Who Died On The Cross With Jesus?

Criminals on the Cross

Criminals on the Cross – God’s Plan from the Beginning Death, as demonstrated by the criminals on the cross, reveals the depths of the human heart.Take note of what was stated about Jesus during his crucifixion.The events of that historic period serve as a beacon of truth for all of us.″Two other guys, both felons, were also carried out to be killed with him,″ the source said.When they arrived at the location known as the Skull, they nailed him to the cross beside the two convicts who stood to his right and left of him, respectively.’Father, forgive them, for they have no idea what they are doing,’ Jesus replied.

And then they divided up his clothing by drawing names from a hat.The crowds gathered around him, and the rulers even scoffed at him at one point.He had saved others; now let him save himself if he is God’s Messiah and the Chosen One,’ they reasoned.The troops also came up to him and made fun of him.In response, they presented him with wine vinegar and declared: ‘If you are the king of the Jews, please rescue yourself.’ ‘This is the King of the Jews,’ said a printed notice above him, which he glanced at.One of the prisoners who hanged there threw obscenities against Jesus, saying things like, ‘Aren’t you the Messiah?’ ‘Save yourself and us from ourselves!’ The other criminal, on the other hand, scolded him.

‘Don’t you have any fear of God,’ he said, referring to the fact that they were both serving the same sentence.We are being punished fairly, since we are receiving the consequences of our actions.’However, this individual has done nothing wrong.’ When he finished, he said to Jesus, ‘Jesus, keep me in mind when you come into your kingdom’ ″Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise,″ Jesus said (Luke 23:32-43).

In God’s Eternal Plan, criminals will die on the cross.Death, as demonstrated by the criminals on the cross, reveals the depths of human compassion.What happened at Jesus’ crucifixion should be noted.All of us may learn from the happenings of that historic period.He was escorted to the executioner’s stand by two other men, both felons.He was crucified with the other convicts, one on his right and the other on his left, when they arrived at the location known as the Skull.

They don’t understand what they’re doing, therefore Father, forgive them,’ Jesus replied.Also, by using a lottery system, they divided up his clothing.In fact, the authorities scoffed at him as the populace stood by and looked on.They reasoned, ‘He rescued others; now let him save himself, if he is God’s Messiah and the Chosen One.’ The troops came up to him and made fun of him, as well as others.’If you are the king of the Jews, rescue yourself,’ they cried, presenting him with wine vinegar.’This is the King of the Jews,’ said a printed placard above him, which said in part: The one of the convicts who hanged there flung obscenities at Jesus, saying, ‘Aren’t you the Christ?’ You and we both need to get out of here!″ But he was reprimanded by the other inmate.

In light of the fact that you are both serving the same sentence, he inquired, ‘Do you not fear God?’ he asked.We are being punished fairly, since we are receiving the punishment that our actions have earned for us to receive.″However, this individual has committed no wrong.″ Later, when Jesus entered the kingdom of heaven, he asked him to’remember me,’ and he did.Then Jesus told him, ″Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise″ (Luke 23:32-43).

Jesus gave His body in the same manner as a person who gives up all of his food does.There is no comparison between human labor and this.Nothing we sinners can do will be able to erase our history, satisfy God’s holy requirements, or bring us into heaven.If, on the other hand, we turn to Jesus, He will never cast us away.We may be certain of heaven simply because He is the only one who can provide such a gift and only He is the one who can fulfill such a promise.In contrast to that, you were dead in your trespasses and sins, which you used to dwell in when you followed the ways of this world and the methods of the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient.″ We have all lived among them at some point in our lives, fulfilling the demands of our flesh and following the ideas and desires of our body.

We were, like the rest of the world, worthy of anger by our very nature.However, because of his great love for us, God, who is abundant in compassion, raised us up with Christ even while we were dead in our transgressions—it is only through grace that we have been saved.Also in Christ, God brought us up with him and made us sit with him in the heavenlies, so that he may demonstrate to us in the coming eons the immeasurable riches of his grace, which are revealed in his love to us in Christ Jesus.For it is by grace that you have been saved, through faith—and this is not your own doing; it is a gift from God—not by your own efforts, so that no one can take credit for your salvation″ (Ephesians 2:8-9).

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Compliments of Scott Munger, PhD, Biblica, All rights reserved in the original.

  • We have all sinned and are thus deserving of God’s wrath.
  • God, the Father, sent His only Son to fulfill that judgment on behalf of all who place their faith in Him.
  • Following the Bible’s depiction of Jesus, the creator and eternal Son of God, who led a spotless life, Jesus loves us so much that He died for our sins, accepting the penalty that we deserve, and was buried before rising from the grave.
  • ″Jesus is Lord,″ you will be spared from judgment and spend forever with God in heaven if you genuinely accept and trust this in your heart, receiving Jesus alone as your Savior, and announcing, ″Jesus is Lord.″ What is your reaction to this?

Yes, I wish to follow in Jesus’ footsteps.I identify as a follower of Jesus.I still have a lot of questions.

Who Was at the Cross?

  • The narratives of the crucifixion in the gospels appear to be first-hand experiences from those who were there.
  • Who, though, were the eyewitnesses?
  • As recorded in Matthew 26:56, all of Jesus’ followers fled when he was arrested, and it is likely that the majority of them chose to remain away from the crucifixion out of fear of being captured themselves.
  • Apparently, Peter’s dread of being arrested drove him to constantly deny that he knew Jesus, as recorded in John 18:15-27.

A region known as Golgotha, which was most likely just outside the city walls of Jerusalem, was the site of Jesus’ crucifixion and death.This most likely occurred near one of the city’s exit gates, on a route that led out of the city.As a result, the disciples of Jesus would have had a very simple time getting there.But who was there in the first place?In order to attempt to address this issue, we must first examine what each gospel has to say on the subject:

Gospel of Matthew

  • Roman soldiers, Jewish authorities, and onlookers who derided Jesus were among the several witnesses, according to this narrative, who included two individuals who were crucified at the same time.
  • One and only mention of Jesus’ followers is found in Matthew 27:55-56, which states that many women were ″watching from a distance″ and particularly mentions ″Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joses, and Mary, the mother of Zebedee’s sons″ as well as ″Mary the mother of James and Joses.″ They would almost certainly have been permitted to observe without being jailed, unlike the male followers, provided that they did not attempt to intervene.

