Why Did the Roman Soldier Stab Jesus with His Spear?
What Was the Reason for the Roman Soldier’s Spear Stab in Jesus’ Back?As we find ourselves in the midst of ″Holy Week,″ it seemed appropriate to devote our attention once more to the event of Jesus’ death on the cross and resurrection.In the past, I’ve answered a variety of Easter-related inquiries, ranging from a medical report on the crucifixion victims to the everlasting fate of Judas for betraying Jesus.The topic for this year is a question from Rich that I’ve never heard before, never alone seen addressed: ″Why did the Roman soldier attack Jesus with a spear since the Bible plainly declares that he was aware that Jesus had already died?″ The narrative of Jesus being stabbed on the crucifixion by a Roman soldier is mentioned exclusively in the Gospel of John 19.31-34: ″Jesus was stabbed by a Roman soldier on the cross.″ In any case, it was now the day of Preparation, and the next day was to be a special Sabbath.″ Because the Jews did not want the bodies to be left on the crosses during the Sabbath, they petitioned Pilate to have the legs severed and the bodies removed from the crosses.
- Because of this, the soldiers arrived and began to break the legs of the first man who had been crucified with Jesus, followed by the legs of the second.
- However, when they arrived at Jesus’ location and saw that he had already died, they did not break his legs.
- One of the soldiers instead stabbed Jesus in the side with a spear, prompting an unexpected outpouring of blood and water.″ Why would you stab a dead man?
The truth is that this passage in John’s gospel may have been written to respond to individuals in the first century who were disputing Jesus’ death—those who believed that Jesus had died in a coma—by providing them with evidence that Jesus had died.The coma theory proposed that Jesus had not actually died, but had instead been resurrected while sleeping in the tomb for three days.The coma argument has several flaws, and it is only used by a small number of researchers and skeptics to cast doubt on the Easter resurrection.However, it appears that John’s story of Jesus being stabbed on the cross is the first attempt to corroborate Jesus’ death to have been made.The Romans were taken aback by the speed with which Jesus died on the cross, as we read in all of the gospel narratives.According to medical historians, the average death of a person who has been crucified lasts around 36 hours.
- Some perished as a result of exposure, some as a result of asphyxiation, and yet others as a result of dehydration.
- Many died as a result of tetanus received during their time nailed on the cross, and the spasms that accompanied the illness accelerated their demise.
- In any case, breaking the victim’s legs, which resulted in death by asphyxiation, might expedite the victim’s death since the victim would not be able to use his legs to lift himself up to take a breath of fresh air, could hasten the victim’s death.
- However, Jesus’ death was completed in less than six hours, and he did it without breaking his legs.
- As seen by the reactions of the Romans, this was an unusual occurrence at the time.
- And it was precisely because of this exception that those who questioned the truth of Jesus’ death arose.
- In this way, John had an economic incentive to demonstrate that Jesus had indeed died, and the stabbing served to demonstrate that fact.
- Let us keep in mind that Roman troops were not trained medical professionals.
In order to certify someone as dead, they had to be very certain that the victim had died—in the event of executions, their own lives depended on it.When the soldier who had heard Jesus ″breathe his last″ (Mark 15.37; Luke 23.46) reported it to his superiors, who were ready to break Jesus’ legs, the spear stab was very certainly carried out just to ensure that the information was correct, according to tradition.In other words, it’s very possible that the soldier who broke the legs of the murdered criminals was merely vengeful and wished to inflict an insult on the prematurely deceased Jesus; yet, this would be completely out of character for the highly disciplined Roman military.In any case, when the ″blood and water″ began to come out and the bleeding ceased, it was apparent that the death sentence had been carried out successfully.When John wrote this tale in order to establish Jesus’ death to the doubters, he was just attempting to demonstrate decisively that Jesus had indeed died.
- What John didn’t comprehend was that he had not only verified Jesus’ death, but he had also disclosed the ″why″ of Jesus’ early death in the process.
- It would be over 1,800 years before we could figure out why Jesus died in six hours, rather than the usual 36 hours.
- The death of Jesus, according to Dr.
- Gruner’s A Commentary on the Death of Jesus, occurred as a result of a burst heart muscle in 1805.
- When Gruner first published his tale, it was met with opposition by evangelists of the day.
- But in 1847, Dr.
- Stroud of London released his own report based on numerous post mortem examinations that claimed Jesus had not died directly from the crucifixion, but rather had died from a ″laceration or rupture of the heart.″ This report corroborated Gruner’s assertions, and it was published in the same year that Gruner’s report was published.
- Since then, several physiologists have independently validated the numerous aspects of the crucifixion, all of which appear to corroborate the idea that Jesus died as a result of a lacerated heart.
- As a matter of fact, some believe that this is the sole authentic evidence of Jesus’ untimely death on the cross.
- It became evident that Jesus had died when a Roman soldier stabbed him in the back with a spear, whether to confirm or to criticize the soldier’s actions.
- And, as I prepare myself for Easter, it seems appropriate to remember that Jesus died not because he was weak, but because his heart had been crushed by the cross.
Five Holy Wounds – Wikipedia
The phrase ″The Five Wounds″ links to this page.The Five Wounds by Kirstin Valdez Quade is a book written by her (novel).Known in Christian tradition as the Five Holy Wounds, sometimes known as the Five Sacred Wounds or the Five Precious Wounds, the five penetrating wounds that Jesus Christ received during his crucifixion are the most important wounds that he received.Throughout history, particularly in the late Middle Ages, the wounds of Christ have been the subject of unique devotions, which have frequently been mirrored in church music and art.
The Lord Jesus Christ sustained several wounds during his Passion, including those caused by the crown of thorns and those caused by the scourging at the pillar.He also suffered the largest unrecorded shoulder wound in history.The five wounds linked directly with Christ’s crucifixion, which included the nail wounds on his wrists and feet, as well as the lance wound that penetrated his side, were the focus of public devotion during the Middle Ages.The resurgence of monastic life, as well as the fervent work of Bernard of Clairvaux and Francis of Assisi in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, along with the excitement of Crusaders returning from the Holy Land, gave birth to devotion to Jesus Christ’s Passion and death.
- In honor of the Sacred Wounds, several medieval prayers were written down, including some ascribed to Clare of Assisi, which have survived to this day.
- Mechtilde and Gertrude of Helfta were devoted to the Holy Wounds, with the latter repeating daily a prayer in honor of the 5466 wounds that were inflicted on Jesus during his Passion, according to a medieval tradition.
