Untitled Flashcards Flashcards
When it came to political life in classical Greece, which of the following characteristics stood out the most? The notion of free masculine citizens in charge of the operations of state is appealing. What did the Persian Empire and classical Greece have in common around the year 500 B.C.E.? Both civilizations were known for their expansionism. The spread of Greek culture over the majority of the ancient world was a significant development that happened throughout the Hellenistic period of history.
In order to maintain their power, they invoked divine sanctions.
The affluence of the societies of the eastern Mediterranean Which foreign religious tradition was accepted into China during the time known as the Classical Era.
Unprecedented cultural diversity may be found in India.
- Non-Persian traditions should be treated with respect and tolerance.
- The centralization of the Chinese state under QinShihuangdi is shown by which of the following events?
- This belief system was more concerned with the issues of this world than the realm of the divine and its relevance to human existence in which of the following belief systems?
- Which of the following activities would a disciple of Daoism take if they had the opportunity?
- Which of the following was a distinguishing characteristic of the Greek style of thought during the Classical period?
- Educational opportunities and religious observances were highly valued in Confucianism.
- They were elevated to the status of gods by their devotees.
Daoism and Confucianism were considered complimentary rather than antagonistic to one another.
When compared to Theravada Buddhism, the Mahayana version depicted the Buddha as a compassionate being.
Indian social groupings were more firmly delineated than those in other cultures.
Which of the following characteristics characterized India and China throughout the classical era?
During the classical era, slaves accounted for more than one-third of the overall population in the Mediterranean region.
Women’s standing in classical civilizations may be described by which of the following statements?
What impact did the decades of political disintegration and turmoil that followed the collapse of the HanEmpire have on the lives of Chinese women and girls?
The world’s first and longest-serving professional civil service was established in the year 1789.
Membership in a jati was determined by a person’s merit.
AtG conquered numerous provinces and brought them together, held Hellenistic festivals, and held the first Olympic Games in Athens.
Persia was concerned with preserving local customs in order to secure the allegiance of followers.
Rome enslaved new people and placed them in the lowest social tier.
What contributions did the imperial nations of the second-wave empires make to the development of culture?
When it comes to Buddhism, what are the primary distinctions between the Theravada and Mahayana schools of thought?
The Mahayana school of thought holds that Buddha is a deity.
You have an option between monotheistic belief, heaven and hell, judgment day, good and evil, and you have a decision (free will to do good or bad) What were the similarities and differences between Buddhism and Christianity?
What were the differences and similarities between Imperial Rome and Han China’s approaches to empire?
Rome conquered people who were not Roman and granted citizenship, whereas China took over individuals who were already Chinese.
When comparing and contrasting the seven major worldwide areas, what characteristics do they have in common and what characteristics distinguish them from one another?
All are opposed to violence, and all share a sacred book and at least one symbol in common.
Judaism adheres to the law of the Torah.
What factors contributed to the development of Christianity as a prominent social and religious movement during the first two centuries of the common era?
There were issues concerning who could follow Jesus.
What is the reason for this or why is it not? No, it didn’t have enough followers, they weren’t all in the same spot, it didn’t expand, it was demolished by the AtG, pieces of it were incorporated into other faiths, but it didn’t have enough people when it moved away from its original site.
New book looks at parallel sayings of Jesus, Buddha
CORVALLIS, Ore. – The city of Corvallis is home to the Oregon State University. “It is easier to notice the mistakes of others than it is to see one’s own,” stated the Buddhist scholar Siddhartha Gautama, better known as Buddha, at one point. The following remarks were stated by Jesus some 500 years later: “Why do you see a splinter in someone else’s eye but fail to perceive the log in your own?” Coincidence? Perhaps. According to the editors of a new book produced by an Oregon State University professor, there are a surprisingly large number of parallels in the sayings ascribed to two of the world’s most famous religious figures.
This collection of essays and sayings was not intended to make a scholarly case for Jesus having been familiar with Buddhist teachings or for cultural borrowing from Buddhism into Christianity, according to Marcus Borg, the Hundere Professor of Religion and Culture at Oregon State University and the book’s editor.