Gospel of Mark

  • Roman soldiers, Jewish authorities, and onlookers who derided Jesus were among the different witnesses, according to this narrative, as were two individuals who were crucified at the same time.
  • Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee’s sons are the only women mentioned in Matthew 27:55-56 who were ″watching from a distance.″ Matthew 27:55-56 mentions ″a great number of women″ who were ″looking from a distance.″ They would almost certainly have been permitted to observe without being jailed, unlike the male supporters, provided that they did not attempt to intervene.

Gospel of Luke

The author of this gospel appears to have taken the most of his narrative of the crucifixion from the gospel of Mark. The only time Jesus’ disciples are mentioned is in Luke 23:49, when it is stated that some of them stood by and observed from a distance, but no names are given.

Gospel of John

  • The tale in this gospel differs significantly from the other three in terms of content.
  • A group of ladies and one disciple were said to have gathered ″near the crucifixion,″ and Jesus is said to have spoken to them from the cross.
  • They are named as Jesus’ mother, his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clophas (or Cleophas), and Mary Magdalene, among other women.
  • The disciple is merely referred to as ″the disciple whom Jesus loved,″ and that is it.

The ″Beloved Disciple″ is a term used to refer to the anonymous disciple referenced in John’s gospel.The author of the gospel, typically identified as John the son of Zebedee, was one of the original twelve disciples and one of the twelve disciples who wrote the gospel.A large number of researchers, however, have questioned this identification, and the issue is still very much up for debate.This narrative, however, claims that he and several other women, including Jesus’ mother, were present near the cross at the same time, close enough to speak with Jesus and hear his words.In the other three gospels, there is no such thing as a ″disciple whom Jesus loved.″ It doesn’t say anything about any disciples or any ladies being near the crucifixion, or about any of them conversing with Jesus while he was hanging on it.Additionally, their descriptions of the words that Jesus uttered from the crucifixion are diametrically opposed to the statements that are given to him in the gospel of John.

All of this shows that the author of the Gospel of John had access to material that was not available to the other gospel authors.Traditionally, this source has been thought to be the unnamed Beloved Disciple himself, and a remark in John 21:24 appears to support this assumption.As a result, this unnamed disciple was most likely an eyewitness to the crucifixion, according to John’s narrative.The other accounts, on the other hand, did not reveal the source of their information.Scholars are almost unanimous in their belief that Matthew and Luke derived practically all of their material regarding the crucifixion from Mark, though they occasionally made small changes.

As a result, Mark’s narrative is largely considered to be the original.The majority of Mark’s information of what transpired came straight from Peter, according to Christian tradition.Because Peter almost definitely did not see the crucifixion directly, it is unclear from where the information he gathered from.Because the narratives are so dissimilar, it appears that they are not from the Beloved Disciple.The guy who was compelled to carry the cross has been offered as a replacement, however it is not clear from the gospels if he was present to see Jesus crucified.

Another option is that Peter engaged in conversation with one or more of the women who were standing nearby.Both Matthew and Mark mention a number of them, with Mary Magdalene being the first to be mentioned in both accounts.If Mark obtained his knowledge from Peter, and Peter obtained it from someone else, then Mark’s report would be considered third-hand.

  1. However, it is written in the style of a first-person account.
  2. As a matter of fact, many academics think that Mark had another source of information, a lost gospel known as the Pre-Markan Passion Narrative, which was written very shortly after the crucifixion by an unknown author who was well-versed in the events of that day.
  3. Some of the more minor features of Mark’s statement provide clues as to whether he may have made use of a misplaced paper in the past.
  4. This suggests that the crucifixion narratives in the gospels are based on two fundamental sources of information: (1) the reminiscences of the unnamed Beloved Disciple, and (2) a now-lost early passion narrative that was used directly by Mark and secondarily by Matthew and Luke.
  1. There is a possibility that some extra information was supplied by other sources such as Peter.
  2. Despite the fact that these findings are logical, some individuals believe that they leave certain critical points unsolved in the process.
  3. For example, why is it that the gospel of John appears to be the only one to describe the presence of Jesus’ mother Mary?
  • Isn’t it reasonable to assume that such a critical piece of information would be in all of the accounts if she was present?
  • In addition, some people wonder why John doesn’t mention the followers who stood at a distance, and why the other gospels don’t include the followers who were in close proximity to the crucifixion.
  • Perhaps all of the narratives are actually referring to the same group of people who gradually came closer to the cross as time passed.

Alternatively, it is possible that two distinct groups were there, but that each gospel writer only knew about one of them.A more severe issue concerns what Jesus said when he was hanging on the cross.What Jesus says in John’s story is diametrically opposed to what he says in the other stories of the same event.

It has been asserted that various witnesses to the same event often provide conflicting accounts of what happened subsequently.Certainly, slight discrepancies may be explained in this way.However, in this instance, the accounts are completely distinct.There have also been some questions raised concerning the origins of the spear thrust narrative.

An armed Roman soldier wounded Jesus’ side with a spear, according to the Gospel of John 19:34, to ensure that he was dead.Despite this, the other gospels make no mention of it.Some academics have questioned the veracity of particular sections of one or more of the narratives as a result of the significant discrepancies that have arisen.However, the vast majority of Christians believe that all of the narratives are essentially true and that the contradictions are just the consequence of differences in what individual witnesses saw or recalled from their respective perspectives.

Note: If we attempt to compile a comprehensive list of all the specific persons named in the various testimonies, we arrive at the following conclusion: 1.Mary Magdalene (also known as Mary of Magdala) (mentioned by Matthew, Mark, and John) Mary, the mother of James and Joses, is number two on the list (mentioned by Matthew and Mark) a woman who is the mother of Zebedee’s sons (mentioned by Matthew) The fourth person listed by Mark is Salome, who many scholars believe to be the same person as (3), the mother of Zebedee’s boys, who is also mentioned by Mark.5.

The Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus (mentioned by John) 6.Mary, the wife of Clophas (who was most likely Joseph’s brother), and her children (mentioned by John) (7) An unnamed sister of Jesus’ mother (described by John) – Many academics believe that this is the same person as person (6), namely, Clophas’ wife.8.The unnamed Beloved Disciple, who is referred as as (mentioned by John) The Beloved Disciple is at the focus of most of the controversy concerning the identity of these individuals.However, there has also been a great deal of debate over the second person on the list, Mary, the mother of James and Joses, who is also on the list.As ″the other Mary,″ she appears in the tale once again (according to some traditions) as one of the ladies who accompanies Mary Magdalene to the tomb on Easter morning, according to some sources.