- The Sacred Wounds were commemorated by reciting fifteen Pater Nosters each day (for a total of 5475 Pater Nosters in a year) in southern Germany throughout the fourteenth century, a practice that has persisted to the present day.
There was a special Mass in honour of Christ’s wounds, known as the Golden Mass, that was included in the medieval Missals.Five candles were always lit during its celebration, and it was widely believed that anyone who said or heard it on five consecutive days would never suffer the pains of hell fire.The Dominican Rosary also contributed to the spread of devotion to the Sacred Wounds, because, while the fifty small beads represent the Virgin Mary, the five large beads and the corresponding Pater Nosters are intended to commemorate the Five Wounds of Christ, which are represented by the fifty small beads.Another custom was to ring a bell at noon on Fridays to remind the faithful to chant five Paters and Aves in honor of the Holy Wounds, which was prevalent in some localities.
The Holy Wounds
- It is thought that this painting was made in Austria about 1500. Christ after his Resurrection with his wounds exposed (ostentatio Vulnerum), Austria, ca. 1500. Five different injuries were sustained: one through each hand or wrist, one through each foot, and one through the chest. Nails were put into his hands and wrists in order to secure Jesus to the cross-beam of the crucifixion on which he was crucified in order to inflict the two wounds. The upper part of the palm, angled toward the wrist, according to forensic expert Frederick T. Zugibe, is the most likely location for Jesus’ nail entry site because it can easily support the weight of his body, ensures that no bones are broken, marks the location where most people believed it to be, accounts for where most stigmatists displayed their wounds, and is the location that artists throughout history have designated as the location of Jesus’ nail entry site. The compression caused by this position would result in the fingers of the hand appearing to be longer than normal
- two were through the feet, where the nail(s) passed through both to the vertical beam
- and the final wound was in the side of Jesus’ chest, where, according to the New Testament, his body was pierced by the Lance of Longinus in order to be certain that he was dead. As recorded in the Gospel of John, both blood and water gushed forth from one wound (John 19:34). Despite the fact that the Gospels do not specify which side of Jesus was wounded, it has traditionally been depicted as occurring on his legitimate right side, however certain renderings, such as a number by Rubens, show it as occurring on his rightful left side
Despite the fact that it is only mentioned once in the Gospel of John, at John 20:24–29, the inspection of the wounds by ″Doubting Thomas″ the Apostle was the topic of considerable analysis and was frequently shown in art, where the subject is formally known as the Incredulity of Thomas.The shoulder wound of Jesus is another one of the Holy Wounds, despite the fact that it has been ignored by public piety for many years.
Devotions to the Holy Wounds
Bernard of Clairvaux, who lived in the 12th century, encouraged people to pray for Jesus’ shoulder wound.As told in a holy tradition, Saint Bernard inquired of Jesus about his greatest unrecorded sorrow, as well as the wound that had caused him the most grief on the cross.″I had a grievous Wound on My Shoulder, while I bore My Cross on the Way of Sorrows, which was more painful than the others and which was not recorded by men,″ Jesus responded.Redemptorist Father Alphonsus Maria de Liguori, in his 1761 book The Passion and Death of Jesus Christ, listed the Little Chaplet of the Five Wounds of Jesus Crucified as one of several pious exercises that could be done to remember the wounds of Jesus.
- During the year 1821 in Rome, the Passionist Chaplet of the Five Wounds was produced.
- The Holy See approved a corona of the Five Wounds on August 11, 1823, and again in 1851, both times for the same reason.
- This prayer is divided into five parts, with each division consisting of five Glories in memory of Christ’s wounds and one Ave in memory of the Sorrowful Mother.
The Passionists are the only ones who are permitted to bless the beads.The Chaplet of the Holy Wounds was created at the beginning of the twentieth century by the Venerable Sister Marie Martha Chambon, a lay Roman Catholic Sister of the Monastery of the Visitation Order in Chambéry, France, who was a lay Roman Catholic Sister of the Monastery of the Visitation Order.This devotion, also known as the Act of Reparation to Jesus’ Wounds and the Holy Eucharist, has its origins in the apparitions of Christ at Balazar, Portugal, which were reported by Blessed Alexandrina Maria da Costa in the twentieth century, and is celebrated on the first Thursday of each month.
The white dots inside the blue shields represent the Holy Wounds, which are seen on the Portuguese flag.Since 1139, Afonso I of Portugal has worn the Five Holy Wounds insignia as part of his royal coat of arms, indicating his status as King of Portugal.The Cross of Jerusalem, also known as the ″Crusaders’ Cross,″ commemorates the Five Holy Wounds of Jesus Christ by the use of five crosses.It has long been recognized as a Christian symbol to bear the wounds of the Cross.
- Participants in the Crusades would frequently wear the Jerusalem cross, a symbol commemorating the Holy Wounds; a variation of this insignia may still be found on the flag of Georgia, which is still in use today.
- Five wounds were the symbol of the ″Pilgrimage of Grace,″ a northern English uprising against Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the Monasteries that resulted in the death of King Henry VIII.
- In ancient times, the pentagram was employed as a sign for the Holy Wounds, which is why it is now associated with the occult.
The pentagram has a major symbolic significance in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, a 14th-century English poem in which the symbol is used to embellish the shield of the hero, Gawain, and is shown like such.According to the unnamed poet, King Solomon is the source of the symbol’s origin, and each of the five interconnected points represents a virtue associated with a group of five: Gawain is perfect in his five senses and five fingers, faithful to the Five Wounds of Christ, takes courage from the five joys that Mary had of Jesus, and embodies the five virtues of knighthood.There are a number of Christian churches that anoint their altars in five locations, representing the Five Holy Wounds of Christ.It is fairly uncommon for Eastern Orthodox churches to feature five domes on their roofs, which symbolise the Five Holy Wounds, as well as alternate iconography representing Christ and the Four Evangelists.
In sacred music
It was formerly believed that the medieval poem Salve mundi salutare (also known as the Rhythmica oratio) was composed by Bonaventure or Bernard of Clairvaux, but it is now believed that it was written by the Cistercian abbot Arnulf of Leuven (d.1250).In this extended meditation on the Passion of Christ, the author divides the work into seven sections, each of which corresponds to one of the components of Christ’s crucified body.Dieterich Buxtehude orchestrated it as a cycle of seven cantatas in 1680, after it had become popular in the 17th century.
