Where Was Jesus Crucified? – Golgotha ″the Place of the Skull″
What was the location of Jesus’ crucifixion?The crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth is one of the most well-documented occurrences in ancient history.The truth has been confirmed by theologians as well as historians, among others.
″Even those scholars and critics who have been moved to depart from almost everything else within the historical content of Christ’s presence on earth have found it impossible to think away the factuality of Christ’s death,″ it has been stated without hyperbole: ″Even those scholars and critics who have been moved to depart from almost everything else within the historical content of Christ’s presence on earth have found it impossible to think away the factuality of Christ’s death.″ -John McIntyre, ‘The Uses of History in Theology,’ in his book of the same name.Dr.Bart Erhrman of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill provided an example of this type of affirmation in his affirmation letter.Even though he was critical of the New Testament in many cases and denied the supernatural nature of Christianity, the renowned secular scholar supported this in his work, ‘The Historical Jesus: Lecture Transcript and Course Guidebook, Vol.2: The Life and Times of Jesus Christ.’ Jesus was crucified on instructions from Pontus Pilate, Roman administrator of Judea, according to one of the most known truths of history.
- The four Gospels all affirm that this is a watershed moment in redemptive history.
- It was validated by the secular authorities of the day.
- It was affirmed by the early church.
Millions upon millions of people believe it.But where exactly did the crucifixion take place?The answer to that question is strongly tied to God’s will as well as God’s methods of doing things.Simply said, the place of Jesus’ crucifixion is both known and mysterious at the same time.
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Where Was Jesus Crucified?
What was the location of Jesus’ crucifixion?The Gospels confirm that Christ was crucified outside the city walls of Jerusalem, according to their accounts.Interestingly, this is something that both John the Baptist and the writer to the Hebrews affirm: ″Then many of the Jews read this title, for the site where Jesus had been crucified was close to the city; and it was inscribed in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin″ (John 19:20, NKJV).For this reason, Jesus likewise suffered outside the gate in order to sanctify the people with His own blood (Hebrews 13:12, NKJV).It also reveals that the crucifixion was carried out by authorities of the Roman Empire in collaboration with Jewish religious leaders, known as the Sanhedrin, according to the Bible.The presence of Roman military soldiers indicates the military nature of the mission as well as the significance of the execution to both people and the Roman provincial administration, which was forced to act as a result of local pressure (recommended book: Jesus: A New Vision).
- One can imagine how terrifying it must have been to see the Roman execution on the cross from a long distance.
- ″There were other ladies watching from a distance,″ we are told, ″among them were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses, and Salome.″ -Matthew 15:40 The fact that we know the location of Jesus’ crucifixion is the most significant discovery.
- According to C.
- Wilson, ″It is apparent…
- that Christ was crucified in a well-known location with a unique name……″ Because, after being ridiculed and tormented by furious bystanders as he carried his cross through the packed streets going to the execution site, Jesus of Nazareth was crucified at ″a spot named Golgotha, which is to say, the place of the skull,″ as the Bible describes it (Matthew 27:33 ESV).
- In the words of Wilson, Golgotha ″is the Greek transcription of the Aramaic Gulgulta, which corresponds to the Hebrew Gulgoleth.″ Kranion is the Greek word for kranion (from which the English word, cranial, is derived).
- Luke is the one who makes use of the Latin term calvaria.
- Calvary is a well-known term in English, and its transliteration is Calvary.
Actually, the correct translation into English would be ″skull or cranium″ (Carl Hensley, Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible).The Jewish Wars of Rebellion (A.D.66-73), which resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by Titus (A.D.
- 39-81) in A.D.
- 70-71, probably contributed to the deviation of local landscape (Lawrence Schiffman, From Text to Tradition).
- Finally, Eusibius, a well-known church historian from antiquity, traveled to Jerusalem in order to locate the location of the Lord’s crucifixion and death.
- It was there that the great church father and scholar traveled with Queen Helena (A.D.
- 246-330), the Roman Empress and mother of Emperor Constantine the Great (A.D.
- According to Jerome Murphy-The O’Connor’s Holy Land, the local Christians of Jerusalem guided Eusibius and Helena to a spot beyond the gates of the ancient city (the walls were expanded in the fifteenth century), a site where liturgical festivities had been performed until ″A.D.
- 66.″ When Hadrian (A.D.
- 36-138), in 135, constructed temples to Roman deities in the Aelia Capitolina, including Aphrodite and Jupiter, the environment underwent tremendous transformation (the new Roman name that Hadrian gave for Jerusalem).
- ″Despite the evidence of Jerome and some late Byzantine sources, the Holy Sepulcher remains the most probable site of the Capitoline temple,″ writes Jerome Murphy-O’Connor.
And it is a rather extraordinary claim to make.The Church of the Holy Sepulcher was built to enclose both Golgotha (the site of the Crucifixion) and Joseph of Arimathea’s tomb (both the burial place and the site of the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ) in A.D.326 by Helena’s son, Constantine.It was completed in A.D.326 and dedicated to the memory of our Lord Jesus Christ.