  • Several other hypotheses have been advanced in order to identify this ″other Mary.″ Some believe she was Joseph’s prior wife and the mother of his other children, while others believe she was his first wife.
  • The wife of Clophas, and potentially a sister (or half-sister) of Jesus’ mother, according to some scholars, was the same person as the sixth person on the list, who was the wife of Clophas.
  • Some researchers, on the other hand, believe that there is another, and far more exciting, alternative.
  • This ″other Mary,″ according to them, was in fact the biological mother of Jesus.
  • If this is right, it would erase a significant discrepancy, because Mark and Matthew would then agree with John that Jesus’ mother was there at the moment.
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Aside from these two pieces of evidence, there are two further pieces of evidence that point to this Other Mary being the mother of Jesus: First and foremost, her name is Mary.And second, her sons James and Joses might be two of the four brothers of Jesus described in Mark 6:3, which would make them two of the four brothers of Jesus.However, there is a fundamental flaw in this idea as well: If this Other Mary was in fact the mother of Jesus, why don’t Matthew and Mark mention her as the mother of Jesus?

As a result, she appears to be treated as a minor figure by both authors, with Matthew 28:1 even referring to her as ″the other Mary.″ In fact, the entire question of this woman’s identification is really perplexing.However, if it is feasible to settle the situation, the probable outcomes might be quite significant.

Other Topics

  • The End of the Gospel of Mark Is it possible that the original ending of this gospel was mistakenly lost? A new conclusion was inserted later on
  • Golgotha Jesus was crucified in the vicinity of Jerusalem. Is it possible to pinpoint the exact location of the incident?
  • The Jesus Family is a group of people who are related to Jesus. Is it possible that other members of his family were initially opposed to his activities?
  • Stigmata What is the source of these enigmatic wounds?
  • The Virgin Birth is a historical event that took place on December 25, 1850, in the city of Rome. Is there a natural explanation for this phenomenon?
  • Eyewitnesses to the Resurrection of Jesus Christ Who was the first person to see Jesus when he emerged from the tomb?
  • The Second Coming of Christ Is it true that Jesus promised to return?
  • Theories regarding the Resurrection are many. There could be some other theories to explain why people believe in the resurrection.
  • The Gospel According to John What distinguishes it from the other gospels is its source. Is it possible that someone changed it?
  • The Son of Man is a person who was born in the year 2000. Is there a secret message behind this title?
  • The Sacrament of Holy Communion In what way does this sacrament serve a purpose?
  • Judas Iscariot, the Real Deal What motivated him to betray Jesus?
  • What Was the Medical Cause of Jesus’ Death? How Did Jesus Die? After being nailed to the crucifixion, Jesus died considerably more quickly than was customary, although the exact reason of his death is still unknown.
  • The Last Words Said on the Cross by Jesus Just before he died, what did Jesus say to his disciples?
  • Matthew 27:52 (KJV) According to this text, many saints who had died had been raised and had emerged from their graves following the crucifixion of Christ. What were the identities of these resurrected saints?
  • The Beloved Disciple of Jesus is referred to as Is it possible to identify him (or her)?
  • True Cross Are there any strange healing properties to the wood from the cross of Jesus?
  • James the Righteous Why don’t the gospels include any further information on this extremely significant early church leader?
  • Jesus and Mary Magdalene were two of the most important people in Jesus’ life. Did they have a hidden romance, or were they just friends? Is it possible that she gave him a child?
  • What Was the Reason for Jesus’ Crucifixion? Should the Romans or the Jews bear the brunt of the responsibility?
  • Speaking in a Foreign Language Is it true that certain people speak in a heavenly language?
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Luke 23:32- Jesus, The Cross, A Thief, and Forgiveness

  • Luke 23:32-43 (KJV) (NAS95) 32 Two other individuals, both of whom were criminals, were being carried away to be executed with Him.
  • 33 When they arrived at the location known as The Skull, they crucified Him as well as the convicts, one on the right and the other on the left, according to the Scriptures.
  • Jesus, on the other hand, was pleading with the Father to forgive them, saying, ″They do not realize what they are doing.″ He was dressed in his clothes, and they divided them among themselves by drawing lots.
  • 35 And the rest of the audience just stood there and watched.

As a result, even the ruling class sneered at Him and said, ″He rescued others; now let Him save Himself if this is the Christ of God, His Chosen One.″ 36 The soldiers made fun of Him as well, approaching Him and offering Him sour wine, 37 saying, ″If You are the King of the Jews, rescue Yourself!″ 38 In addition, there was an inscription above Him that said, ″THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE.″ Among the convicts who were executed there was one who abused Him, asking, ″Are You not the Christ?″ 39 ″Save Yourself as well as us!″ But the other responded, rebuking him and saying, ″Do you not even fear God, because you are both under the same sentence of condemnation?″ 40 41 ″And we are definitely suffering justly, for we are experiencing what we deserve as a result of our conduct; but, this man has done nothing wrong.″ 42 ″But this man has done nothing wrong.″ He was pleading to Jesus, ″Remember me when You come into Your kingdom!″ 45 When he asked what He was saying to him, He responded with the words, ″Truly I say to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise.″ Among the most moving passages in the entire Bible, this is one of the most poignant.While the Lord was going through the physical, emotional, and probably even spiritual pain on the cross, he continued to express the divine character of His love for mankind via his actions.He had the compassion to listen to the pleadings of a person in desperate need of assistance.He took the effort to restrain his own anguish in order to meet the needs of a sinner, and he was rewarded for it.He assured the guy that he would be with Jesus in Paradise on the exact same day that he died.What a fantastic piece of certainty!

For this reason, many people now believe that, like the thief crucified next to Jesus, we might have the certainty of Paradise by making a similar appeal to the Lord.The New Testament, Jesus’ Covenant, on the other hand, teaches that baptism is the only thing that stands between a person and forgiveness of sin.The Bible informs us what we must do in order to be saved by the grace of God.Despite Jesus’ unequivocal remark, many people teach and believe that baptism is not required to become a Christian.They believe they can be rescued in the same way that the thief on the cross believed he could.

They also believe that the thief on the cross had never been baptized, as required by the New Testament, and so do not believe that they are required to be baptized.It should not be used as an argument to revoke the divine requirement of baptism for those who live now, even if the thief on the cross had never been baptized in the first place.Look at the reasons why the thief is not a model of how man may be redeemed in the modern era.The first premise that we must grasp is the fact that Jesus had the authority to forgive sins when he was on the earth.This is the foundation of our faith.