- It was published in 1680 and is divided into seven sections, each of which is addressed to a different member of Christ’s crucified body: the feet, knees, hands, side of Christ’s crucifixion, breast of Christ, heart of Christ, and head.
- Each section is framed by selected Old Testament verses that contain prefigurements.
- In modern times, the cantata is most well known as the hymn O Sacred Head Surrounded, which takes its title from the final stanza of a lyric devoted to Christ’s head that starts with the words ″Salve caput cruentatum.″ Using a translation by Lutheran hymnist Paul Gerhardt, Johann Sebastian Bach modified the tune and utilized five stanzas of the song as the opening theme of his ″St Matthew Passion.″ In his Via crucis, Franz Liszt incorporated an adaptation of this song at the sixth station, Saint Veronica cleanses the Holy Face, which is the most famous of the stations (Stations of the Cross).
When it comes to art, the topic of Doubting Thomas, also known as the Incredulity of Saint Thomas, has been popular from at least the early 6th century, when it occurs in mosaics at the Basilica of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna and on the Monza ampullae (more information).Among the most notable examples are the sculpted pair of Christ and St.Thomas by Andrea del Verrocchio (1467–1483) for the Orsanmichele in Florence, as well as Caravaggio’s The Incredulity of Saint Thomas, which is currently housed in the Potsdamer Schloss.With one side of his robe pulled back, displaying the wound in his side and his other four wounds (known as the ostentatio vulnerum, ″display of the wounds″), Jesus was taken from images with Thomas and turned into a pose adopted by Jesus alone, who frequently places his own fingers in the wound in his side (called the ostentatio vulnerum, ″display of the wounds″).
- A common feature of single iconic figures and subjects such as the Last Judgement (where Bamberg Cathedral has an early example from about 1235), Christ in Majesty, the Man of Sorrows, and Christ with the Arma Christi emerged, and it was used to emphasize Christ’s suffering as well as the fact that he had been raised from the dead.
- Devotional art that concentrated on the side wound was also common; certain books of prayers from late-medieval Germany, for example, would depict the side wound surrounded by writing that specified the wound’s exact measurements.
- Other representations assume that the side wound received at the crucifixion was the source of the development of the Church itself.
- Saint Longinus
- Stigmata, 1999 film
- A b c d e f g ″CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Five Sacred Wounds.″ Retrieved on December 15, 2018.
- Marianus Fiege is credited with inventing the term ″fiege″ (1900). St. Clare of Assisi and the Poor Ladies’ Order / written and illustrated by Father Marianus Fiege. The Catholic Theological Union is a religious organization that exists to promote the teachings of the Catholic Church. Poor Clares of the Monastery of St. Clare, Evansville, Indiana
- Zugibe Barbet’s Forensic Study of the Crucifixion has been revisited. on 2018-12-15
- retrieved on 2018-12-15. In Eastern Christianity, the crucifixion is commonly represented with Jesus’ feet put side by side, and each foot pierced by a distinct nail
- in Western Christianity, the crucifix is typically depicted with the two feet placed one above the other, and both feet pierced by a single nail Among the hundreds of people crucified by the Romans, the skeletal remains of only one have been unearthed thus far by archeologists, and that one had a nail pierced through the heel. Gurewich, Vladimir, and others ″Painting by Rubens depicting the wound in Christ’s side. A Concluding Remark ″, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 26, No. 3/4 (1963), p. 358, The Warburg Institute, JSTOR
- , Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 26, No. 3/4 (1963), p. 358, The Warburg Institute, JSTOR
- Ball, Ann, Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions, Our Sunday Visitor Publishing, 2003, ISBN 9780879739102
- Liguori, Alfonso Maria de’
- Grimm, Eugene, Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions, Our Sunday Visitor Publishing, 2003, ISBN 9780879739102
- (1887). Specifically, the passion and death of Jesus Christ. The New York Public Library is a great place to start. Benziger Brothers, New York, New York
- ″Chaplet of the Five Wounds″ is a short story about five wounds. on 2018-12-15
- retrieved on 2018-12-15. Ann Ball’s 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices (ISBN 0-87973-910-X) and Gerald Morgan’s 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices (1979). Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: The Importance of Symbolism in ″Sir Gawain and the Green Knight″ Modern Language Review 74(4): 769–790. doi:10.2307/3728227. JSTOR 3728227.
- ″CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Salve Mundi Salutare″ (Catholic Encyclopedia: Salve Mundi Salutare).
- Snyder, Kerala J., Dieterich Buxtehude: Organist in Lübeck, University Rochester Press, 1987 ISBN 9781580462532
- Soper, 188, listing several other early occurrences
- Schiller, Vol 2, 188–189, 202
- Swan, Emily, Dieterich Buxtehude: Organist in Lübeck, University Rochester Press, 1987 ISBN 9781580462532
- (8 November 2019). ″Jesus’s Vagina: A Medieval Meditation″ is the title of this article. Medium. Obtainable on October 29, 2020.
- Kerr, Anne Cecil, and others. Sister Mary Martha Chambon of the Visitation, B. Herder Publishing, 1937
- Gertrud Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. II, 1972 (English translation from German), Lund Humphries, London, ISBN 0853313245
- Sister Mary Martha Chambon of the Visitation, B. Herder Publishing, 1937
- Schiller, Gertrud, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. II, 1972 (English translation from German), Lund Humphries, London, ISBN 08533132
When Was Jesus Stabbed by the Roman Soldier (John 19:34)?
Anne Cecil Kerr is a writer and editor who lives in Toronto.; Sister Mary Martha Chambon of the Visitation, published by B.Herder Publishing in 1937; Gertrud Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art: Vol.II, 1972 (translated from the German), published by Lund Humphries in London, ISBN 0853313245; Sister Mary Martha Chambon of the Visitation, published by B.
- Herder Publishing in 1937; Sister Mary Martha Chambon of the Visitation, published by B.
- Herder Publishing in 1937; Sister Mary Martha Chambon of the Visitation
Where in Jesus’s body was he stabbed?