A summary of the history and archeology of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, as well as alternate theories, was provided by Murphy-O’Connor in the Oxford Archeological Guide from the Earliest Times to 1700.He concluded that ″Is this the spot where Christ died and was buried?″ ″Yes, very likely,″ says the author.
What We Don’t Know About the Location of the Crucifixion – Where Was Jesus Crucified
Accordingly, in response to the question above, and despite the categorical declarations of some, we must respond, ″a great deal.″ The things we don’t know are known to us, and we are confident that we do not know what we do not know.Take, for example, the unmistakable scriptural assertion that our Lord was crucified in Golgotha.Despite the fact that we know what the word Golgotha (or Calvary) means (it means ″skull″), we are unable to determine if it is referring to one of three possible origins for the name.
Golgotha Meaning: the Place of the Skull, Might Refer to the Legendary Place of Adam’s Skull
Yes, you are correct.Adam’s skull was thought to have been buried at Golgotha, according to the Church Father Origen (A.D.185-253), who was both a Hebrew scholar and a resident of Jerusalem at the time of Jesus’ death.For those who consider that Origen is a touch ″off,″ other early church leaders who held the belief that Jesus was crucified in the field of Adam’s burial may be able to refute your position.In this group would be the revered Athanasius (A.D.296-373), Epiphanies (A.D.
- 312-403), and Basil of Caesarea, to name a few figures (A.D.
- The second interpretation of Golgotha is more rational, however it departs from the popular interpretation in the following ways:
What Do We Know about Where Jesus Was Crucified?
What was the location of Jesus’ crucifixion?According to this narrative, the site of our Lord’s crucifixion served as a common ″killing ground″ for rebels and criminals who were antagonistic to Roman control.The result was that the region was covered with the heads of ″convicted criminals″ (Wilson, Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre).Once the flesh had been removed from the skull and bones, the remains would be buried by the family members.Even the renowned Christian scholar and Bible translator, Jerome (A.D.347-420), as well as the English historian and monk, Venerable Bede (A.D.
- 673-735), clung to this stance throughout their respective times.
- ″Bunhill Fields″ is a well-known burial place in London that has been there for centuries (Alfred Light, Bunhill Fields).
- The term ″Bunhill″ refers to a slang pronunciation of the phrase ″Bone Hill.″ Nonconformist clergy and others who did not fall under the Church of England’s sphere of influence were buried there.
- Apparently, the hill where Christ was crucified was also known as ″Bunhill Fields,″ according to this second perspective of Calvary.
- You have probably heard someone express the third point of view.
Golgotha, the Place of the Skull, Might Refer to a Geological Formation Resembling a Skull
Since at least the seventeenth century, this idea of the location of Golgotha has been the most widely accepted one in the world.As a result, some writers have described Golgotha as a bald hilltop with a rock feature that resembled a human skull.While we must realize that there are no allusions to this in the Bible, it is important to note that Yes, it was a prominent location that could be seen from a distance, but it was never referred to as Mount Calvary by any of the biblical writers, nor by any Greek, Jewish, or Roman witnesses.It appears to be a very recent Western concept (Wilson, Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre).All of this, of course, may come as a shock to those who have held to one or another version of the events at Golgotha throughout their lives.Furthermore, the dispute serves to highlight the truth that we can only be certain of what the Bible says about some things.
- And is that sufficient?
We Know All We Need to Know
According to the Bible, our Lord Jesus Christ was crucified on a cross between two thieves, one of whom was remorseful and the other who was not.The Bible also informs us who was responsible for Christ’s death: a plot orchestrated by Roman rulers and Jewish religious leaders.To put it another way, both Gentiles and Jews were implicated in the cosmic crime of deicide (also known as ″the murder of God by Man″).We are aware that the cross may be seen from a considerable distance.We know that there were women present, including Mary the mother of Jesus, and that they were powerful.We are aware of the presence of the Apostle John.
- We are aware that many people turned their backs on our Lord Jesus Christ during his time of greatest need.
- However, there is a great deal more that we do not know.
- It’s as if the Holy Spirit has slung a perpetual curtain over the entire area, obscuring everything.
- It is important to recall that the murder was so heinous that the earth trembled in horror and darkness descended upon the horrific spectacle, as if Creation itself could not stand the sight.
- However, we are unable to pinpoint the exact spot where Jesus Christ was crucified because of the nature of the evidence.
- It is possible that the Church of the Holy Sepulcher encompasses the location of Calvary as well as the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea, where our Lord was risen from the dead, according to tradition.
- As a result, there are some things that we may deduce from the Bible.
- Furthermore, there is sufficient archaeological evidence and ancient literature to substantiate Christ’s crucifixion and to indicate a site for its occurrence.
- And there is a great deal that we do not understand.