- These quotations serve to highlight one another.” It is an intriguing point raised by the book: how could Jesus, who lived 500 years after Buddha and 3,000 miles apart, embody teachings that were so similar in essence to those of his predecessor?
- Yet some speculate that Jesus may have traveled to India during his “lost years,” a period between his adolescence and early twenties during which there was little evidence about his life.
- In the Bo tree, following a six-year religious search, the Buddha experienced enlightenment; in the desert, Jesus encountered his spiritual tutor, John the Baptist; and in the wilderness, Jesus encountered his spiritual mentor, John the Baptist.
- And by the communities that formed up around them, they were elevated to a divine, if not divine, position as well.
- Among these are:
- Buddha’s teachings are as follows: “The avaricious will not enter the kingdom of heaven, and the stupid will not praise the virtues of charity. The intelligent person, on the other hand, rejoices in generosity and is consequently joyful in the hereafter.” (Dhammapada 13.11
- Dhammapada 13.12)
- ‘If you want to be perfect, go, sell your things, and give the money to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven,’ says Jesus. (Matthew 19.21
- Luke 19.21
- “Consider others in the same way that you consider yourself.” (Dhammapada 10.1
- Dhammapada 10.1)
- “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you,” Jesus said. (Luke 6.31
- Like Buddha said, “Let us live most blissfully with nothing in our possessions
- Let us eat on pleasure, as brilliant gods.” According to the Buddha’s teachings (Dhammapada 15.4), Jesus said, “Blessed are you who are impoverished, because yours is the kingdom of God.” (See also Luke 6.20).
- According to the Buddha, “If anybody should strike you with his or her hand, with a stick, or with a knife, you should forsake all desires and say nothing bad.” When someone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other cheek as well. (Majjhima Nikaya 21.6)
- Jesus: “If someone slaps you on the cheek, offer the other likewise.” (Luke 6.29
- Buddha’s teachings are as follows: “For six years, the Bodhisattva did austerities, and during that time, the demon trailed after him, looking for an opportunity to attack him. However, he was unable to find any opportunities and returned home dejected and dissatisfied.” According to Jesus, “When the devil had performed every test, he withdrew from him until an appropriate moment.” (Lalitavistara Sutra 18) (Luke 4.13
Over 100 examples of similarities between the teachings of Jesus and Buddha are provided in “The Parallel Sayings,” which includes quotes on topics as diverse as compassion, wisdom (including materialism), inner life (including temptation), salvation (including the future), miracles (including healing), disciples (including healing), attributes (including compassion), and life stories (including life stories of the Buddha).
According to Borg, there were significant contrasts between Jesus and Buddha, and not only in terms of their respective origins, languages, or images.
“Many Jesus scholars believe that, in addition to being a wisdom teacher and a healer, Jesus was also a social prophet who influenced his day.
‘Jesus’ work as a social prophet – as a religious voice of social protest – is the most plausible explanation for the fact that his public engagement was so brief when compared to that of the Buddha,’ Borg continued.
Jesus’ early death was most likely brought on by his social and political activism.” If he had merely been a knowledge teacher and healer, I doubt that he would have been put to death in such a manner.” Author Jack Kornfield, who has written numerous best-selling books on Buddhism, contributed an introduction to “The Parallel Sayings” in which he described his perspective on Jesus and Buddha.
When we reached the far end of the island, the monks led us to the top of a hill, where there stood an immense 50-foot tall statue of a standing Buddha, according to Kornfield’s account.
They were holding hands and smiled as they wrapped their arms over one other’s shoulders.
At that moment, when helicopter gunships soared overhead and the battle raged all around us, Buddha and Jesus stood together as brothers, proclaiming compassion and healing for everyone who would follow their path.”
Revelation is the revelation to humans of divine or holy truth or purpose in the context of religion. According to the religious viewpoint, such disclosure might occur through mystical insights, historical events, or spiritual experiences that have the potential to influence the lives of people and groups.
Nature and significance
Every great religion accepts revelation in the broad sense that its adherents are reliant on the privileged insights of its founder or on the initial group or individuals with whom the faith was founded in the first place. According to popular belief, religious traditions have passed down deep insights into the ultimate meaning of existence and the cosmos that have been obtained not so much by logical reasoning as through spontaneous, unexpected illuminations that infiltrate and reshape the human soul.
