore orthodox Christian authors normally refer to her as a ″follower″ of Jesus, citing references to the women who ″followed″ and ″ministered″ to Jesus in other passages (Mark 15:41).Feminist critics, on the other hand, have maintained that the mainstream tradition constantly downplays the significance of Jesus’ female supporters.
In non-canonical works
The Gospel of Thomas, discovered at Nag Hammadi, mentions two women among Jesus’ ″disciples″ (the Greek term ″apostles″ does not appear): Salome and Mary Magdalene (referred to simply as ″Mary″).The name ″Mary″ could also refer to Salome’s mother Mary, the sister of Elizabeth and Anne, and the mother of Christ’s mother Mary, as well as Salome’s mother Mary, the sister of Elizabeth and Anne.So Salome’s mother Mary would be Jesus’ great aunt, as well as the sister of his grandmother Anne and the aunt of Jesus’ mother.The Diatessaron, which is part of the Ante-Nicene Fathers collection, distinguishes Salome and the mother of Zebedee’s boys as two distinct individuals, in contrast to traditional interpretations that identify them as one.″And there were all of Jesus’ acquaintances standing in the distance, as well as the ladies who had traveled with Him from Galilee, as well as others who had followed Him and served.″ The apostle Mary Magdalene was among those who accompanied Him to Jerusalem, as was Mary the mother of James the little and Joses, as well as the mother of the sons of Zebedee, Salome, and many others.″ (See Diatessaron 52:21–23 for further information.) There is a further mention of Salome at 10:46 in the controversial Secret Gospel of Mark, which was referred to and quoted in the Mar Saba letter, which is attributed by his modern editors to Clement of Alexandria.
This is not present in the canonical Gospel of Mark, which was written by Clement of Alexandria.In his letter, Clement mentions the following passage: ″Then he arrived into Jericho.As well as his mother and Salome, the sister of the young man whom Jesus adored was also present, but Jesus refused to accept them.″ The lines fill in a well-known void in Mark’s text as it stood at the time of publication.When Salome reappears in the non-canonical Greek Gospel of the Egyptians (2nd century), she is identified as a follower of Jesus.Her question to him is for how long death will reign, and he responds, ″As long as women bear children, for I have come to put a stop to the works of the female.″ When Salome hears this, she responds, ″Well, then, I did well in not giving birth.″ It appears from this text that there existed an early story that Salome the disciple was childless and maybe unmarried, and this appears to be supported by the text.
Several times in the Gospel of Thomas, Jesus is depicted as resting on a sofa and eating at an adjacent table, and he is questioned by Salome about who he is and why he has taken up residence on her couch and eaten from her table.″I am he who comes from the One, and the things that belong to the Father have been entrusted to me,″ Jesus responds.The response from Salome is, ″But I am your disciple,″ to which Jesus responds, ″When the disciple is united, he will be filled with light; nevertheless, when the disciple is separated, he will be filled with darkness.″ Clement of Alexandria authored a True Discourse in the second century AD, in which he attacked Christian factions as a threat to the Roman Empire.He described the range of Christian sects at the time of his writing, which was about the year 178, as ″very wide.″ Even though his treatise has been lost, excerpts from it can be found in Origen’s attack on Celsus, Contra Celsum (″Against Celsus″), which was written a few years later: ″While some Christians proclaim that they worship the same god as the Jews, others insist that there is another god higher than the creator-god and opposed to him.″ Furthermore, some Christians believe that the Son is descended from this greater god.
Another group of people acknowledges the existence of a third deity – those who identify themselves as gnostics – and yet another group of people, although identifying themselves as Christians, wishes to live according to Jewish law.Others who name themselves Simonians after Simon, and others who call themselves Helenians after Helen, his consort, are likewise worthy of note.I could go on.As a result of her influence, there are Christian sects named after Marcellina, Harpocratian Christians who trace their origins back to Salome, as well as those who follow Mariamne and others who follow Martha, and yet others who call themselves Marcionites in honor of their founder, Marcion.″ There are also additional allusions to ″Salome″ in the early Christian literature.