- It’s important to remember the warning from Deuteronomy 29:29: ″The secret things belong unto the LORD our God; but those things which are disclosed belong unto us and to our offspring forever, that we may perform all the words of this law,″ the Bible says.
But we do know this: on the cross, at a site named Calvary, our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ died for our sins.That is where the world’s creator, Jesus Christ, was crucified by people whom he had made.He died as a sacrifice for our sins and as a fulfillment of the Covenant of Works (which states that ″if you disobey, you shall die″).
- In his pure soul, Jesus bore the wrath of God, and he fulfilled all of the requirements of the Law for anyone who would accept him as their Savior (The Covenant of Grace).
- With nails made of iron that he produced, Jesus Christ was crucified on rough-hewn lumber from a forest he created, on a cross that he built himself.
- ″Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do,″ Jesus said as he gazed down on those who crucified him, spit on him, and attempted to humiliate him.
- ″Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do,″ he said (Luke 23:34 KJV).
- In the life of our Lord, there is a story that is crucial to us as we proceed through our studies.
- When Moses and Elijah appear to Peter, James, and John during the transfiguration (Matthew 17:1-8; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36), it is an affirmation of Jesus’ divinity and his relationship with the Father.
- This is a significant theological turning point in the tale of redemption.
- The ″Law and the Prophets″ affirm the Person of Jesus as the One about whom they wrote; the Old Covenant yields to the New; ancient prophecies are fulfilled; Christ’s identity is fully revealed to the disciples and supernaturally confirmed; eternity touches time; heaven descends (once more) to the earth.
- It was, without a doubt, a magnificent spectacle.
- Peter desired to create three tents to serve as a memorial to the occasion (perhaps, to return to the tent markers and build a greater temple).
Peter was warned by our Lord Jesus on the Mount of Transfiguration that he should not erect any kind of religious structure to commemorate the actual location of that great assembly, as Peter had desired to do.In John 4:21-23, the Lord also reminded the Samaritan woman at the well that from now on, Christians must worship God ″in spirit and in truth,″ not on this mountain nor on that mountain, as he had previously instructed them.It has nothing to do with a specific location.It’s all about a certain individual.It is no longer about the physical—land, temples, and altars—but rather about the spiritual.
It is all about the ineffable.It’s not about the signs, after all.It all comes down to the Savior.It is possible that this is why we know enough about the place of his crucifixion, but not enough about the rest of his life.
We gaze at that ancient, weathered cross with trust in order to choose where it should be placed: This cross marks the site of the ″Great Exchange,″ which took place here.For it is at this place that Jesus took upon himself the penalty for the sins of those who would come to him in repentance and faith, and it is also the place where the holiness of Christ was made available to sinners like me.Alternatively, as I used to teach our church’s youngsters in Confirmation Class, ″Jesus took your guilt upon himself upon the cross of Calvary.″ ″You’ve been given his ideal existence.″ This Easter and throughout our lives, the very location where Jesus was killed for you and me is the location where we come to Him in brokenness and love.″Truly, this was the Son of God,″ the Roman centurion admitted, and it is at that point that we come together in faith with Mary and John (Matthew 27:54).
That soldier was well aware.And you can find out as well.What place did Christ die on the cross?Christ was crucified at the intersection of God’s love and your brokenness, and he was crucified in your place.
You may rest assured that this is true.Related: What Does the Bible Have to Say About the Resurrection of Jesus Christ?What Place Did Jesus Get Crucified?- Golgotha (also known as ″the Place of the Skull″).References Chris Armstrong is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom.
- This is the most sacred place on earth is being divided.
- This page was last updated on April 8, 2019.
- Jesus: A New Vision (Marcus J.
- Jesus: A New Vision).
- The year is 1991, and HarperSanFrancisco is publishing a book.
- Ehrman’s ″The Historical Jesus: Lecture Transcript and Course Guidebook, Vol.
- 2″ is available online.
- Chantilly’s Teaching Company is a non-profit organization (2000).
- Eusebius of Caesarea was a Roman historian.
- Onomasticon (1971) by C.
Umhau Wolf, translated by C.Umhau Wolf.The first version was created in 330AD.This page was last updated on April 8, 2019.of the city of Antioch Saint Ignatius of Antioch to the Smyrnaeans (Roberts-Donaldson Translation),″ says the author.The most recent modification was made in 110AD.
This page was last updated on April 8, 2019.Alfred W.Bunhill Fields: Written in Honour and to the Memory of the Many Saints of God Whose Bodies Rest in This Old London Cemetery.Vol.1.Alfred W.
- Bunhill Fields: Written in Honour and to the Memory of the Many Saints of God Whose Bodies Rest in This Old London Cemetery.
- CJ Farncombe & Sons, Limited was established in 1915.
- John McIntyre is the author of this work.
- ″The Uses of History in Theology (In Honour of A.C.
- Cheyne)″ is a paper written in honor of A.C.