Matthew 9:2 (KJV) And, behold, they brought to him a man who was suffering from palsy and laying on a bed: and, upon witnessing their faith, Jesus said to the man who was suffering from palsy, Son, be of good cheer; thy sins are forgiven thee 3 And, behold, some of the scribes whispered between themselves, ″This man blasphemes.″ 4 And Jesus, who knew what was in their minds, asked, ″Why do you think evil in your hearts?″ Which is more difficult: to say, ″Thy sins are forgiven thee,″ or to say, ″Arise, and walk?″ But that ye may understand that the Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins, (then he addresses the sick with the palsy,) arise, pick up your bed, and go unto thine own house.7 And he got to his feet and walked back to his residence.Whenever Jesus talked to someone and forgave them of their sins, those sins were erased from their record.

  1. The same might be said about today’s situation.
  2. We know that if Jesus were walking around on this planet and informed someone that their sins were forgiven, it would be true.
  3. Jesus, on the other hand, is seated at the right side of the Father in heaven.
  4. The second premise to examine is that the New Covenant had not yet been formed at the time of Jesus’ death.
  1. It had not yet been sealed with the blood of Jesus, as had been done previously.
  2. Jesus was still alive and well at the time.
  3. The thief lived and died under the Old Covenant, but we live and die under the New Testament Covenant.
  • It does not matter if the covenant in which baptism is demanded had not yet come into effect when Jesus spoke to the thief; if it has now come into effect, the rules for salvation have been altered as a result of the changing of covenants.
  • The New Covenant altered the playing field.
  • 9:15 (Hebrews) In order for those who are called to obtain the promise of everlasting inheritance, Jesus serves as the mediator of the new testament, sacrificing himself in order to redeem those who had transgressed under the first testament and so receive the promise of eternal inheritance.

16 Because, where there is a testament, there must also be the death of the testator, by definition.The final premise is that neither you nor I am in the same situation as the thief was when he met Jesus.The thief heard Jesus speak straight to him.

According to the scriptures, there is no scriptural concept that will allow us to generalize a remark given to a single man and apply it to all men.Today, rather than speaking directly to us, Jesus communicates with us via the Bible.That implies that we must pay attention to what he has communicated to us via the Word.In the same way that the thief recognized Jesus then, we must recognize Jesus now.

It appears that he is not speaking to us directly, as he did with the thief.Through the written Word of God, he is communicating with us.Matthew 17:5 (KJV) Even as he was still speaking, a brilliant cloud appeared over them, and a voice spoke out of the cloud, saying, ″This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well delighted; listen to him.″ Despite the assumptions that the thief had not been baptized, the fourth principle is that it is more reasonable to assume that the thief had been baptized than it is to believe that he had not been baptized.Take another look at the account and see what it truly has to say about the situation.

Luke 23:39 (NIV) ″If thou is the Christ, save thyself and us,″ cried out one of the malefactors who had been hanged at the time.40 In response, the other person said, ″Doest thou not dread God, considering that thou art in the same condemnation?″ (Doesn’t thou fear God, seeing that thou art in the same condemnation?) 41 And we are justified in doing so, for we obtain the proper recompense for our acts; but this man has done nothing wrong.42 And he addressed Jesus, saying, ″Lord, keep my name in mind when thou comest into thy kingdom.″ 43 ″Verily I say unto thee,″ Jesus said, ″thou shalt be with me in paradise on the day I call unto thee.″ 1.

In verse 41, the thief claims that ″this man has done nothing wrong.″ He was well aware that Jesus was without sin or guilt.How did he get to that conclusion?He could only have known it if he had known Jesus earlier in his life!2.In verse 42, the word ″.42″ appears.And he addressed Jesus as ″Lord.″ He spoke to Jesus as ″Lord.″ Why would he address someone who was about to die on a crucifixion as ″Lord″?

  • That man had to have been acquainted with Jesus before they were put to those crosses!
  • Again, in verse 42, the Lord says, ″Remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom.
  • ″ He urged Jesus to keep him in mind when he arrived into his kingdom, and Jesus agreed.
  • How did he know that Jesus was going to enter a kingdom of his own making?
  • If he had been a follower of Jesus prior to his death on the cross, he would have known what he was talking about.

He had to have been listening to Jesus’ teachings!Fourth, the Bible says in verse 42, ″thou comest into thy kingdom..″ He thought that, despite the fact that Jesus was dying on the cross, he would still reign as king in the future.How can it be anticipated that someone who is dying will ascend to the position of king?

Except, of course, he comprehended Jesus’ predictions about being raised from the dead in three days, in which case it is absurd.In the absence of a prior relationship with Jesus, it is impossible for him to have known or believed these things.This man, who was crucified beside Jesus, appears to have had a more in-depth knowledge of Jesus’ teaching on the nature of the Kingdom of God than even the Apostles did at this point in time in history.According to the evidence, he was aware that Jesus was the Christ, the Messiah, and the Son of the living God (Matthew 16:16).

  • He was familiar with Jesus!
  • He must have been a follower of Christ!
  • Was he a disciple of John’s who was baptized with the baptism for the forgiveness of his sins or was he someone else’s disciple?
  • The baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins was preached in the desert by John, who baptized in the name of Jesus.
  • 5 It was then that the whole of Judea and the people of Jerusalem came out to him in repentance, and they were all baptized by him in the Jordan River after confessing their sins.
  • In comparison to John, Jesus influenced more individuals to become baptized.
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He may have been a member of the group of people who were baptized by Jesus’ followers.The Gospel of John 4:1 In light of this, when the Lord learned how the Pharisees learned that Jesus had produced and baptized more followers than John 2 (albeit Jesus himself did not baptize, but his disciples did), when one considers the facts, it is more logical to think that this criminal was converted to Christ.He had to confess his sins as part of the conversion process.True repentance entails putting things back in their proper place.When he attempted to set things right, the people from whom he had robbed demanded that he be arrested.He was condemned by the words of his own tongue and subsequently crucified with Jesus on the cross.

This thief must have been acquainted with Jesus before his crucifixion.Is there any other way for him to understand that Jesus was the prophesied Messiah, the promised King?What else might explain his willingness to support him so vehemently?He couldn’t have gotten his grasp of the nature of Jesus’ kingdom any other way.

  • Notice, in particular, because there is nothing in the text to suggest that this is the point in time at which the thief was forgiven his sins.
  • The Bible does state, however, that he would be with Jesus in heaven on that particular day.
  • Nothing in the scriptures indicates that his sins were forgiven while he was hanging on the cross.
  • When it comes to Bible interpretation, there is a fundamental concept that we must be aware of.
  • Christ’s authority is addressed in this passage about ″being rescued like the thief on the cross.″ Jesus had the authority to save this sinner at the time, just as he has the ability to rescue us now.
  • He had a one-on-one conversation with him.