There is a Salome who appears in the infant gospel associated with the name of James the Just, the Protevangelion of James (Protevangelion of James, chapter XIV): ″14 And the midwife came out of the cave, and Salome was there to greet her.15 And the midwife whispered to her, ″Salome, Salome, I’m going to tell you something that I witnessed that was rather astonishing.″ 16 ″A virgin has given birth to something that is in direct opposition to nature.″ 17 In response, Salome stated, ″As long as the Lord my God lives, I will not accept that a virgin has given birth unless I have specific confirmation of this subject.″ Salome then walked in and the midwife said, ″Mary, reveal yourself, for there has been a great deal of commotion about you.″ Salome put her to the test with her finger, and she passed.21 ″Woe to me because of my sin!For I have tempted the living God, and my hand is about to fall off,″ she cried out, her hand withered.
The fact that Salome is the first person, after the midwife, to bear witness to the Miraculous Birth and to acknowledge Jesus as the Christ are circumstances that seem to link her to Salome the disciple, according to tradition.At some point during the High Middle Ages, this Salome was frequently (but not always) linked with Mary Salome in the West, and she came to be known as the believing midwife.The ladies who went to the tomb are mentioned in the apocryphal Coptic Book of the Resurrection of Christ, which is credited to the apostle Bartholomew.Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, whom Jesus released from the clutches of Satan, Mary who tended to him, Martha her sister, Joanna (and maybe Susanna), who deserted the marital bed, and ″Salome, who tempted him″ were among others who had this experience with Jesus.
Saint Salome is celebrated on the Sunday of the Myrrhbearers, which is the third Sunday of Pascha (Easter), as well as on the third Sunday of August in the Eastern Orthodox Church.In the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, her feast day is celebrated on the 24th of April or the 22nd of October.Her feast day is celebrated on August 3rd, together with the feasts of Joanna and Mary, according to the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod Calendar of Saints.In religious art, she is frequently shown alongside the Holy Family, particularly in paintings of the Holy Kinship.She is also seen clutching a thurible, which represents her willingness to sacrifice and her trust in Jesus Christ.
Legend of Saint Anne’s three husbands
- According to a legend proposed by Haymo of Auxerre in the mid-9th century but rejected by the Council of Trent, Saint Anne had three daughters by different husbands, all of whom bore the name Mary and who are referred to as the Three Marys: Mary, the mother of Jesus
- Mary of Clopas
- Salome, who is known in this tradition as Mary Salome (as in the tradition of the three Marys at the tomb)
- and Mary of Clopas, who is known in this tradition as Mary of
Mary Magdalene is not included in this group of people.As a result, Mary Salome is considered to be the Virgin Mary’s half-sister.This narrative was included in the Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine, which was written around 1260 and depicted Jacobus as a heroic figure.Jean de Venette wrote a long poem in rhymed French about it around the year 1357, which was the inspiration for this piece.The poem is preserved in a vellum copy from the mid-15th century that has 232 pages of verse written in columns.
The titles are written in red and with gold highlights.It is embellished with seven miniatures in a monotone gray color scheme.Saint Anne with her husbands, daughters, sons-in-law, and grandchildren were commonly shown in religious art throughout Germany and the Low Countries for several centuries as a group known as the Holy Kinship.The notion of the three husbands was rejected by Protestants during the Reformation, and by Catholic theologians at the Council of Trent as well, although Salome remained to be considered as most likely the sister of the Virgin Mary, the wife of Zebedee, and the mother of the two apostles.Some scholars speculate more or less credibly that she is the Blessed Virgin’s sister, as indicated in John 19:25, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913, which was a bit more cautious than the prominent 19th-century Protestant books of biblical reference at the time.
- Saint Sarah
- Salome (Gospel of James)
- Salome (Gospel of James)
- Salome (Gospel of James)
- Subject Bible: Salome (which includes Smith’s Bible Dictionary, the American Theological Society Bible Dictionary, Easton’s Bible Dictionary, and the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
- ″NETBible:Salome.″ On September 1, 2009, the original version of this article was archived. Behind the Name: The Meaning, Origin, and History of the Name Salome
- a b Herbermann, Charles, ed., Behind the Name: The Meaning, Origin, and History of the Name Salome (1913). Salome is mentioned in the Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company, New York
- Karen L. King, 1954–, author (2003). Sacred Scriptures: The Gospel of Mary of Magdala : Jesus and the world’s first female apostle Polebridge Press, Santa Rosa, California. ISBN 978-0-944344-58-3. OCLC 53019716.:CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- G Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I, 1971 (English translation from German), Lund Humphries, London, p. 62, ISBN 0-85331-270-2
- ″Archived copy″. westserbdio.org.
- ″Archived copy″. westserbdio.org.
- ″Archived copy″. westserbdio.org.