Cheyne.Studies in World Christianity, volume 7, number 1, April 1, 2001, pages 1–20.This page was last updated on April 8, 2019.Jerome.The Holy Land: An Oxford Archaeological Guide from the Earliest Times to the Year 1700 is a book on archaeology in the Holy Land.Murphy-O’Connor, Jerome.
″The Location of the Capitol in Aelia Capitolina.″ Oxford University Press, 2008.Murphy-O’Connor, Jerome.″The Location of the Capitol in Aelia Capitolina.″ Revista Biblica (1946–), vol.101, no.3 (1994), pp.407–415.This page was last updated on April 8, 2019.
- ″Historicity of the Crucifixion.″ The Briefing, published on May 24, 2013.
- This page was last updated on April 8, 2019.
- From Text to Tradition: A History of the Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism, edited by Lawrence H.
- KTAV Publishing House, Inc.
- published this book in 1991.
- Wilson, C.
- W., ed., Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre: Edited by Colonel Sir C.
Watson.New York: Harper & Row, 1911.In 1906, the Palestine Exploration Fund formed the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.″Eusebius of Caesarea and the Onomasticon,″ by Carl Umhau, is available online.
The Biblical Archaeologist, volume 27, number 3, 1964, pages 66–96.This page was last updated on April 8, 2019.image courtesy of Unsplash/Alicia Quan
Where Is Golgotha, Where Jesus Was Crucified?
Is it possible that the Church of the Redeemer has the answer?Staff of the Biblical Archaeology Society, October 26, 2021 151106 views and 20 comments What evidence is there to suggest that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is the real site of Golgotha, where Jesus was crucified, based on the Church of the Redeemer (as depicted here)?What is the current location of Golgotha in Jerusalem?It was Golgotha, according to the New Testament, that served as the place of Jesus’ crucifixion and execution.In which part of Jerusalem is Golgotha located?According to Marcel Serr and Dieter Vieweger’s Archaeological Views column in the May/June 2016 edition of Biblical Archaeology Review, ″Golgotha: Is the Holy Sepulchre Church Authentic?″ they analyze historical and contemporary excavations into the spot where Jesus was crucified.
- What is the current location of Golgotha?
- The actual site of Jesus’ crucifixion is a matter of controversy.
- Helena, emperor Constantine’s mother, recognized the location of Golgotha in the fourth century C.E., and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was erected there in the fourth century C.E.
- Scholars, however, began to doubt this identification as early as the nineteenth century, pointing out that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is located within the city walls of the present-day Old City of Jerusalem.
- In line with Roman and Jewish traditions at the time, Golgotha would have had to be positioned outside of the city limits of Jerusalem.
- The Gospels, on the other hand, appear to imply that Jesus was crucified outside of the city (Mark 15:20; Matthew 27:31ff; John 19:17ff).
- So, where exactly is Golgotha situated?
- What is the location of Golgotha?
- When the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the traditional location of Jesus’ crucifixion, was erected in the fourth century C.E., was it built within or outside the city walls of Jerusalem?
- On the left is a representation of the present-day Old City of Jerusalem (which is tinted in gray), on the right is the suggested position of the so-called Second Wall, which would have existed during the time of Jesus.
Leen Ritmeyer created the illustration.It is vital to remember that the existing Old City walls do not correspond to the walls that existed during Jesus’ time.″Efforts to find a so-called Second Wall south of the Holy Sepulchre Church that had served as the northern wall of Jerusalem in Jesus’ time (and would have moved the site of the church outside the city in Jesus’ time) proved elusive,″ write Serr and Vieweger in their Archaeological Views column.
- ″Josephus, the knowledgeable first-century Jewish historian, does refer to such a wall (The Jewish War 5.146),″ they write.
- Distinguished academics Conrad Schick and Louis-Hugues Vincent were certain they had discovered the Second Wall in 1893, when a wall was discovered during the construction of the Church of the Redeemer, which is located directly south of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
- As a result, for about a century, it appeared as though the problem of legitimacy had been solved: the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built on the site of Jesus’ execution, Golgotha.
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If you’d like to contribute to making Bible History Daily, BiblicalArchaeology.org, and our daily newsletter possible, please consider making a donation.Even a small donation of $5 is appreciated: According to Ute Wagner-Lux of the German Protestant Institute of Archaeology in Jerusalem, who dug under the Church of the Redeemer in 1970, this wall could not have been the Second Wall.She concluded that this wall could not have been the Second Wall.Why?In the words of Serr and Vieweger, ″this wall was just five feet thick—far too small to be used as a city wall.″ As a result, the search was restarted.However, everything was not lost in the end.
- There are some hints from the Church of the Redeemer that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is located outside the mysterious Second Wall, according to the findings of the excavations.
- You can read the full Archaeological Views column ″Golgotha: Is The Church Of The Most Holy Sepulchre Authentic?″ in the May/June 2016 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review to find out more about the evidence that leads Serr and Vieweger to believe that the Church of the Most Holy Sepulchre could be the authentic location of the Crucifixion.