He communicates with us today through the written word.Our Lord Jesus Christ, according to the Word of God, rescues us via his sacrifice and our obedience to his Word.Look at Hebrews 5:8-9 to see what I mean.Hebrews 5:8 (Hebrews 5:8) Despite the fact that he was a Son, he learned obedience through the things that he endured; 9 He was perfected and became the author of eternal salvation for those who obey him; Jesus will save all who follow his commands; he will save all who believe and trust in Jesus enough to do what the Lord commands.He claims that we are required to be baptized.Those are the words of Jesus to me and to you both.

  • Will you put your faith in Him?
  • Will you put your faith in Him?
  • Mark 16:15 (NIV) Afterwards, Jesus told them to go throughout all the world and preach the gospel to every creature they came across.
  • 16 He who believes and is baptized will be saved, but he who does not believe and is not baptized will be condemned.
  1. Should we ignore this directive because we want to be the ones who establish the rules?
  2. Is it more important to us to be saved like the thief who died next to Christ on the cross than to follow these basic instructions from Jesus?
  3. Will we choose to disregard what Jesus has to say and act according to our own desires?
  4. Consider the implications of this carefully.
  5. Our traditions must not be sacrificed in order to maintain our adherence to the commands of Jesus.
  6. Adapted from Expository Files 4.11 (November 1997) by Ney Reiber

The Two Men Crucified Next To Jesus Were

  • According to the Gospel of Luke, two additional men were crucified with Our Blessed Lord, one on either side of Him, and both died at the hands of the Romans.
  • Traditionally, the thief to Christ’s right has been referred to as the ″Good Thief,″ while the thief to Christ’s left has been dubbed the ″Unrepentant Thief.″ While the names of the Good Thief and the Unrepentant Thief are not mentioned in the Gospels, legend claims that the one was named Saint Dismas and the latter, Gestas.
  • Despite the fact that both men were subjected to the same brutal death and were both in the presence of Christ, their attitudes to their circumstances were vastly different.
  • ″Are You not the Messiah?″ Gestas asks Our Lord, who responds, ″Are You not the Messiah?″ ″Save Yourself as well as us.″ (Matthew 23:39) Gestas requests that he be taken down from his crucifixion.

Dismas, on the other hand, does not request that he be removed from power.Dismas rebukes Gestas and announces Christ’s innocence, and in one of the most surprising and beautiful moments of the Gospel, he refuses to be pulled down from his certain and terrible death, which is one of the most startling and beautiful moments of the Gospel.Rather, he begs to be brought up into the presence of Christ, pleading, ″Jesus, remember me when You come into Your kingdom.″ (Matthew 23:42) St.Dismas receives a response from Jesus, who says, ″Amen, I say to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise.″ Those who follow in the footsteps of Saint Dismas, who took his cross and placed his trust not in this world, but in God’s promise of eternal life, will learn this lesson.Which of these two is the most like you?Do you want to come down from your cross and continue to be a part of this earthly existence, or do you want to embrace your cross and be brought up to Christ in the life that is ahead of you?

To help you accept the crosses that you will carry in this life, and to set your heart on Heaven in the next life, the Norbertine Fathers of Saint Michael’s Abbey would like to give you a FREE Saint Dismas prayer card, so that you may seek the intercession of the Good Thief. To download the free prayer card, just click the button below.

Download the Saint Dismas Prayer Card for free here.

Immersed in the 900-year tradition of our order, the Norbertine Fathers live a monastic common life of liturgical prayer and care for souls. Our abbey in Orange County consists of nearly fifty priests and thirty seminarians studying for the priesthood.  

For more than fifty years, St. Michael’s Abbey Norbertine Fathers have served the Christian faithful in Southern California—“lifting high the Holy Eucharist over the miseries and errors of this world” (Pope Saint John Paul II).Our community’s apostolic ministries are many and various—from running a preparatory school for young men to teaching religious education in prisons—but they all find their source in our common life of prayer and fraternal charity.

St. Michael’s Abbey is celebrating its 150th anniversary in 2017.

Who Was With Jesus When He Was On The Cross?

On the cross, who was there to witness Jesus’ death?

Before the Cross

  • The only one who raised his sword when the Jewish leaders arrived heavily armed to arrest Jesus while He was still in the Garden of Gethsemane was Peter, even though Jesus told him to put it down, and ″then those who had seized Jesus led him to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders had gathered″ (Matt 26:57), but ″Peter was following him at a distance, until he reached the courtyard of the high priest, and (Matt 26:58).
  • I don’t want to be unjust to Peter, so please bear with me.
  • I’d definitely keep a safe distance from Him and deny Him three times (or more?) out of fear of being captured and punished in the same manner as Jesus.
  • At the very least, Peter stayed near and ran the danger of being identified, but in the end, he rejected Jesus three times and withdrew from the scene out of humiliation and regret (Matt 26:69-74).

When ″Peter remembered Jesus’ words, ″Before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times,″ he was moved to tears.And he went out into the street and sobbed hard.″ (See Matthew 26:75.) Everyone had abandoned Jesus at this point, exactly as Zechariah the Prophet predicted: ″Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, against the one who stands beside me,″ says the LORD of hosts.In the words of Zechariah, ″Strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered; I will turn my hand against the young ones,″ Jesus’ followers were dispersed and fled for their lives, just as the sheep did.The conclusion that may be drawn from all of these Scriptures is that Jesus had Peter ″at a distance,″ as well as His mother, Mary, and a very young disciple named John, with Him at the cross.

At the Cross

  • In Matthew 27:56, the Bible does not say whether or not ″the mother of James and Joseph, as well as the mother of the sons of Zebedee″ (Matt 27:56) were there when Jesus died.
  • Considering that they were present after Jesus’ death, it would be logical to assume that they were at or near the cross.
  • As a result of this, we know that the Apostle-to-be John was there throughout the crucifixion, as was Jesus’ mother.
  • Just before Jesus died, ″Jesus looked around to saw his mother and a disciple whom he loved standing close and he remarked to his mother,″ ″Woman, behold your son!″ Then he turned to the disciple and said, ″Look, here’s your mother!″ As a result, the disciple moved her to his own house from that point on.″ (See also John 19:26–27.) This is, without a doubt, the Apostle John.

Finally, ″standing beside the crucifixion of Jesus were his mother and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene,″ according to the Gospel of Matthew (John 19:25).So it’s Jesus’ mother, John, Mary the wife of Clopas, Mary Magdalene, and maybe even the mother of James and Joseph, as well as the mother of Zebedee’s kids, who happened to be James and John, who are mentioned in the Bible.