- “Revelation” is defined as a communication from God to an authorised speaker who is then responsible with communicating the substance of that message to an entire people in the “prophetic” faiths (Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Zoroastrianism).
- The many channels via which revelation takes place are conceptualized in different ways.
- In indigenous religions, revelation is frequently coupled with the use of magical divination practices.
- It is believed that revelation occurs in mystical religions (such as Islamic Sufism and Vajrayana Buddhism) when the transcendent or the divine has an ineffable experience.
Types and variations
Revealing is commonly associated with the sensation of supernatural power (mana) in nonliterate cultures, and it is frequently associated with specific physicalobjects such as stones, amulets (bones of the deceased), unique animals, and other items. According to certain traditions, the sacred or holy can also be found in places like sacred trees, groves, shrines or other places of worship, as well as in elemental realities such as soil, water, sky and celestial bodies. The significance of such things increases once they have been designated as holy, and they are capable of mediating numinous (spiritual) experiences to the devotees of the cult in question.
Individuals who are considered to be in touch with the sacred or holy, such as shamans, fulfill duties that are similar to those of the prophet and mystic in a variety of religious traditions across the world.
Religions of the East
In its most basic terms, Eastern religions are concerned with humankind’s effort to comprehend and manage with its plight in the world, as well as with its quest to reach liberation, enlightenment, and union with the Supreme Being. On the other hand, Western faiths place a greater emphasis on humanity’s obedient response to the sovereignWord of God. When it comes to religious revelation in the precise sense of a divine self-communication, Western faiths tend to be more prominent than Eastern religions.
When it comes to Hinduism, which is the largest religion in India, revelation is often regarded as a process by which the religious seeker, via the activation of his or her inner spiritual qualities, escapes from the realm of change and illusion and comes into contact with ultimate truth. As a result of their ability to mirror the eternal and essential order of things, sacred writings are considered to be embodiments of revelation. Vedanta, a significant school of Hindu thinking, is divided into two main schools of thought: the monisticAdvaita (Sanskrit: “Nondualism”) and the theisticVishishtadvaita (Sanskrit: “Qualified Nondualism”), which stresses bhakti, or devotion, as the highest virtue.
The philosophy and theologianRamanuja(c.1050–1137) systematizedVishishtadvaita, which considers brahmans to be personally and compassionately disposed toward others.
The devotional theism of Vishishtadvaita, which has had a significant impact on modern Indian culture, is similar to the pietism and mysticism of Western faiths.
Buddhism, the other great religion to have originated on Indian soil, views revelation not as a personal intervention of the Absolute into the worldly realm of relativities, but rather as a state of enlightenment achieved through discipline and meditation (as opposed to revelation in the traditional sense). After a harrowing experience of human transitoriness and a time of ascetical contemplation, the Buddha (6th–5th century BCE) obtained an insight that enabled him to ascend to the position of supreme teacher for all of his disciples.
Others venerate him, others adore him, and all Buddhists want to emulate him as the most perfect example of ideal personhood—an ideal that he, in some manner, “discloses” to them.
Shakyamuni is a metal sculpture made of copper alloy with traces of paint from Uttar Pradesh, India, in the late sixth century. Howard Cheng captured this image. Collection of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, M.70.17, a gift of the Michael J. Connell Foundation
In contrast to the ascetical religions of India, Chinese wisdom places little or no emphasis on revelation as it is understood in Western religions, though Chinese traditions do stress the importance of adhering to the laws of nature in order to live in harmony with the universe. It is only in the transparency of the immanent divine principle or way that Daoism, which is perhaps the most characteristic Chinese form of practical mysticism, that revelation is found (Dao). Even though Confucianism is not incompatible with Daoism, it is oriented less toward natural mysticism and more toward social ethics and decorum, though it is also concerned with bringing life into harmony with the natural flow of existence.
He was neither a prophet appealing to divine revelation nor a philosopher seeking to provide reasons for his doctrine, as Confucius (551-479 BCE) was.