- —————— Members of the BAS Library: Read the complete Archaeological Views column ″Golgotha: Is the Holy Sepulchre Church Authentic?″ by Marcel Serr and Dieter Vieweger in the May/June 2016 edition of Biblical Archaeology Review, titled ″Is the Holy Sepulchre Church Authentic?″ Not a member of the BAS Library yet?
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Related reading in Bible History Daily:
The tour takes visitors through the ruins of Herod’s Jerusalem Palace, which may have served as the site of Jesus’ trial.The Terra Sancta Museum is a new stop on the Via Dolorosa that is open to the public.And Why It Really Does Make a Difference The ″Strange″ Ending of the Gospel of Mark and Why It Really Does Make a Difference What Day Did Jesus Rise From the Dead?During their journey to Byzantine Jerusalem, the pilgrims stop at the National Geographic Museum, where they may virtually see Jesus’ tomb.This Bible History Daily piece was first published on May 23, 2016, and has since been updated.—Ed.
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Where Jesus was crucified
The Bible, the sacred book of Christianity and Judaism, as well as the New Testament (in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) all reference Golgotha, the site of Jesus’ crucifixion and death on the cross.According to several passages, the location where Jesus was crucified is described as follows: ″And they arrived to a location called Golgotha, which means ″the place of the skull,″ according to the Gospel of Matthew, chapter 27: ″And they gave him wine mixed with bile to drink.″ And they carried him to the area of Golgotha, which literally translates as ″the place of the skull,″ according to the Gospel of Mark, chapter 15.″And when they got to a place called Skull, there they crucified him and those criminals, one on his right and the other on his left,″ says the Gospel of Luke in chapter 23.And in the Gospel of John, chapter 19, it states that Jesus Christ, bearing his cross, walked out to a site named Skull, which is the Hebrew equivalent of Golgotha, where he was crucified on the cross.When Jesus Christ was sentenced to death, he was flogged and tormented, and he was adorned with a crown of thorns.He then went through the Stations of the Cross, and he was crucified on Mount Golgotha.
The place where Jesus was crucified is called Calvary or Golgotha
According to the Bible, Golgotha (Hebrew) or Calvary (Latin Calvaria) is a hill, specifically a hill outside the ancient walls of Jerusalem, on which Jesus was crucified and buried after his death.We have a more frequent use of the term Calvary in our tradition, and the name ″Skull″ is occasionally seen in translations of the Bible, which is also a translation of the Latin word Calvary.The hill of stone that is mentioned was given this name because it most likely resembled a skull, and it was also the location where executions were carried out at the time of the writing.This is the location where Jesus was crucified and died on the cross after enduring terrible anguish and suffering.As a result, the phrases Calvary or Golgotha connote immense anguish, suffering, martyrdom, and great affliction in the minds of those who hear them.Thousand of crucifixions were performed by the ancient Romans, the most famous of which is, of course, the death of Jesus Christ, who gave his life for the love of mankind on the cross.
- Golgotha, the holiest Christian shrine, is located in Jerusalem’s Old City, on the location where, according to the Bible, Jesus Christ was crucified.
- This Holy Place is guarded by Orthodox, Catholic, and Armenian monks, and it is particularly fascinating to note that the Muslims who hold the keys to the entrance are the ones who protect the keys to the door.
Where exactly is the place where Jesus was crucified
Golgotha, the site of Jesus’ crucifixion, was located outside the city walls of Jerusalem during the time of Christ.It was a popular pilgrimage destination.As the city grew, it is believed that the site of Golgotha was included inside the boundaries of the city.However, the exact position of Golgotha today cannot be confirmed with confidence because to the significant changes that have occurred in Jerusalem over the previous 2000 years.The exact location of Jesus’ crucifixion may have historical relevance, but it does not have spiritual meaning or worth.Because Jesus’ crucifixion took place in present-day Israel, at the heart of the city of Jerusalem, the Basilica of Holy Sepulcher (also known as the Basilica of Christ’s Tomb) commemorates the site of Jesus’ death, burial, and resurrection.
- This church serves as the focal point for Christian pilgrims visiting the Holy Land, as the Israelis refer to Israel.
- The Basilica of Christ’s Tomb is now jointly owned and used by three major religious communities: the Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land, which represents the Roman Catholic Church in the Holy Land, the Jerusalem Patriarchate of the Greek Orthodox Church, and the Jerusalem Patriarchate of the Armenian Eastern Orthodox Church.
- The Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land is the representative of the Roman Catholic Church in the Holy Land.
- Christians and Jews both revered the location of Golgotha, also known as Calvary, and the tomb from where Jesus Christ was raised as a result of his death and resurrection.
- source: biblestudytools
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Visiting the place where Jesus was crucified, died, buried and resurrected. Jerusalem, Israel
Where Was Jesus Crucified?
The crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus determine whether or not the Christian religion is valid.Understanding God’s pardon, everlasting life, and the hope we have in Christ are all built on these two historical events, which are interconnected.The faith is jeopardized if these events do not take place.As the apostle Paul discusses resurrection, he emphasizes the following point: ″But since it is taught that Christ has been raised from the dead, how can any of you argue that there is no resurrection of the dead?″ Even if there is no resurrection of the dead, it is unlikely that Christ has been risen from the grave.And if Christ has not been risen from the dead, our message, as well as your faith, is pointless (1 Corinthians 15:12–14).These events did in fact take place, and there is a substantial amount of extra-biblical evidence to support this claim.
- So, do we know where the Romans crucified Jesus and how we might find out?
What Scripture tells us about the crucifixion
The gospels of Matthew and Mark both inform us that the crucifixion took place at a location known as Golgotha.The Aramaic term golgotha literally translates as ″skull.″ And both Gospel writers provide us with their interpretations of the term: They arrived at a location known as Golgotha (which literally translates as ″the site of the skull″) (Matthew 27:33, see also Mark 15:22).Luke doesn’t even bother to call it Golgotha in his gospel (Luke 23:33).And John flips Matthew and Mark’s sequence, referring to it as the ″place of the Skull,″ and then tells his readers of how it is translated into Aramaic by the author of the Gospel of John.Individuals brought up in Western culture are more accustomed to hearing that Rome crucified Jesus on the cross at Calvary.It was the Latin phrase calvaria, which means ″skull″ or ″bald head,″ that was used by the King James translators when they translated the word ″skull″ in Luke’s story.
- It would appear that this was a known site based on the context of the scene.
- Scholars, on the other hand, have some reservations about the location.
- For example, was the hill known as ″the skull″ because it was fashioned in the shape of a human skull?
- Or did it receive its moniker because of the large number of executions that took place there?
- Scholars are divided on the issue.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre
It is at this location, in the northwest sector of Jerusalem’s ancient city, that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is located, which is one of the earliest acknowledged locations for Jesus’ crucifixion.After the storming of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple in A.D.70, the city was transformed into a Roman colony, and its name was changed to Aelia Capitolina (Capital of the Capitol).During her journey to Aelia Capitolina, Empress Helena (Constantine’s mother) is said to have discovered a temple to Venus built over the ″recognized″ location of Jesus’ burial, according to legend.It is said that three crosses were uncovered in the hollow where Venus’s temple once stood.They were able to select ″the real cross″ because of a miracle cure that occurred in connection with one of the three crosses.
- The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which was built on the site where the crosses were discovered, was completed in the fourth century.
- It has become a must-see pilgrimage destination for many Christians of many denominations and traditions.
- Is this a plausible site for Jesus’ crucifixion to take place?
- There appear to be some big issues with it, to put it mildly.
- First and foremost, it does not appear feasible that Jewish tradition would have permitted Golgotha to be situated within the city of Jerusalem, and Rome (which was attempting to keep peace with Israel) would have pressed the matter.
- It appears that Jesus was crucified outside the city according to the Bible when we look at the text: Due to the fact that the site of Jesus’ crucifixion was close to the city and that the sign was written in three languages (Aramaic, Latin, and Greek), a large number of Jews were able to read it (John 19:20, emphasis added).
- The blood of animals is brought into the Most Holy Place as a sin offering by the high priest, while the corpses of the animals are burnt outside the camp.
- Likewise, Christ suffered outside the city gate in order to make the people holy via his own blood.
- Let us then approach him outside the camp, carrying the dishonor he has endured in his life.
- In this place, we do not have an enduring city, but we are yearning for the city that is yet to be built (Hebrews 13:11–14, emphasis mine).
Gordon’s Calvary (Skull Hill)
Many evangelical Christians choose a rocky outcrop north of Jerusalem’s Damascus Gate, which is located north of the Old City.This barren hilltop first came to public attention in the 19th century, when a German theologian by the name of Edward Robinson proposed it as a possible location for a religious institution, according to our research.This viewpoint was adopted by Charles Gordon, a well-known British major general, in the late 1800s, and it became linked with him as a result.In what ways does it stand out as a possible place for the crucifixion?First and foremost, it is a genuine hill.This helps to make sense of Mark’s words: ″Some ladies were standing nearby, keeping an eye on everything.″ Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joseph, and Salome were among those who were present″ (Mark 15:40).
- If the place was on a hill, it would be much easier to see from a distance.
- Some also suggest that if there were skull-like features on the site, it is more likely that it would have been known as ″Golgotha″ by both Romans and Jews.
- A hole in the rock formation that resembles the eyes of a skull may be seen at Gordon’s Calvary (also known as Skull Hill) and it has become a popular tourist attraction.
- Another element that makes this a viable candidate for Jesus’ tomb is its proximity to the Garden Tomb, which is considered to be one of the possible locations of Jesus’ tomb.
- However, this is still a contentious location.
- One of the most compelling reasons against it is the simple fact that it hasn’t been historically recognized.
- Many believe that if this were the location of the Lord’s crucifixion, it would be far more significant and would have been mentioned much earlier than the nineteenth century.