- ″Archived copy″. westserbdio.org. The original version of this article was published on May 2, 2017. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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- CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- the Grandchildren and Great Grandchildren of St. Anne Archived 8 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ″Le manuscrit médiéval″ The Medieval Manuscript, November 2011, p. 1
- ″The Chronicle of Jean de Venette,″ translated by Jean Birdsall
- ″Le manuscrit médiéval″ The Medieval Manuscript, November 2011, p. 1
- Richard A. Newhall was in charge of the editing. The Columbia University Press, New York, published this book in 1953. Introduction
- Media related to Salome (disciple) at Wikimedia Commons
Doubting Thomas – Wikipedia
A person who is skeptic ‘Thomas’ refers to the Apostle Thomas, who is depicted in the Gospel of John as refusing to believe the resurrected Jesus had appeared to the ten other apostles until he could see and feel the crucifixion wounds.This is a reference to the Apostle Thomas’ refusal to believe until he could see and feel the crucifixion wounds of Jesus.Since at least the 15th century, the incident (officially known as the Incredulity of Thomas) has been shown several times in art, with depictions reflecting a variety of theological interpretations.
The incident is recounted in John’s Gospel, chapter 20, although it is not included in the other three synoptic Gospels.The following is the text of the King James Version of the Bible: 24 However, Thomas, one of the twelve disciples known as Didymus, was not there when Jesus appeared.25 As a result, the other disciples informed him that they had witnessed the Lord.But he told them that until he showed them the print of the nails on his hands and allowed them to insert their finger into the print of the nails and shoved his hand into his side, he would not trust them.26 And after eight days, his disciples were again in the house, this time with Thomas, when Jesus entered through the closed doors and stood in the middle of them, saying, ″Peace be unto you.″ 27 And he says to Thomas, ″Reach here your finger, and look at my hands; and reach here your hand, and press it into my side.″ ″Do not be faithless, but believing,″ he says.
28 And Thomas responded by saying, ″My Lord and my God,″ in response to him.29 Then Jesus says to him, ″Thomas, because you have seen me, you have believed; lucky are those who have not seen and yet have believed.″ Commentators have pointed out that John does not specify if Thomas actually ″push″ his hand into the pot.Prior to the Protestant Reformation, the common belief, reflected in artistic depictions, was that he had done so, a belief in which most Catholic writers continued to believe, whereas Protestant writers frequently believed that he had not.During the Protestant Reformation, the common belief was that he had not.Although there was some debate as to whether or not Thomas had ″felt″ as well as ″seen″ the physical evidence of Jesus’ resurrection, the Catholic interpretation was that, while Jesus asserts the superiority of those who have faith in the absence of physical evidence, Jesus was nonetheless willing to show Thomas his wound and allow him to feel it.
Physical experiences such as pilgrimages, worship of relics, and ritual were utilized by theologians as scriptural justification for the use of physical experiences such as ritual and devotion of relics to reinforce Christian beliefs.Although evangelical-leaning Anglican Thomas Hartwell Horne treated Thomas’s skepticism, which he extended somewhat to the other apostles, as evidence both of the veracity of the gospels, as a ″forger″ would be unlikely to have invented the gospels, and of the veracity of the gospels, as a ″forger″ would be unlikely to have invente the gospels, evangelical-leaning Anglicans emphasized Jesus’ statement of the superiority In the early church, Gnostic authors were adamant that Thomas did not genuinely examine Jesus, and they emphasized on this in apocryphal narratives, which may have had the effect of pushing their non-Gnostic opponents in the opposite way of their beliefs.While much of the theological interpretation of the episode has focused on it as a demonstration of the reality of the resurrection, it has also been given a eucharistic interpretation, seen as an allegory of the sacrament of the Eucharist, which has remained a recurring theme in commentary since the 4th and 5th centuries, respectively.
It has been prevalent in art from at least the early 6th century, when it occurs in mosaics at the Basilica of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna and on the Monza ampullae, where it is formally known as ″The Incredulity of Saint Thomas.″ These paintings, as well as subsequent Baroque depictions, of the topic, usually represented at the time Thomas inserts his fingers into Jesus’ side, were meant to underline the need of bodily sensations and evidences for the believer, as indicated above, in order to convince him of his faith.When Jesus raises his hand to disclose his side wound in the Ravenna mosaic, it is often, but not always, done in such a manner that the wounds on his hands and feet may also be seen; this is especially true when the wounds on his feet are visible.It was shown in a variety of situations in medieval art, including Byzantine icons, and was particularly popular during the Renaissance.All of the apostles were frequently featured in places where there was enough space, and occasionally Thomas’ acceptance of the Resurrection is depicted, with Thomas bowing and Jesus blessing him.Although this iconography does not explicitly state whether the event shown is the result of an investigation or not, it most likely implies that it does not, particularly in Protestant art.