According to the Gospel of John ″However, when they arrived at Jesus’ location and saw that he had already died, they did not break his legs.The soldiers instead speared Jesus in the side, causing a torrential outpouring of blood and water to erupt.″ (John 19:33, 34, New International Version.) Afterwards, upon the resurrection, John reports, ″’Put your finger here, and look at my hands,’ he instructed Thomas.You can put your hand into my side if you reach out your hand.’Stop second-guessing yourself and believe.’″ (See John 20:27 in the New International Version.) The word for ″side″ is v, which according to Strong’s Concordance means ″a rib, or (by extension) side.″ This is, coincidentally, the same term that the Greek Lexicon of the Old Testament uses to refer to Adam’s side in Genesis 2:21.
- Additionally, there is significant debate concerning Matthew 27:49, because the KJV and most other English Bibes cut out part of a line that is included in certain (but not all) ancient manuscripts.
- According to a post on the internet, this phrase is ″And another grabbed a spear, and stabbed it into His side, and forth poured water and blood.″ This is largely in accord with John’s story, therefore it doesn’t make much of a difference whether or not you believe the phrase from Matthew; Jesus was stabbed in the side with a spear, which is consistent with both accounts.
What was the spear that stabbed Jesus?
A fabled artifact that is said to have pierced Christ’s side during his crucifixion, the Holy Lance is also known as the Spear of Destiny, Holy Spear, or Lance of Longinus.
What can the Holy Lance do?
The Spear of Destiny (also known as the Holy Lance) is the term given to the spear that was used to penetrate the side of Jesus of Nazareth several hours into his crucifixion by a Roman soldier.
Did the Spear of Destiny kill Jesus?
His wrists and feet were both punctured by nails, and he was stabbed in the side with the famous Spear of Destiny, all of which resulted in the so-called Five Holy Wounds. The so-called son of God died on the cross after suffering the so-called Five Holy Wounds. According to the Bible, blood gushed from Christ’s right side as a final act of his anguish on the cross, bringing him to an end.
Who used the Spear of Destiny?
During the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ, the Roman Centurion Longinus pierced Jesus’ side with the ″Spear of Destiny,″ causing His death to be hastened. According to tradition, whomever wielded the spear had complete influence over the destiny of the entire globe. This sword was afterwards used by St. Maurice of Assisi.
Where is the spear that stabbed Jesus?
Following the Turkish invasion of Constantinople in 1492, Pope Innocent VIII was presented with two churches: one beneath the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, and one in the Vatican. Another example may be found in the Imperial Treasury of the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. The Lance of St. George is another name for this weapon.
What happened to the spear that stabbed Jesus?
In accordance with this story, the spear that wounded Jesus’ side was to have been sent to Armenia by the Apostle Thaddeus…. It was then returned to Armenia and is currently on exhibit in the Manoogian museum in Vagharshapat, where it is housed in a reliquary from the 17th century.
What did the centurion say at the cross?
The text is translated as follows in the current World English Bible: ″Now while the centurion and those who were with him were watching Jesus, and they saw the earthquake and the marvels that were done, they were terrified beyond measure, saying, ″Truly this was the Son of God.″
Is Cartaphilus in the Bible?
Armenian man originally known as Cartaphilus, who claimed to have served as Pontius Pilate’s doorkeeper and to have hit Jesus on his way to Calvary, pressing him to hurry up and finish his journey. ″I’m going, and you’ll have to wait until I return,″ Jesus responded. Following his baptism, Cartaphilus was given the name Joseph and lived in reverence among Christian clerics.
Why did they pierce Jesus side?
It is believed that the Lance of Longinus was used to puncture Jesus’ body in order to confirm that he had died. The last wound occurred in the side of Jesus’ chest, according to the New Testament. As recorded in the Gospel of John, both blood and water gushed forth from one wound (John 19:34).
What does Longinus mean?
Advertisement. Longinus is defined as ″long in length.″ Longinus is a cognomen that comes from the Latin word longus, which means ″long.″ St. Longinus was the name of a Roman soldier who stabbed Jesus’ side with a spear before converting to Christianity and being executed, according to Christian tradition.
Is Longinus still alive?
Is the holy grail real?
Many historians are suspicious of the most recent claim of the finding of the Holy Grail, and there is no proof that the Holy Grail truly exists, as has been claimed.… A medieval historian at a Madrid university, Carlos de Ayala, told the AFP news agency that ″the Grail tale is a literary fabrication of the 12th century with no historical basis.″ ″There is no historical basis for the Grail narrative,″ de Ayala said.
Why did Jesus wear a crown of thorns?
During the circumstances leading up to Jesus’ crucifixion, according to the New Testament, a braided crown of thorns was put on his head by the soldiers. It was one of the weapons of the Passion, used by Jesus’ captors to inflict suffering on him while also mocking his claim to power on the world stage.
Where are the crown of thorns kept?
The relic was brought to Paris by the French monarch Louis IX (St. Louis) in 1238, and the Sainte-Chapelle was erected to house it between 1242 and 1248. The thornless remnants are housed in the treasury of Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris, where they have survived a horrific fire that damaged the cathedral’s roof and spire in April 2019. The cathedral was completely destroyed in the fire.
From around the 6th century bce until the 4th century ce, the crucifixion was a popular means of capital punishment, notably among the Persians, Seleucids, Carthaginians, and Romans, among others.Out of reverence for Jesus Christ, the most famous victim of the crucifixion, Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, banned it in the Roman Empire in the early 4th century ce, making him the first Christian ruler.
There were a number of different approaches to carrying out the execution.Usually, after being beaten or ″scourged,″ the condemned man would pull the crossbeam of his cross to the area of punishment, where the upright shaft of the cross was already embedded in the ground.He was stripped of his garments, either at the time of his scourging or earlier, and either tied tightly to the crossbeam with his arms spread or nailed securely to it through the wrists.Afterwards, the crossbeam was hoisted up against the upright shaft and fastened to it at a height of around 9 to 12 feet (nearly 3 metres) above the ground.
- The feet were then firmly tied or fastened to the upright shaft at this point.
- A ledge placed around halfway up the upright shaft provided some support for the torso; however, evidence of a corresponding ledge for the feet is uncommon and late in the archaeological record.
- A notice with the criminal’s name and the nature of his crime was posted over his head.
A combination of constricted blood circulation, organ failure, and asphyxiation happened as the body strained under the force of its own weight, finally leading to death.By striking the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club, it was possible to accelerate the process of asphyxiation and shock by preventing the legs from bearing the body’s weight and making breathing more difficult.Critics of political or religious agitation, pirates, slaves, or people who lacked civil rights were the most commonly targeted for execution by crucifixion.Around the year 519 BCE, Darius I, the king of Persia, executed 3,000 political opponents on the streets of Babylon; in 88 BCE, Alexander Jannaeus, the Judaean king and high priest, executed 800 Pharisaic opponents on the streets of Jerusalem; and around the year 32 CE, Pontius Pilate executed Jesus of Nazareth on the cross.