Religions of the West
Religious revelation is the most fundamental category of religious knowledge in the three main faiths of the Western world: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Because God has freely shown himself—his traits, purpose, and instructions—to human beings, they are aware of God’s will and know what he wants them to do.
The Pentateuch (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, often known as the Old Testament) was considered to be the foundational revelation of God by the Israelite faith. Various means, similar to those used by local religions to reveal themselves to the patriarchs and prophets, were believed to have been used, including theophanies (visible manifestations of the divine), dreams, visions, auditions, and ecstasies—as well as, more significantly, by his mighty deeds, such as leading the Israelites out of Egypt and enabling them to conquer the Holy Land.
Their inspired words were to be received as the Word of God and obeyed with loving obedience.
The Gemaldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin – Preussischer Kulturbesitz provided this image.
In time, it evolved an intricate system of casuistry that was based on theTorah (the Law, or the Pentateuch) and its approved commentators, particularly theTalmud (commentaries on the Torah), which was widely considered as being on a par with theBible in terms of authoritative authority.
Orthodox Judaism continues to acknowledge these authoritative sources and maintains that the Bible, or at the very least the Pentateuch, was written by God on the lips of men.
When it comes to revelation, the New Testament drew its inspiration from contemporary forms of Judaism (1st century bce and 1st century ce), specifically from both normative rabbinic Judaism and theesoteric doctrines that were popular in Jewish apocalyptic circles in the Hellenistic world during the time period. Christian doctrine believes that revelation is brought to an unsurpassable culmination in the person of Jesus Christ, who is God’s own Son (Hebrews 1:1–2), his everlasting Word (John 1:1), and the perfect representation of the Father (Colossians 1:15).
- The Apostles, as the foremost heralds of the Christian faith, possess a status in Christianity that is akin to that of the prophets in ancient Israel, having been commissioned by Jesus and empowered by the heavenly spirit.
- Paul highlighted in his writings the necessity of missionary preaching in order for God’s revelation in Christ to be spread to all of the nations of the globe (Romans 10:11–21), and he underlined this throughout his letters.
- Paul preaching the gospel.
- Paul preaching the gospel.
- God’s revelation was historically seen as complete in Jesus Christ, or at the very least in his lifetime, by those who follow the Christian faith.
The 2nd-century Montanists (a heretical group whose members believed they were living in the Age of the Holy Spirit), 13th-century Joachimites (a mystical group that held a similar view), 16th-century Anabaptists (radical Protestant sects), and the 17th-century Quakers are examples of sectarian movements that have occurred periodically throughout Christian history that have attributed binding force to new revelations occurring in the community.
Following revelations to the church’s founder, Joseph Smith, in the nineteenth century, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known asMormons) accepted other canonicalscriptures (particularly, the Book of Mormon) alongside the Bible.
When it comes to revelation, the New Testament drew its inspiration from contemporary forms of Judaism (1st century bce and 1st century ce), specifically from both normative rabbinic Judaism and theesoteric doctrines that were popular in Jewish apocalyptic circles in the Hellenistic world during the time of Jesus. Following the Hebrew Scriptures as a preparatory revelation, Christianity holds that God’s revelation is brought to an unsurpassable climax in the person of Jesus Christ, who is both God’s own Son (Hebrews 1:1–2) and his eternal Word (John 1:1), and who is also the perfect image of the Father (John 1:1–2).
The life, teaching, death, and resurrection of Jesus are seen as the primary sources of Christian revelation, which are then interpreted by the apostolic witnesses under the light of the Holy Spirit.
In spite of the fact that he was not physically present during Jesus’ public ministry, Paul is included among the Apostles because he had a particularly vivid vision of the rising Christ and because he had been specifically called to bring the Good News to the Gentiles.
Paul preaching the gospel, a detail of a 12th-century mosaic in the Cappella Palatina, Palermo, Sicily Alinari/Art Resource is based in New York City, and God’s revelation was historically seen as complete in Jesus Christ, or at the very least in his lifetime, by those who follow the Christian faith.
Additional canonical texts (particularly, the Book of Mormon) containing revelations given to the church’s founder, Joseph Smith, were accepted by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as Mormons) in the 19th century, alongside the Bible.