Others at the Cross

  • As of now, we know that ″Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene″ were present at the cross (John 19:25), as were Jesus’ mother and brother John (John 19:26-27), as well as Mary the wife of Clopas, Mary Magdalene, and possibly even the mother of James and Joseph and the mother of the sons of Zebedee, but we must also remember that the Jewish leadership was present, at least for a short period of time.
  • There were also a large number of onlookers who, just a week before, had been praising Him and exclaiming, ″Hosanna in the highest″ (Matt 21:9), but had now switched to ″crucify Him!″ Aside from that, there were Roman troops in attendance, and these guys were expert assassins.
  • Every shred of doubt was removed when they pronounced Him legally dead (John 19:33).
  • ″When the centurion and others who were with him, who were keeping watch over Jesus, witnessed the earthquake and what happened, they were overcome with amazement and said, ″Truly, this was the Son of God,″ according to the Bible.

According to Matthew 27:54, there were certain Romans who believed that Jesus was the Son of God, as they were there at the crucifixion and witnessed it firsthand.We also know that there were at least two convicts in the centre of the cross where Jesus was crucified.″But the other criminal scolded him,″ says Luke 23:39 of one of the thief’s who had abused Jesus.″Don’t you have any fear of God,″ he said, referring to the fact that they were both serving the same sentence.We are being punished fairly, since we are receiving the consequences of our actions.″However, this individual has done nothing wrong″ (Luke 23:40-41).

When the thief realized what had happened, he pleaded, ″Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.″ ″Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise,″ Jesus said in response to his question (Luke 23:42-43).


  • However, only those who have repented and placed their confidence in Christ have been exonerated from God’s wrath via Jesus’ death.
  • Room 3:10-12 teaches that none are good or seek after God, and that all fall far short of God’s glory (Rom 3:23; 6:23a).
  • Because we all need help, God provides it in the form of a free gift of eternal life (Rom 6:23b), which is provided without charge (Eph 2:8-9) for all who humble themselves before Him.

Article by Jack Wellman

  • Jack Wellman is the pastor of the Mulvane Brethren Church in Mulvane, Kansas.
  • He has been in the ministry for over 30 years.
  • What Christians Want To Know is a Christian website whose aim is to equip, encourage, and excite Christians while also answering questions regarding the believer’s daily walk with God and the Bible.
  • Jack is also the Senior Writer at What Christians Want To Know.

You may follow Jack on Google Plus, and you can also read his book Teaching Children the Gospel, which is available on Amazon.

CRIMINALS ON THE CROSS – Who Were They, Next To Jesus?

  • Is it possible that Jesus spoke anything to anybody else when he was on the cross?
  • Yes, to one of the two criminals who were executed with Him on the cross, as recounted in Luke 23:39-43: One of the convicts who was hanging slandered Him, saying, ″If You are the Christ, save Yourself as well as us.″ The other responded by questioning him: ″Do you not even have fear of God, considering that you are subject to the same penalty?″ And we are rightfully so, because we are receiving what we deserve as a result of our actions; nevertheless, this Man has done nothing wrong.″ He then addressed Jesus by saying, ″Remember me, Lord,″ as if he were entering the Kingdom of Heaven.
  • 43 And Jesus replied to him, ″Truly, I tell to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise,″ which means ″today you will be with Me in paradise.″ The following passage from Matthew adds a bit additional flavor to the story: After then, He was crucified with two other robbers: the one on His right and the other on His left.
  • People passing by continued to slander Him and wave their hands in the air.

‘You who demolish the temple and rebuild it in three days, spare Yourself!’ 40 Come down from the cross, if You are the Son of God,″ says the Apostle Paul.41 Likewise, the chief priests, in unison with the scribes and elders, stated, 42 ″He rescued others, but He cannot save Himself.″ If He truly is the King of Israel, He must now come down from the cross, and we will believe Him and acknowledge Him as such.43 He placed his confidence in God; now, if He wills, let Him be delivered; because He has declared himself to be ″the Son of God.″ 44 Even the thieves who were crucified with Him slandered Him with the same epithet as before (Matthew 27:38-44).According to the Gospel of Matthew, both ″robbers″ despised Jesus, although the Gospel of Luke claims that just one of the two did.Which of the two accounts is correct?Both of these statements are correct.

They crucified Jesus after six hours of suffering: ″Now it was the third hour, and they crucified Him.″ In the ninth hour, Jesus cried out with a loud shout,″ the Bible says.(See Mark 15:25 and 34.) After being nailed to the cross, it’s likely that both thieves lashed out in anguish and wrath at everyone and everything in sight, including Jesus.This was especially true after they witnessed the chief priests and the crowd ridiculing Him.As time passed, however, one of the two came to accept Jesus as God by His mercy, and the other was ″rebuked″ from on high.Who were ″those passing by″ on Jesus’ cross, according to Matthew 27:39?

Jesus on a colossal cross on a scenic hilltop is a work of Roman Catholic art that is not based on the Bible.Romans were crucified immediately near to important highways (see Golgotha) on short crosses (see sour wine) in order for the gruesome spectacle of the crucified victims to urge passing motorists to fear and submit to Rome’s authority.

See also:  Why Is Jesus Depicted As White

Impenitent thief – Wikipedia

  • The impenitent thief is a guy who appears in the New Testament narrative of Jesus’ crucifixion and is described as such.
  • Two criminal bandits are executed on the cross with Jesus, according to the Gospel story.
  • Mocking him is recorded in the first two Gospels (Matthew and Mark), in which they both join the rest of the mob.
  • One taunts Jesus for not rescuing himself and them, while the other (known as the contrite thief) begs for compassion, according to the version of the Gospel of Luke.

In apocryphal literature, the impenitent thief is given the name Gestas, which first comes in the Gospel of Nicodemus, and his accomplice is given the name Dismas, which first appears in the Gospel of Nicodemus.It is believed by Christian tradition that Gestas was crucified to the left of Jesus and that Dismas was crucified to the right of Jesus on the cross.The impenitent thief’s name is Gesmas, according to Jacobus de Voragine’s Golden Legend, which may be found here.The impenitent thief is frequently referred to as the ″bad thief,″ in contrast to the ″good thief,″ since he does not repent of his actions.The apocryphal Arabic Infancy Gospel refers to Gestas and Dismas as Dumachus and Titus, respectively, in reference to their respective names in the Bible.Traditional accounts, such as those in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s poem The Golden Legend, claim that Dumachus was one of a band of thieves that assaulted Saint Joseph and the Holy Family on their journey into Egypt in the year 430.