Crucifixion of Jesus
As recorded in the Gospels, Jesus is scourged before being nailed to the cross for his crimes against humanity.As a result, the Roman troops humiliated him and derided him as the ″King of the Jews,″ dressing him in a purple robe and a crown of thorns, and leading him slowly to Mount Calvary, also known as Golgotha; one Simon of Cyrene was allowed to assist him in bearing the cross.At the execution site, he was stripped and nailed to the crucifixion, or at the at least affixed to the cross by his own hands, and above him, at the very top of the cross, was a condemnatory inscription proclaiming his crime of professing to be King of the Jews, which he had committed.(″Hebrew,″ or Aramaic, as well as Latin and Greek,″ according to the Gospels, which varied somewhat in their phrasing but all agree that the inscription was written in ″Hebrew,″ or Aramaic, as well as Latin and Greek.) Jesus was in anguish while he hung on the cross.
- The troops split his clothing and drew lots for his seamless robe, which was the winner.
- Several people on the street teased him.
- Two guilty thieves were crucified on either side of Jesus, and the soldiers dispatched them at the conclusion of the trial by breaking their legs.
It is possible that one of the soldiers thrust a spear into Jesus’ side, causing blood and water to flow out.However, it seems unlikely that this was the case.To comply with Jewish tradition, he was hauled down before sundown and buried in a rock-hewn grave on the grounds.
Crucifixion in art
Beginning in the early Middle Ages, the image of Christ on the crucifixion has been a popular topic in Western art.Early Christians were preoccupied with simple symbolic affirmations of salvation and eternal life, and they were repulsed by the ignominy of the punishment; instead, the Crucifixion was represented first by a lamb, and later by a jewelled cross, following the official recognition of Christianity by the Roman state in the early 4th century.The Crucifixion was not represented realistically until the 5th century.Although few depictions of the Crucifixion exist today, they became more common in the 6th century as a consequence of contemporary church attempts to oppose a theory that Christ’s character was not dual—human and divine—but rather solely divine and consequently invulnerable.
- These early Crucifixions, however, were triumphal representations, depicting Christ as alive and well, with wide eyes and no sign of agony, having triumphed over death and the grave.
- Byzantine art began to depict a dead Christ with closed eyelids in the 9th century, indicating a growing interest in the mystery of Christ’s death and the essence of the Incarnation at the time of the art’s creation.
- As part of the mysticism of the time, this version of the story was embraced in the West in the 13th century, with an ever-increasing emphasis placed on Christ’s pain and suffering.
Parallel to this evolution in the image of Christ himself was the creation of an increasingly complex iconography that encompassed other elements that had traditionally been featured in the scene, such as animals and plants.Aside from the major mourners (the Virgin Mary and St.John the Apostle), the only other figures incorporated in the piece are typically the apostles themselves.There are several other figures, both historical and symbolic, that traditionally appear to the right and left of the cross.These include the two thieves, one of whom was repentant, who were crucified with Christ; the centurion who pierced Christ’s side with a lance (and later acknowledged Christ to be the Son of God) and the soldier who offered him vinegar on a sponge; and small personifications of the Sun and Moon, which were eclipsed a few days after Christ’s death.The Other people that might be depicted are the soldiers who drew lots for Christ’s clothing and St.
- Mary Magdalene, amongst others.
- The development of devotional art at the end of the Middle Ages resulted in depictions of the Crucifixion becoming vehicles for the representation of Christ’s sufferings.
- Intended to inspire piety in the viewer, this spectacle became the primary concern of artists, who depicted the scene with gruesome realism and occasionally included the horror of a crowd of jeering spectators.
- John the Baptist appears on a number of Crucifixions from this period, pointing to Christ and his sacrifice in the same way that he had foretold Christ’s arrival earlier in the period.
- The Baroque period, on the other hand, maintained the peaceful idealization of the scene that had been restored by Renaissance painting, but with a more overt display of emotion.
- In common with much Christian religious art, the theme of the Crucifixion declined in popularity from the seventeenth century; some twentieth-century painters, on the other hand, generated very distinctive interpretations of the subject.
- Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Melissa Petruzzello was the person who most recently improved and updated this article.
The Science of the Crucifixion
Dr.Cahleen Shrier, associate professor of biology and chemistry at the Department of Biology and Chemistry, delivers a special lecture on the science of Christ’s crucifixion on a yearly basis.She goes into depth on the physiological processes that a typical crucified victim went through, and she instructs her pupils on how to see Christ’s death on the cross in a fresh light.Although the exact actions depicted in this scenario may not have occurred in Jesus’ individual situation, the tale is based on historical evidence of crucifixion techniques that were in use at the time of Jesus’ death.
- Please be advised that the material that follows is realistic and graphic in nature.
- Understanding that Jesus would have been in superb physical condition from the beginning is critical.
- He participated in physical labor because he was a carpenter by trade.
In addition, he traveled throughout the countryside on foot for much of the duration of His ministry.His stamina and strength were most likely extremely well developed at the time of his death.Keeping this in mind, it becomes evident exactly how much He suffered: If this torment could break a guy in such good form, it must have been a horrifying experience for him.
Matthew 26:36-46, Mark 14:37-42, Luke 22:39-44
Following the celebration of the Passover, Jesus leads His followers to the Garden of Gethsemene to pray.During His frantic prayer concerning the events that would take place, Jesus sheds blood droplets.There is a rare medical illness known as hemohedrosis, which occurs when the capillary blood veins that supply the sweat glands get damaged or destroyed.Blood that has been released from the vessels combines with the perspiration, resulting in the body sweating blood droplets.
- This condition is caused by mental pain or extreme anxiety, a state that Jesus conveys in his prayer, ″my soul is greatly saddened to the point of death,″ which means ″my soul is grieved to the point of death″ (Matthew 26:38).
- Because of the tenderness of the skin caused by hemohidrosis, Jesus’ physical state deteriorates gradually.