Zoroastrianism, which was formerly the national religion of the Persian empire, is a fourth major prophetic religion that deserves to be noted because of its historical significance. It is believed that Zoroaster (Zarathushtra), a prophetic reformer who lived in the 6th century BCE, held monotheistic beliefs and a strict adherence to truth and morality, among other things. He had a revelation from Ahura Mazd (the “Wise Lord”) when he was 30 years old, and he decided to join him in the war against the forces of evil.
Beginning with the Babylonian Exile, later strains of Zoroastrianism appear to have had an effect on Judaism, and then through Judaism, on Christian thought and practice as well.
The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago has provided this image.
Differences between Buddhism and Christianity
Religions such as Buddhism and Christianity were both created by great Spiritual Masters who strove to provide a way to redemption for their followers. The vocabulary they employed was sometimes diametrically opposed to one another. Aside from that, because to the diverse situations in which they incarnated, they taught distinct ways and placed varying emphasis on different aspects of spirituality. Neither the Buddha norJesus Christ recorded their own teachings in their own words. In all cases, their teachings were not recorded until many years after they had passed away from the earth.
Aside from that, when new faiths emerged, they developed in a variety of ways.
Some of the Significant Differences Between Buddhism and Christianity
Buddhists do not believe in the existence of a Creator God. The notion of God is extremely important in Christianity. God appears in the Old Testament as a dispenser of Divine Justice, which is a notion that is mainly missing from Buddhist thought.
Buddhism is based on the practices of meditation and mindfulness. Prayer is more important in Christianity than it is in other religions.
Grace / Personal Effort
Buddhism lays a larger focus on individual effort, whilst Christianity places a bigger emphasis on God’s grace.
Buddhism places a strong emphasis on the unending cycle of birth and rebirth, as well as the concept of reincarnation. According to Christian doctrine, we only have one life and one opportunity. Salvation and liberty are two different things. The notion of’salvation’ is emphasized heavily in Christian thought. Accepting Jesus Christ as your savior is the only way to find salvation. People who put their faith in Jesus Christ, according to Christian belief, will be granted eternal life in paradise.
A Buddhist believes that simply believing in the Buddha is not enough; the seeker must also experience nirvana for himself by reforming his nature and stilling his mind, according to this viewpoint.
Similarities Between Buddhism and Christianity
- Founded by a spiritual Master who welcomed disciples as his or her followers
- Both Jesus Christ and the Buddha attempted to improve old social/religious practices that had degraded into ceremonial forms with no spiritual purpose by teaching them via the use of simple parables. The money lenders in the temple were called out by Christ. The caste structure and hypocrisy of the Brahmins were both criticized by Buddha, who believed in equality for all. All castes were welcomed within Buddha’s sangha (community). Christ taught that his philosophy was not only for a tiny race, but for everyone who shared his principles. A majority of Christians would agree that the Five Precepts of Buddhism (abstaining from murdering, libel, theft, and sexual immorality) are admirable. Both religions emphasize ethical living and compassion/love for one’s fellow man
- Both religions teach that the power of love can defeat the forces of hatred and oppression. According to the Buddha, “hate cannot be defeated by hatred.” ‘Love your adversary,’ says Christ. Christianity, like Buddhism, urges its adherents to make changes in their lives that will enhance their quality of life. Buddhism, like Christianity, is characterized by a strong devotional component. Confidence in the Buddha is a defining characteristic of this. This is particularly evident in traditions such as Pure Land Buddhism, which places a strong emphasis on prayer to the Buddha
- Both faiths urge their adherents to be benevolent towards the needy
- And both religions have both a monastic and a lay approach to their practices. Despite the fact that the monastic aspect is mostly disappeared from contemporary Protestantism, both movements strive for higher spiritual purity. Despite the fact that their techniques are different, they are both striving for a greater spiritual perfection
- Both are attempting to transcend the material world. They think that true pleasure can only be found via spiritual ideals and spiritual consciousness
- Specifically, through the Divine Consciousness. The Buddha, it is true, did not speak about the existence of God. He believed that language could never adequately represent the Supreme Consciousness. Buddha, on the other hand, spoke of nirvana as a place of limitless serenity, boundless light, and unlimited happiness. In the absence of this transcendental consciousness, what really is God?