New Testament narrative

  • Most scholars agree that the Gospel of Mark has the earliest version of the account, which is generally assumed to have been written about AD 70.
  • He claims that Jesus was crucified with two bandits, one on either side of him, according to the author.
  • Passersby and chief priests make fun of Jesus for claiming to be the Messiah while failing to rescue himself, and the two criminals who were crucified with him participate in the fun.
  • There is a reference to the Book of Isaiah in several verses, which is seen as a fulfillment of prophesy (Isaiah 53:12: ″And he.

was numbered with the transgressors″).The Gospel of Matthew, which was written about the year 85, repeats many of the same points.The specifics are different in the Gospel of Luke version, which takes place between verses 80 and 90: one of the bandits rebukes the other for insulting Jesus, and asks Jesus to remember him ″when you come into your kingdom.″ Jesus responds by assuring him that he would be with him in Paradise the following day, on the same day.This bandit is known as the repentant thief, while the other is known as the impenitent thief, according to tradition.The Gospel of John, which is considered to have been written about AD 90–95, also claims that Jesus was crucified alongside two others, but this story does not provide any description of them or any evidence that they spoke.

See also

  • List of names for the Biblical nameless


  1. Joe Gorra and William Lane Craig are two of the most famous people in the world (1 September 2013). Answers to Difficult Questions about God, Christianity, and the Bible from a Reasonable Perspective.
  2. ″William Lane Craig and Bart Ehrman Debate ″Is There Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus?″″. physics.smu.edu.
  3. ″William Lane Craig and Bart Ehrman Debate ″Is There Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus?″″. physics.smu.edu. Retrieved on the 24th of June, 2020.
  4. a b c d a b c d a b c d a b c d a b c d Bart D. Ehrman, Ph.D. (2008). Whose Word Is It, Anyway? : The Inside Story of Who Changed the New Testament and Why, and How.
  5. The Golden Legend by A&C Black, page 143, ISBN 978-1-84706-314-4
  6. A&C Black
  7. A&C Black
  8. A&C Black
  9. A&C Black
  10. A&C Black
  11. A&C Black
  12. A&C Black
  13. A&C Black
  14. In Professor Bart D. Ehrman’s The Historical Jesus, Part I, p. 6, published by The Teaching Company in 2000, he argues that Jesus was a historical figure. In the words of Ehrman, ″Scholars are virtually convinced that they were written many decades after Jesus’ death: Mark, AD 65–70
  15. Matthew and Luke, AD 80–85
  16. and John, AD 90–95.″ (2000: 5). For example, ″Perhaps we might start with the oldest Gospel to have been written, which most academics think was the Gospel of Mark.″
  17. Mark 15:27–32
  18. Isaiah 53:12
  19. Matthew 27:38–44
  20. Luke 23:33–45
  21. John 19:18–25

It is included into this article through reference to a work that is now in the public domain: James Wood, ed (1907). ″Dumachus″. The Nuttall Encyclopaedia is a reference work. Publishers: Frederick Warne (London and New York).

External links

  • Media related to Gestas at Wikimedia Commons

The Three Crosses – Wikipedia

The Three Crosses
Drypoint by Rembrandt, 1653
Artist Rembrandt van Rijn
Year 1653
Medium Etching and drypoint
Dimensions 394 mm × 456 mm (15.5 in × 18.0 in)
Location Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
  • The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ is depicted in Rembrandt van Rijn’s print The Three Crosses, which was published in 1653 in etching and drypoint and represents the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
  • Unlike the majority of his prints, which are predominantly in etching, this one is a drypoint with burin corrections from the third stage onward.
  • In the words of the artist, it is ″one of the most dynamic prints ever created.″ A depiction of Jesus Christ on the crucifixion, flanked by the two thieves who were crucified with him, and his mother, the Virgin Mary, who is sobbing and supported by the Evangelist, are shown.
  • Armed Roman troops on horseback surround the crosses, which are also surrounded by mourning civilians.

It is represented by a beam of light that pierces the black sky and surrounds the crucified figure of Christ, which represents God’s light from on high.Because of its elaborate symbolism, the print is particularly well-known, and it is said to depict the precise moment of Christ’s death.Paul Crenshaw of the Kemper Art Museum says Rembrandt was inspired by the text from Matthew 27:46-54, in which Christ cries out, ″My God, my God, why have you abandoned Me?″ ″My God, my God, why have you forsaken Me?″ A significant amount of Rembrandt’s work was inspired by biblical materials, and he was also affected by the work of other Baroque contemporaries.This is one of more than 300 Bible-inspired paintings by Rembrandt that have been discovered.Due to the design of the Three Crosses, it is not possible to create dramatic contrasts between light and shadow (known as chiaroscuro).Rembrandt worked on the painting in four phases, each level increasing the impact of the light and shadow contrasts on the subject matter.

Etching and drypoint are time-consuming procedures that are considered to be among the earliest kinds of printmaking.Rembrandt selected these mediums largely because he was frequently faced with financial difficulties.He sold a large number of his etchings in order to raise the funds necessary to publish The Three Crosses.In the first three stages of the painting, Rembrandt created around sixty impressions from the plate, with the deepest shadows on the picture being done in dry point and Christ and the lighter figures being done in etching.In addition to adding additional etching and dry point to the painting, Rembrandt was able to change the composition of the picture and make the final image darker and more chaotic since the nature of the medium allowed him to make continual modifications (which he did over a ten-year period).

In the last stage, the Virgin Mary is reduced to the appearance of an almost disembodied head surrounded by darkness.The individuals who were initially around her, as well as several of the soldiers on horseback, have all been removed from the scene.One more person has been added, this time wearing a huge hat and riding a horse.It’s thought that this is a character from Rembrandt’s painting, ″The Conspiracies of Claudius Civilis.″ It is the ″heavenly light″ that has seen the most significant change, since it has gotten significantly darker, particularly to the right of the picture.It’s possible that Rembrandt meant the contrast between the heavenly light and the darkness around it to distinguish between the ‘good’ thief and the ‘evil’ thief in this painting.

The central prominence of the Christ figure grows in importance with each successive alteration in the piece.Rembrandt inked the plates in a varied number of ways and with various kinds of ink in the plates’ fourth and fifth states, respectively.The Kemper Art Museum is home to one of the prints from the fourth stage of the project.