Matthew 26:67-75, Mark 14:61-72, Luke 22:54-23:25, John 18:16-27
Walking nearly two and a half kilometers from Pilate to Herod and back is a significant portion of Jesus’ journey. He hasn’t slept in days, and he’s been insulted and abused mercilessly (Luke 22:63-65). Aside from that, his skin is still sore as a result of the hemohedrosis. His physical state continues to deteriorate.
Matthew 27:26-32, Mark 15:15-21, Luke 23:25-26, John 19:1-28
Pilate ordered that Jesus be flogged in accordance with Roman law prior to his crucifixion.Tradition dictated that the guilty be stripped nude, and the flogging was applied to the area between the shoulders and the upper legs.There were numerous leather strips in the whip’s construction.Metal balls were positioned in the midst of the strips and struck the skin, causing severe bruising.
- On top of that, sheep bone was glued to the ends of each strip for added strength.
- After making contact with Jesus’ skin, the bone penetrates into His muscles, ripping pieces of flesh away and revealing the bone beneath.
- After the flogging, the flesh of Jesus’ back is ripped into long ribbons.
It is at this moment that he has lost a significant amount of blood, which causes his blood pressure to drop and sends him into shock.Jesus’ hunger is the normal response of His body to His suffering since it is a result of the body’s natural attempt to correct imbalances such as decreasing blood volume (John 19:28).If He had consumed more water, His blood volume would have grown significantly.A crown of thorns is placed on Jesus’ head, and a cloak is slung over His back by Roman soldiers (Matthew 27:28-29).The garment aids in the formation of a blood clot (much like placing a piece of tissue on a cut after shaving) and so prevents Jesus from suffering more blood loss.They strike Jesus in the head (Matthew 27:30), causing the thorns from the crown of thorns to press into his flesh and cause him to bleed profusely.
- He also suffers injury to the facial nerve, which results in tremendous agony running down his face and neck as a result of the thorns.
- Soldiers spit on Jesus as they ridicule Him, further demeaning His dignity (Matthew 27:30).
- They pull the garment from Jesus’ back, and the blood begins all over again.
- Jesus’ physical state grows increasingly precarious.
- Jesus is clearly in shock as a result of the tremendous blood loss that has occurred without replenishment.
- As a result, he is unable to bear the cross, and Simon of Cyrene is tasked with this responsibility (Matthew 27:32).
Matthew 27:33-56, Mark 15:22-41, Luke 23:27-49, John 19:17-37
The Persians created the crucifixion somewhere between 300 and 400 B.C.It is very probably the most agonizing death that civilization has ever devised in its history.Because crucifixion is recognized as a type of protracted, severe torture, the English language has derived the word ″excruciating″ from the word ″crucify.″ 1 Slaves, foreigners, revolutionaries, and the most heinous offenders were the only ones who received such a penalty.Those who died were nailed to a cross; nonetheless, it is likely that Jesus’ cross was not the Latin cross, but rather a Tau cross (T).
- The vertical portion (the stipes) is firmly anchored to the ground surface.
- The accused only drags the horizontal portion (the patibulum) up the hill, which is a long distance.
- A sign (the titulus) is located on top of the patibulum, signifying that a formal trial for a breach of the law has taken place.
In the case of Jesus, this is translated as ″This is the King of the Jews″ (Luke 23:38).Due to the fact that the accused must be nailed to the patibulum while still lying down, Jesus is flung to the ground, reopening His wounds and causing blood.They fasten His ″hands″ to the patibulum with nails.The wrist is included in the Greek definition of ″hands.″ It’s more likely that the nails pierced through Jesus’ wrists than through his hands.If the nails were pushed into the flesh of the hand, the weight of the arms would force the nail to rip through the delicate flesh.As a result, the upper body would not be nailed to the cross anymore.
- When a cross is inserted in the wrist, the bones in the lower region of the hand sustain the weight of the arms, and the body stays nailed to the cross for the duration of the ceremony.
- When the enormous nail (seven to nine inches long)2 strikes the hand, it destroys or severes the primary nerve supplying the hand (the median nerve).
- This causes Jesus to experience continual searing anguish up both of his arms.
- Once the victim has been tied, the guards will lift the patibulum and set it on top of the stipes that have already been laid in the soil.
- During the lifting of the cross, Jesus’ whole weight presses down on His nailed wrists, causing His shoulders and elbows to become dislocated (Psalm 22:14).
- 3 In this posture, Jesus’ arms are stretched to a minimum of six inches longer than they were at their starting point.
- Most likely, Jesus’ feet were nailed through the tops of the columns, as shown in popular culture.
- When the body is in this posture (with the knees flexed to roughly 90 degrees4), the weight of the body presses down on the nails, and the ankles support the weight of the body.
As opposed to the hands, the nails would not rip through the delicate tissue as they would have done with the hands.A second time, the nail would inflict serious nerve damage (since it would sever the dorsal pedal artery of the foot) and excruciating agony.Breathing normally requires the diaphragm (the big muscle that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity) to move down in order to take in air.The chest cavity is enlarged as a result, and air is drawn into the lungs automatically (inhalation).The diaphragm rises in response to the exhalation of breath, which compresses the air in the lungs and drives the air out (exhalation).
- As Jesus dangles from the cross, the weight of His body presses down on the diaphragm, causing air to enter and remain in His lungs throughout the duration of His death.
- In order to breath, Jesus has push up on His nailed feet, which causes even greater suffering.
- During exhalation, air must flow through the vocal chords in order for them to function properly.
- From the crucifixion, according to the Gospels, Jesus communicated seven times.
- It is incredible that He lifts himself up to say ″Forgive them″ despite his anguish (Luke 23:34).
- Suffocation occurs as a result of the difficulty in exhaling, which is a laborious process.
- Because of the buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood, there is a high concentration of carbonic acid in the blood.
- The body reacts immediately, causing the impulse to breathe to be triggered.
- Meanwhile, the heart is beating quicker in order to circulate the available oxygen.
- The reduced oxygenation of the tissues (resulting from the difficulty in exhaling) causes tissue damage, and the capillaries begin to leak watery fluid from the blood into the tissues as a result.
- This leads in a build-up of fluid around the heart (pericardial effusion) and in the lungs (pulmonary effusion) (pleural effusion).
- The person is effectively suffocated by his or her collapsing lungs, failing heart, dehydration, and inability to provide sufficient oxygen to the tissues.
- 5 The diminished oxygenation also causes damage to the heart itself (myocardial infarction), which ultimately results in cardiac arrest and death.