Near the Lion’s Gate
In recent years, a missionary by the name of Rodger Dusatko has proposed an alternative location near Jerusalem.This location is located on a hill just outside of the Lion’s Gate.Furthermore, the Lion’s Gate is a symbolic representation of the area where Christians see Jesus’ final journey from the jail to His crucifixion (Via Dolorosa).330 meters northeast of where the temple formerly stood, on a steep slope beyond the wall, there is a possibility that Golgotha will be built.According to Dusatko, the word skulla is not used to describe Golgotha, which would imply that the skull is being referred to as a whole.Instead, the Gospel authors made use of the Greek word kranion.
- This is the origin of the word ″cranium,″ which refers to the top, curving portion of the head.
- The slope outside of the Lion’s Gate is shaped like this piece of a skull, as shown above.
- When assessing a suitable location for Calvary, Dusatko believes that having a straight line of sight to the temple is critical.
- The following is the explanation, according to Luke’s account: It was now around midday, and because the sun had ceased shining, darkness fell over the entire country until three o’clock in the afternoon.
- And the temple’s curtain was split in two by the earthquake.
- When Jesus cried out in a loud voice, he was saying, ″Father, I submit my spirit into your hands.″ When he had finished speaking, he took his last breath.
- Upon witnessing what had occurred, the centurion expressed his gratitude to God and stated, ″Surely this was a virtuous man″ (Luke 23:44–47).
- According to Dusatko, the centurion was present when the Temple curtain was torn, and it was this event that convinced him that Jesus was an important figure.
- Some critics of the Lion’s Gate hill argue that Luke did not specifically state that the centurion witnessed the curtain being torn in half.
- The centurion would have been able to view the temple from that specific perspective position, but he would not have been able to see the curtain from that particular vantage point.
Luke was most likely implying that the centurion, who had watched the events of the day, had been convinced of Jesus’s righteousness.
Jesus and Adam?
One of the most intriguing traditions about the site of the crucifixion has to do with Adam’s skull, which is said to have been found nearby.Origen (A.D.184-A.D.253), one of the most renowned theologians and biblical experts in the early church, was the catalyst for this transformation.When it comes to the location of the skull in Matthew, Origen says, ″It seemed to me that the corpse of Adam has been interred there, as the Hebrews have handed down; in order that, ‘as in Adam all die, so in Christ all shall be brought alive’ both Adam and Christ would be raised.″ In his Panarion, Epiphanius of Salamis (A.D.315–A.D.
- 403), the bishop of Salamis, Cyprus, stated that ″our Lord Jesus Christ was crucified on Golgotha, nowhere other but where Adam’s flesh was buried.″ For after leaving Paradise and living opposite it for a long time while growing old, Adam subsequently came to this area, I mean Jerusalem, and died there, on the site of Golgotha, where he was buried.″ This mythology has been passed down from generation to generation.
- According to Chrysostom (349–407), in his commentary on the Gospel of John, ″’And He arrived to a spot where there was a skull,’″ he adds.
- Some believe that Adam died there and is buried there, and that Jesus, at this site where death had reigned, likewise set up the trophy.″ This tradition was maintained by the early church through the works of Athanasius, Basil of Seleucia, and even Jerome, among others (who disagreed, believing that Adam was buried in Hebron and not Jerusalem).
- It even has its own chapel, known as the Chapel of Adam, which is placed beneath the suggested rock of Golgotha in the Holy Sepulchre.
- Because of the earthquake that happened during Jesus’s crucifixion, the ground beneath the cross split open, allowing His blood to flow down to Adam’s cranium, therefore cementing the connection between Adam’s sin (which affected all of us) and Christ’s redeeming blood (which affected all of us).
- This is one of those tales that is really intriguing to learn about yet serves no benefit whatsoever.
- After all, as we’ve seen, it’s difficult enough to pinpoint the exact place of Jesus’ crucifixion.
- I think it’s pretty doubtful that we’ll ever find out where Adam’s body is buried.
- Furthermore, it serves as a helpful reminder of the need of keeping talks focused on the facts.
So what do we know?
After all this time, it should be clear that we are unable to pinpoint the exact place of Jesus’ crucifixion.Does this imply that it never took place?In no way, shape, or form.A large number of extra-biblical narratives show that Christ was crucified in the manner described in the Gospels.Tacitus was a Roman historian (as well as a senator) who lived in the first century.It is in the Annals of the Emperor Nero that he describes how Nero responded to the fire in Rome by persecuting Christians, and it is in this that he verifies the manner in which Jesus died: As a result, in order to get rid of the report, Nero pinned the responsibility and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class of people despised by the crowd for their abominations and referred to as Christians.
- When Christus, the man who gave his name to the religion, was executed by one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, during the reign of Tiberius, an evil superstition that had been suppressed for a time erupted once more not only in Judaea, the origin of evil, but also in Rome, where all that is hideous and shameful from all over the world finds a home and becomes popular, was re-ignited.