  1. In preparation for an exhibition at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Gisèle Lambert conducted a study of the print. Paul Crenshaw’s ″Spotlight Series″ is on display at the Kemper Art Museum. The Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum opened its doors on October 1, 2008. Web. 9 August 2014.
  2. In October 2008, Paul Crenshaw presented ″Rembrandt, Three Crosses″ as part of the Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum Spotlight series. Art and the Bible go together like peanut butter and jelly. ″Rembrandt’s biblical work,″ says the artist. The most recent modification was made in 2012
  3. ″Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn): Christ Crucified between the Two Thieves: The Three Crosses″ ″Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn): Christ Crucified between the Two Thieves″ (41.1.31) In the Heilbrunn Chronology of Art History. (October 2006)
  4. New York, NY: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. Jonckheere, Koenraad, and Anna Tummers are three of the most talented people in the world. An in-depth study at paintings by Rembrandt, Rubens, and their contemporaries as well as the art market and connoisseurship. In 2008, the Amsterdam University Press published a book entitled
  • v
  • t
  • e
    • Rembrandt Drawings, etchings, paintings, and self-portraits are listed in alphabetical order. The Senses (1624–25)
    • The Stoning of Saint Stephen (1625)
    • The Stoning of Saint Stephen (1625)
    • The Stoning of Saint Stephen (1625)
    • ‘Allow tiny children to come unto me,’ (1620s).
    • History Painting (1626)
    • Balaam and the Ass (1626)
    • The Baptism of the Eunuch (1626)
    • The Baptism of the Eunuch (1626)
    • The Baptism of the Eunuch (1626)
    • The Baptism of the Eunuch (1626)
    • Bust of a Man in a Gorget and a Plumed Beret (1626)
    • Bust of a Man in a Gorget and a Plumed Beret (1626)
    • Andromeda Chained to the Rocks (1631)
    • Christ with a Staff (1631)
    • Christ on the Cross (1631)
    • Old Man with a Gold Chain (c. 1631)
    • Philosopher in Meditation (1632)
    • The Abduction of Europa (1632–1633)
    • The Artist in his Studio (1628)
    • Samson and Delilah (1629–30)
    • The Raising of Lazarus (c. 1630–1632)
    • Samson and Delilah (1629–30)
    • The Artist in his Studio (1633)
    • The Prodigal Son in the Brothel (c. 1635)
    • The Abduction of Ganymede (1635)
    • The Entombment of Christ (1635)
    • Samson Threatening His Father-in-Law (1635)
    • The Prodigal Son in the Brothel (c. 1635)
    • The Abduction of Ganymede (1635)
    • The Entombment of Christ (1635)
    • The Prodigal Son in the Brothel (c. 1635)
    • The Abduction of Ganymede (1635
    • 1656: Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph
    • 1657: Courtesan at her Mirror
    • 1657: Saint Bartholomew
    • 1659: Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law
    • 1659: Saint Bartholomew
    • 1656: Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph
    • Lucretia (1664) 1
    • David and Uriah (c. 1665)
    • Young Woman with a Lapdog (1665)
    • The Return of the Prodigal Son (1662–1669)
    • Landscape with a Castle
    • Ahasuerus and Haman at the Feast of Esther (1660)
    • Titus as a Monk (1660)
    • The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis (1661)
    • St. Matthew and the Angel (1661)
    • The Syndics of the Drapers’ Guild
    • Photographic portraits include: Portrait of Nicolaes Ruts (1631)
    • Portrait of a Man (1632)
    • Portrait of a Woman (1632)
    • Portrait of Jacob de Gheyn III (1632)
    • Aeltje Pietersdr Uylenburgh (1632)
    • Portrait of a Man Rising from His Chair (1633)
    • Oval Portrait of a Woman (1633)
    • Portrait of Marten Soolmans (1634)
    • Portrait of Oopjen Coppit (1634)
    • Portrait of Petronella Buys
    • Self-portraits Among his works are: Self-Portrait with Dishevelled Hair (1628)
    • Rembrandt Laughing (1628)
    • Self-Portrait in a Gorget (c.1629)
    • Self-Portrait Wearing a White Feathered Bonnet (1635)
    • Self-Portrait at the Age of 34 (1640)
    • Self-Portrait in a Black Beret and Gold Chain (1654)
    • Self-Portrait (1658)
    • Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar
    • Illustrations, drawings, and prints (including etchings): Joseph and Potiphar’s Wife (1634)
    • The Artist and his Model (1639)
    • The Death of the Virgin (1639)
    • The Mill (1641)
    • The Three Trees (1643)
    • The State Bed (1646)
    • Portrait of Jan Six (1647)
    • Hundred Guilder Print (1647–1649)
    • Conus Marmoreus (1650)
    • Goldweigher’s Field (1651)
    • Doctor Fautrieus (1652)
    • Descent from the Cross by
    • Dutch Golden Age painting
    • Dutch School (painting)
    • Netherlandish art
    • Netherlandish Baroque art
    • Flemish Baroque art
    • Art of the Dutch Golden Age
    • Art of the Dutch Golden Age
    • Art of the Dutch Golden Age
    • Naturalism, Utrecht Caravaggism, Caravaggisti, chiaroscuro, etching revival
    • Rembrandt lighting
    • Tronie
    • Surface tone
    • Old master print
    • Tronie
    • surface tone
    • Rembrandt’s paintings are studied a group of connoisseurs and researchers
    • the Rembrandt Research Project
    • the Rembrandt catalogues raisonnés of 1908, 1935, 1968, and 1986
    • the Rembrandt Research Project
    • People who are related to each other Hendrick van Uylenburgh (art dealer, patron)
    • Jan Six (art collector, patron)
    • Henry Clay Frick (art collector)
    • Thomas Kaplan (art collector)
    • Saskia van Uylenburgh (wife, model)
    • Titus van Rijn (son, model)
    • Geertje Dircx (mistress, model)
    • Hendrickje Stoffels (mistress, model)
    • Jacob Isaacsz. van Swanenburg (teacher)
    • Pieter Lastman (teacher)
    • Jacob Isaacsz.
    • Collections and exhibits that are noteworthy Rembrandt House Museum, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Mauritshuis, Kupferstichkabinett Berlin, British Museum, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Frick Collection, Rembrandt in Southern California (virtual exhibition in 2008)
    • Rembrandt in Southern California (virtual exhibition in 2008)
    • Rembrandt in Southern California (virtual exhibition in 2008).
    • The Anatomy Lesson (1995 novel)
    • The Anatomy Lesson (1999 film)
    • Stealing Rembrandt (2003 film)
    • Nightwatching (2007 film)
    • Rembrandt’s J’Accuse (2008 documentary)
    • I Am Rembrandt’s Daughter (2008 novel)
    • The Rembrandt Affair (2010 novel)
    • Rembrandt: A Self-Portrait (1954 documentary film)
    • The Anatomy Lesson (1995 novel)
    • T

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