Citation:Pettinger, Tejvan, “Differences Between Buddhism and Christianity,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, January 8, 2013. Updated on the 12th of January, 2018. Pages that are related
The Spiritual Dynamic between Buddhism and Christianity
- It is possible to purchase The Spiritual Dynamic between Buddhism and Christianity on Amazon.com and The Spiritual Dynamic between Buddhism and Christianity on Amazon.co.uk.
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The halo: A symbol that spread around the world
The halo is a symbol that has become well recognized around the world. The disc halo, which initially appeared in religious art of ancient Iran, spread across civilizations at an incredible rate, encouraged by commerce along the Silk Roads. It is now found in religious art around the world. Matt Wilson investigates the connection between Jesus, Buddha, and Apollo via the use of a simple symbol. C Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, and Greek mythology are all generally recognized as entirely unique religions, distinguished primarily by their distinctions from one another.
More along the lines of: -The sign that conceals a hidden meaning – We can trace our earliest human symbols back to The millennia-old sign that has stood the test of time This halo around the head of a holy person emphasizes their brilliance or divinity, and it may be seen in art from all across the world to illustrate this.
What was the motivation for the creation of this symbol?
Additionally, it might have been a representation of a celestial aura flowing from the mind of a god.
One funny hypothesis was that it was formed from protective plates that were placed to sculptures of gods in order to shield their heads from the droppings of birds.
Despite the fact that it had never appeared in any previous religion, it quickly became a staple of religious imagery throughout Eurasia within a few decades.
Ra, the solar deity of ancient Egypt, was frequently shown with a round disc representing the sun — however this was usually placed above his head rather than behind it.
However, rather than being engraved around the heads of sacred figures, they are inscribed around the whole bodies of holy figures.
The characteristic round disc halo, on the other hand, is a more recent innovation, and it is most likely the consequence of unique religious notions.
According to what we can tell, it was intended to be a distinctive attribute of Mithra, the deity of light in the Zoroastrian faith.
In terms of art history, the disc halo is particularly significant as a piece of religious imagery because of the rapidity with which it spread throughout civilizations throughout history.
As early as the 400s, haloes had been a common feature of Christian art in Rome, as well as Buddhist art in China.
Buddha is shown with a halo in artwork from all over the world, such as this fresco from a Cambodian temple.
The original journey of this piece of religious imagery is outwards, eastwards, and westwards, from its origins in Iran, where it has passed through the hands of some of the world’s greatest empires.
These two dynasties, which were steeped in ancient Iranian cultural tradition, introduced currency to the region that depicted Mithra as having a halo around his head.
Because of this, Buddhism has always been associated with Mithraism, even from the earliest pictorial portrayals of Buddha, such as the Bimaran reliquary (which may date back to the late First Century AD).
Mithras had an impact on the image of another Roman deity, Sol Invictus, who was subsequently worshipped as a warrior god (the “sun unconquered”).
Constantine (Emperor 306-337CE) recognized the iconographical significance of the halo, and he and his successors took advantage of this recognition by appropriating it and using it in creative portrayals of them.
For more than two centuries following its appearance in Buddhist iconography, this new arrival in Christian iconography began to occur around the 300s AD, when the church’s iconography was being revised.
It has remained in Christian art ever since, but it has undergone minor changes throughout the years to reflect current trends.
Buddhism, Jainism, and Hinduism coexisted amicably in India during the first century AD, and the three religions exchanged ideas and creative imagery, such as haloes, that were later adopted by others.
Idea trading is a popular pastime.
Buddhist monasteries began to rise at strategic intersections of trade routes to function as religious equivalents of caravanserais, according to legend.
By the 500s AD, haloes were beginning to emerge in Korean and Japanese art, showing that Buddhism had made its way to these countries as well.
These extensive commercial routes, which connected east and west during late antiquity and the Middle Ages, are commonly referred to as the “Silk Roads” because of the high-end commodities that were transported over them.
An emblem of this active exchange of ideas that took place in the distant past, the disc halo symbolizes this exchange of ideas.
It also serves as a striking reminder of humanity’s shared cultural legacy in the twenty-first century.
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