- Causing the heart to explode is a condition known as cardiac rupture, which occurs when the heart is under extreme stress.
- 6 The most likely cause of Jesus’ death was a heart attack.
- Suffocation occurs after Jesus’ death, as a result of the soldiers breaking the legs of the two prisoners who were crucified with Him (John 19:32).
- Death would therefore occur more quickly as a result of this.
The fact that Jesus was already dead when they arrived meant that they did not have to break His legs (John 19:33).The soldiers wounded His side, rather than His neck, to ensure that He was no longer alive (John 19:34).It is said that ″blood and water flowed forth″ (John 19:34), alluding to the watery fluid surrounding the heart and lungs, as a result of this action.As painful as the details of Christ’s death are, the depth of Christ’s anguish serves to demonstrate the actual magnitude of God’s love for His creation.Instructing students about the anatomy and physiology of Christ’s crucifixion serves as a constant reminder of the glorious evidence of God’s love for humanity that occurred on that fateful day at Calvary.
As a result of this lesson, I am able to partake in communion, which is the commemoration of His sacrifice, with a thankful heart.Every time I think about it, I am struck by the incredible awareness that Jesus, as a flesh and blood human being, felt every ounce of this punishment.What kind of love can a guy have for his buddies that is greater than this?
″The Crucifixion of Jesus,″ by C.Truman Davis, is available online.Journal of Arizona Medicine, vol.22, no.
- 3, 1965, pp.
- Edwards, William D., and colleagues, ″On the Physical Death of Jesus Christ,″ in The Physical Death of Jesus Christ, edited by William D.
Edwards, et al.The Journal of the American Medical Association, volume 255, number 11 (1986), pages 1455-1463.Published on March 1, 2002
How many lashes did Christ receive, and what was the reason for t.
I realize this question is rather ancient, but the issue itself is also quite old, thus it is timeless.In an effort not to repeat what has already been said, there are just a number of distinguishing factors to examine in order to determine the correct response.First and foremost, the Mosaic Law, which was established via Moses, stipulated that 40 lashes were the maximum punishment, provided the crime merited such a punishment at all.Less was almost probably possible, but only at the judge’s discretion and only on the basis of the seriousness of the offence.
- Only 40 could be used, although the reason given was that doing so would publicly humiliate and degrade the individual, not that it would kill them, which the whips used could in no way accomplish.
- This legislation was in existence from around 1400 B.C.
- to the present.
The Romans, on the other hand, had something very different.The whip they employed for scourging punishment was a flagellum whip (which was akin to the British cat-o’-nine-tails) (called verberatio).With this whip, ball bearings were employed in conjunction with shards to contact the surface first with the ball, generating an immediate swell, followed by the barb/shard, which shredded the flesh.A number of cases, arteries were exposed and the skin was hanging loose.It was intended to be horribly nasty and demeaning in every way.Its purpose was to bring someone to the verge of death, if possible (but often would kill the offender as there was no definitiveof lashes).
- They created the 40-1 merely because they believed it was implausible that anyone would live to be 40 or older – period.
- However, it was occasionally used as an outright manner of imposing a death sentence.
- Two completely distinct approaches and objectives.
- The Romans, much alone the flagellum that was utilized, did not even exist at the time of the giving of the Mosaic Law.
- Furthermore, the Romans used the crucifixion as yet another extremely terrible tool in their arsenal.
- Because they were so vicious, neither of them could be convicted to a death penalty by a Roman court of law.
- The fact that Jesus was under Roman discipline, having been handed over by the Jews, meant that the Mosaic Law was not enforced.
- Unfortunately for Jesus, He was subjected to two different punishments at the same time.
As far as we know, no one has ever been sentenced to both verberatio and crucifixion at the same time.Pilate only scourged Jesus in order to appease the Jews who wanted to assassinate Jesus.He didn’t think Jesus was guilty of anything, and he was right.To try to appease them and then release Jesus, he scourged Him in an attempt to appease them.As a result, it is likely that he did not even receive 39, or at the very least only if the lictor believed it would not kill Him, as that was not the intention.
- It is important to note that Pilate did not believe Jesus deserved any punishment throughout the entire process.
- The Jews, on the other hand, erupted when Pilate brought Jesus out after the scourging, but ridiculed him as the centurions would frequently do (in this case, by dressing him up as a king).
- To avoid a riot and the realization that he was going nowhere, Pilate reluctantly agreed to have Him crucified as well, claiming that the blood of Jesus would be on their own heads (the Jews).
- I hope this has been of assistance.
- Bible is one of the sources (Deuteronomy 25:1-3, John 18-19, Mark 15, Matthew 27) There are reams of history on the laws and administration of the Romans.
- MrNobody97’s response was last updated on February 20, 2017.
Simon of Cyrene – Wikipedia
|SaintSimon of Cyrene|
|The fifth Station of the Cross, showing Simon of Cyrene helping Jesus carry his cross. St. Raphael’s Cathedral, Dubuque, Iowa.|
|Bishop, and Martyr|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, and the Church of the East|
|Attributes||Carrying Jesus’ Cross before His Crucifixion|
The man compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus of Nazareth as Jesus was taken to his crucifixion, according to all three Synoptic Gospels: Simon of Cyrene (Hebrew:, Standard Hebrew imon, Tiberian Hebrew imôn; Greek: o, Simn Kyrnaios; died 100) was the man compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus of Nazareth And when they came out, they discovered a man from Cyrene, whose name was Simon, whom they made to wear the cross.He was also the father of the disciples Rufus and Alexander, whom he raised as his own.
Cyrene was a city in northern Africa, on the border with eastern Libya.Ptolemy Soter compelled 100,000 Judean Jews to live in this city during his reign (323–285 BC), and it became an early center of Christianity.It was a Greek city in the province of Cyrenaica that had a Jewish colony where 100,000 Judean Jews were forced to dwell during his reign (323–285 BC).In Jerusalem, the Cyrenian Jews established a synagogue, where many of them gathered for yearly feasts.
Carrying the cross, or patibulum (crossbeam in Latin), for Jesus is the fifth or seventh Station of the Cross, depending on whose version you read it.Some have interpreted the verse as meaning that Simon was picked because he may have expressed sympathy for Jesus’ cause.Others argue that the text itself says nothing, that he had no option, and that there is no foundation for considering the carrying of the cross to be an act of empathetic charity on the part of the victim.The biblical author Mark 15:21 refers to Simon as ″the father of Alexander and Rufus.″ Because their names are included in the tradition, it is possible that they were well-known in the Early Christian community in Rome before going on to become missionaries.