The two figures’ stances have changed several times since the late Middle Ages, and a variety of different versions may be found (see gallery).One of a number of scenes sometimes arranged around a central Crucifixion of Jesus, the typical ″touching″ representation is one of the scenes depicted on the Irish Muiredach’s High Cross, and it is also the subject of a large relief in the famous Romanesque sculpted cloister at the Abbey of Santo Domingo de Silos.It could be paired with Jacob Wrestling with the Angel in works depicting pairs of typologically related scenes from the Old and New Testaments, but in a 10th-century Ottonian ivory diptych, it is paired with Moses receiving the Law, comparing both the two Biblical Testaments and the support for the faith derived from both textual ″sacred writ″ and physical evidence.With one side of his robe pulled back, displaying the wound in his side and his other four wounds (known as the ostentatio vulnerum), Jesus was removed from images with Thomas and transformed into a pose adopted by only Jesus, who frequently inserts his own fingers into the wound in his side (known as the ostentatio vulnerum).A common feature of single iconic figures and subjects such as the Last Judgement (where Bamberg Cathedral has an early example from about 1235), Christ in Majesty, the Man of Sorrows, and Christ with the Arma Christi emerged, and it was used to emphasize Christ’s suffering as well as the fact that he had been raised from the dead.
The best-known image of Christ and St.Thomas in the Renaissance is the famous sculpted couple by Andrea del Verrocchio (1467–1483) for the Orsanmichele in Florence; the theme is uncommon in free-standing sculpture.This guild church also served as a commercial tribunal, and the display of tangible evidence gave the subject a particular importance to courts and justice.As a result, the subject appeared on a number of other structures in Tuscany that served as judicial institutions.
St Thomas was also associated with the Medici dynasty, who had a significant role in the commission, yet it appears that the painting by Salviati represents anti-Medici sentiment at the time of its creation in the 1540s.During the Counter-Reformation, the theme saw a resurgence in popularity as an affirmation of Catholic teaching against Protestant rejection of the Catholic practices that the story was considered to support, as well as Protestant trust in ″faith alone.″ According to the Catholic version, even while Jesus affirms the superiority of those who believe without seeing or touching anything, he was nonetheless ready to show Thomas his wound and let him to feel the pain of it.There are many other depictions of the subject, particularly by the Utrecht Caravaggisti, who painted in a Protestant environment, such as the Flemish Caravaggist Matthias Stom, whose two versions of the subject are now on display in Madrid and Bergamo.The Incredulity of Saint Thomas by Caravaggio (c.
1601–1602) is now the most famous depiction (unusually showing Thomas to the viewer’s right of Jesus), but there are many others, especially by the It was painted by both Rembrandt (in the Pushkin Museum) and Rubens (in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp, as the centerpiece of the Rockox Triptych).
- Kneeling and touching one another, Martin Schongauer and his studio, a panel from an altarpiece from the late 15th century
- A 19th-century Danish Lutheran ″non-touching″ composition
- ″The disbelief of Thomas″ from an English manuscript, c.1504
- ″The incredulity of Thomas″ from an English manuscript, c.1504
Because of the dramatic character of the tale, it was frequently included in medieval dramas that told the story of Jesus’ life.It takes the entirety of ″Play 41″ of the York Mystery Cycle, which is thought to have been written somewhere between 1463 and 1477 and consists of 195 six-line stanzas, to tell the story.Several of the shorter cycles omit it, while the Chester Mystery Plays require 70 lines to convey it all.Due to the biblical story, two late medieval tales or fables arose, both of which are shown in artwork.
Girdle of Thomas
The Virgin Mary appeared to Thomas individually and dropped the girdle (cloth belt) she was wearing down onto him, in order to provide him with physical proof of what he had witnessed.In this story, Thomas missed the Assumption of Mary, where the other apostles were present, because he was on his way back from his mission to India.Alternatively, he is said to have been there at the actual Assumption, and the Virgin gave him her girdle as she was carried up to Heaven.The alleged girdle itself (Sacra Cintola) is a relic of the Cathedral of Prato, and its adoration was thought to be particularly beneficial for pregnant women at the time.Following Florence’s conquest of Prato in 1350–51, the girdle began to appear in Florentine art, where it is often shown on Madonna del Parto figures, which are iconic representations of the Virgin Mary when she is expecting a child.
The Madonna of the Girdle is the name given to the first retelling of the narrative in artwork.One of Palma Vecchio’s altarpieces, now on display at the Brera Gallery in Milan, depicts an intermediate version of the story, with Thomas racing towards the other apostles and the Virgin removing her girdle..In other pieces, Thomas is either catching a falling girdle or has caught a falling girdle and is holding it in his hands.
Incredulity of Jerome
During a vision in 1224, Saint Francis of Assisi (1181/1182 – 1226) received stigmata on his own body, which he wore till his death, resembling the wounds of Jesus, which he retained until his death.According to others who witnessed them, the wounds on his hands and feet seemed as if the nails were still in place, and the nail-like projections on his hands and feet were capable of being moved.Saint Bonaventure (1221 – 1274), an early biographer of Francis, wrote that a soldier named Jerome expressed skepticism and moved the ″nails″ around.It is believed that Jerome is seen inspecting Francis’ feet in the frescoes of the Bardi Chapel of Santa Croce in Florence, painted by Giotto and his studio, and that he also appears in other Franciscan works.
- Life of Jesus in the New Testament
- The following passages are cited: John 20:24–29
- Most 2009, pages 79–80
- Salisbury 2006, page 95
- Horne 1836, pages 111–111
- Soper 1938, page 188
- a b Jacks & Caferro 2001, p. 159
- Gurewich 1957, page 358
- Gurewich 1957, page 358
- Gurewich 1957, page 358
- Gurewich 1957, page 358
- Gure The original version of this article was archived on February 23, 2015.
- a b Rylands 1977, p. 249
- a b O’Rahilly 1938, p. 191
- a b Jacks and Caferro 2001, pp. 157–158
- b Rylands 1977, p. 249
- c Rylands 1977, p. 249.
- Andrew Butterfield’s full name is Andrew Butterfield (April 1992). ″Verrocchio’s Christ and St Thomas: Chronology, Iconography, and Political Context″ is a monograph that examines the life and work of the artist. The Burlington Magazine, issue 1069, pages 225–233. Vol. 134, no. 1069. JSTOR 885119
- Cassidy, Brendan, ″A Relic, Some Pictures, and the Mothers of Florence in the Late Fourteenth Century,″ Gesta, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1991), pp. 91–99, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the International Center of Medieval Art, JSTOR
- Gurewich, Vladimir, ″A Relic, Some Pictures, and the Mothers of Florence in the Late Fourteenth Century,″ Gesta, Vol. 30, No. 2 (1957). ″Observations on the Iconography of the Wound in Christ’s Side, with Special Reference to Its Position,″ a paper published in the journal Iconography. The Warburg and Courtauld Institutes’ journal, The Warburg Review. Gurewich, Vladimir
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- Gurewich, Vladimir
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- Gurewich, Vladimir (1963). ″Rubens and the Wound in Christ’s Side. A Postscript.″ ″Rubens and the Wound in Christ’s Side. A Postscript.″ The Warburg and Courtauld Institutes’ journal, The Warburg Review. It was published in The Warburg Institute 26 (3/4): 358. doi:10.2307/750501
- Horne, Thomas Hartwell
- JSTOR 750501. (1836). An Introduction to the Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures from a Critical Perspective. Richard Carter
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- R. Carter et al (2001). The Spinellis of Florence: The Fortunes of a Renaissance Merchant Family is a historical novel about a family of merchants in the Renaissance city of Florence. The University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0271019247
- Leroy, Jules (1959). André Grabar’s ″Les Ampoules de Terre Sainte″ is the subject of this review. The History of Syria: Archaeology, Art, and History (in French). 36
- Milburn, Robert Leslie Pollington (1988). Art and architecture of the early Christian period. Most, Glenn W., ed., University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-06326-6
- University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-06326-6
- Most, Glenn W. (2009). Thomas the skeptic. ISBN 978-0674041257
- O’Rahilly, Alfred. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674041257
- (June 1938). ″The Stigmata of Saint Francis,″ as it is known. Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review is a scholarly journal published in Ireland. Irish Province of the Society of Jesus, Journal of the Society of Jesus, 27 (106): 177–198. Pickard, John (JSTOR 30097539)
- JSTOR 30097539 (August 1916). ″The Doubting Thomas: The Bronze Group by Andrea del Verrocchio″ is a painting by Andrea del Verrocchi