- The Rufus (in Greek: v or Rhouphon) referenced by Paul in Romans 16:13 may possibly be the son of Simon of Cyrene, according to certain interpretations of the passage.
- Some believe that Simon himself was one of the ″men of Cyrene″ who proclaimed the Gospel to the Greeks in Acts 11:20, and that this is a connection that should be made.
- Simon’s surname, on the other hand, does not rule out the possibility that he was Jewish, and Alexander and Rufus were also popular names that may have referred to others.
A burial cave in the Kidron Valley unearthed in 1941 by E.L.Sukenik, which belonged to Cyrenian Jews and was believed to have been built before AD 70, was revealed to contain an ossuary with the Greek inscription ″Alexander son of Simon″ written twice on it.The fact that this is the same individual, however, cannot be determined with certainty.
His consecration as the first bishop of the modern Archdiocese of Avignon, according to one Catholic tradition, took place in 1204. Another theory states that he was crucified and martyred in the year 100. As far as the Catholic Church is concerned, Simon of Cyrene is not commemorated in the Old or Revised Roman Martyrology.
According to certain Gnostic beliefs, Simon of Cyrene was subjected to the circumstances leading up to the crucifixion as a result of a mistaken identification.This is the tale told in the Second Treatise of the Great Seth, albeit it is unknown if Simon or someone else died on the cross in actuality.According to certain Gnostics, Jesus was not made of flesh, but rather just assumed the appearance of flesh in order to save the world (see also Basilides, and Swoon hypothesis).Irenaeus claims that Basilides, in his gospel of Basilides, preached a docetic concept of Christ’s agony, which is supported by the evidence.
- Specifically, he asserts the idea that Christ in Jesus, as a totally divine entity, was incapable of experiencing bodily suffering and did not die on the cross, but that the person crucified was in reality Simon of Cyrene.
- Irenaeus recounts Basiledes, who says, ″He appeared on earth in the shape of a man and worked marvels.″ As a result, he did not suffer personally.
- A certain Simon of Cyrene, on the other hand, was obliged to bear the cross for him.
It was he who was mistakenly and erroneously crucified, having been transfigured by him in order for him to be mistaken for Jesus in the first place.Furthermore, Jesus took on the persona of Simon and laughed at them as they passed by.Irenaeus, Against Heresies (Against Heresies)
In popular culture
The visions of Anne Catherine Emmerich revealed that Simon was a satanic priestess.He was chosen by the Romans to assist Jesus in carrying the cross because they identified him as not being a Jew based on his clothing.Simon the Cyrenian is a drama written by poet Ridgely Torrence that is based on his life.This drama was staged by the YWCA in 1920, under the direction of Dora Cole, the sister of composer Bob Cole, and starring Paul Robeson.
- The role of Simon of Cyrene was played by Sidney Poitier in the 1965 film The Greatest Story Ever Told, directed by George Stevens and starring Sidney Poitier.
- The contemporaneous King of Kings, on the other hand, depicts a black soldier there at the moment of Jesus’ flagellation, according to tradition.
- A vignette from Monty Python’s Life of Brian (1979), a comedy film about the life of Brian, has a reference to the Simon of Cyrene story.
This time, a guy who appears to be religious and generous offers to one of the condemned who is bearing a cross, ″Brother, allow me to bear your weight.″ After doing so, the doomed guy flees, leaving the generous man to deal with the cross and the prospect of crucifixion himself.Simon is portrayed as a Jew in the film The Passion of the Christ, who, after being forced to carry the cross by the Romans, is first resentful, but eventually grows to care for Jesus and assist him.
Among others who have taken their names from Simon of Cyrene are the Simon Community and the Cyrenian movement (which provides assistance to homeless and other underprivileged people in the United Kingdom).
- Chapel of Simon of Cyrene
- A b c T.A. Bryant, compiler
- Mark 15:21–22
- Matthew 27:32
- Luke 23:26
- Matthew 27:32: text from the King James Version
- Matthew 27:32: text from the King James Version
- The Bible as it appears in today’s edition. ″Matthew″, in The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, Frank E. Gaebelein, ed. Vol. 8, Grand Rapids: Regency (Zondervan), 1984. Page 575
- a b c d e f g h I j j j j j j j j j j j j j (Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2006). Gnostic Bible (Willis Barnstone and Marvin Meyer, eds.). New York: Columbia University Press, 1990. Frank Leslie Cross and Elizabeth A. Livingstone (1997) published ″Basilides″ in Shambhala (Boston) in 2002, pages 465–470. p. 168 of The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, published by Oxford University Press under the ISBN 019211655X
- Ehrman, Bart (2005). Kelhoffer, James A. (1998). Lost Christianities. Oxford University Press. p. 188. ISBN 0195182499
- Kelhoffer, James A. (1998). (2014). Pre-Christian Christians had different ideas about the ″Gospel″ and their legitimacy. The Mohr Siebeck Publishing Company, p. 80, ISBN 9783161526367 ″t gentibus ipsorum autem apparuisse eum in terra hominem, et virtutes perfecisse, t gentibus ipsorum autem apparuisse eum in terra hominem, t gentibus ipsorum autem apparuisse eum in terra hominem, t gentibus ipsorum autem apparuisse eum in When the time came, sed Simonem quendam Cyrenum angariatum portasse crucem ejus pro eo: and at the end of the second century, in the midst of ignorance and error on the cross, uti putaretur ipse esse Jesus: and at the end of the third century, in the midst of ignorance and error on the cross, transfiguratum ab eo, uti putaretur ipse esse Jesus″ On the first of May 2017, Boyle, Sheila Tully, and Andrew Bunie were able to recover Book 1, Chapter 19 from the XXXIII database (2001). The Years of Promise and Achievement in the Life of Paul Robeson p. 89. ISBN 1-55849-149-X.
- Goudsouzian, Aram. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. p. 89. ISBN 1-55849-149-X. (2004). Sidney Poitier was a man, an actor, and an icon. p. 232. ISBN 0-8078-2843-2.
- ″Cyrenians – About us″. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 232. ISBN 0-8078-2843-2. Retrieved on April 3, 2021.
- Media related to Simon of Cyrene at Wikimedia Commons