- As a result, all of those who pled guilty were arrested first, and then, based on their information, an enormous number of people were convicted, not so much of the crime of burning the city as of hate towards mankind, as a result of their conviction.
- Their deaths were made much more miserable by mockery of every kind.
- They were covered in the skins of creatures and ripped apart by dogs, or they were affixed to crosses, or they were destined to the flames and burned, in order to provide illumination at night when the sun had set (Tacitus, Annals, emphasis added).
- Thallus was a first-century historian, and most of his work has been lost to history—but the second-century historian Sextus Julius Africanus makes use of his writings.
- What’s intriguing about this passage is that Africanus uses Thallus in order to explain away the earthquake and darkness that occurred during the crucifixion: ″The earthquake and darkness occurred at the crucifixion because of the death of Christ.″ The entire globe was enveloped in a terrifying darkness, and the rocks were shattered by an earthquake, causing many buildings in Judea and other areas to collapse.
- Thallus, in the third book of his History, refers to this darkness as an eclipse of the sun, which looks to me to be without foundation (Julius Africanus, Chronography, 18:1).
- In the same period, a Syriac philosopher named Mara bar Serapion made the following comparison between the death of Jesus and the deaths of other philosophers who were killed for their beliefs: ″What are we to say when the wise are forcibly dragged by the hands of tyrants, and their wisdom is deprived of its freedom by slander, and they are plundered for their superior intelligence without the opportunity to make a defense?″ They are not completely without fault.
- In putting Socrates to death, what benefit did the Athenians derive from their decision?
- Hunger and pestilence descended upon them as a punishment for their crimes.
What benefit did the men of Samos derive from the burning of Pythagoras’ statue?In a split second, their property was completely covered with sand.What benefit did the Jews derive from the assassination of their wise king?
- Immediately following that, their kingdom was declared null and void.
- God avenged the three wise men in a righteous manner.
- The Athenians perished of starvation; the Samians were engulfed by the sea; and the Jews, having been devastated and expelled from their homeland, now dwell in total disarray.
- But Socrates did not die; he continued to live on via Plato’s teachings.
- Pythagoras did not die; he continued to exist in the form of the statue of Hera.
- Neither did the wise monarch pass away; he continued to live via the teachings he had imparted (Mara bar Simpson, a letter to his son).
- The following are just a handful of examples of extra-biblical and extra-Christian sources that provide support to what the Gospels have to say about Jesus’ death on the cross.
- However, regardless of where Jesus was crucified, we may place our confidence in the truth that: ″But he was pierced for our iniquities, he was crushed for our trespasses; the punishment that brought us peace was laid on him, and it is by his wounds that we are healed″ (Isaiah 53:5).
- Jesus’ death put in action His plan to reconcile the entire world to Himself, and it is for this reason that we have a message of reconciliation to share with the world.
- The exact site of the crucifixion is unknown, but we do know, in Paul’s words, that ″we are Christ’s ambassadors, as though God were appealing to us via Christ″ (2 Corinthians 5:20a).
God was reconciling the world to Himself when Jesus was on the cross, and we may have trust in that.Fortunately, Jesus’ death does not mark the end of the tale.Join us in celebrating the resurrection by reading and sharing this article.When it comes to the Resurrection of Jesus, why is it so significant?
Where Was Jesus Crucified? Dr. Robert Cornuke’s New Golgotha Discovery and Book – Living Passages
What was the location of Jesus’ crucifixion?When we were on one of our recent Israel excursions, our leader and speaker, Dr.Robert Cornuke, provided an incredible new lecture on-site with Living Passages at Golgotha, the place of his new Biblical discovery, which was a first for him.In opposition to common opinion, this contentious notion is put up.In any case, as travelers stood on the outskirts of the unpolished Silwan neighborhood, across from the City of David (where Dr.Cornuke believes the Temple once stood), it appeared likely that the centurion guarding Jesus would have looked from the same vantage point after Jesus ″yielded up His spirit″ and witnessed the earthquake and graves opening, as well as the veil of the temple tearing in two (Mathew 27 50-54).
- If Cornuke is accurate regarding the location of Christ’s crucifixion, then the centurion would have had a front-row seat to see the tearing of the great curtain in front of the Temple.
- The centurion and those with him, who were guarding Jesus, were terrified when they saw the earthquake and the things that had transpired.
- They said, ″Truly, this was the Son of God!″ Matthew 27 through Matthew 54.
- If you have been to Jerusalem, you will be able to imagine the City of David to the west of the Kidron Valley, and the Silwan district to the east of the Kidron Valley if you have been there.
- Cornuke’s recently published book, Golgotha, recounts his perilous first excursion to the forbidden Silwan district in Jerusalem.
- ″I was truly standing at the foot of the stone cliffs I had gone so far and had spent so much time and wealth seeking to see: the cliffs of the Silwan settlement,″ he writes at the end of the first chapter.
- I raised my eyes to many old split-open graves that looked just like the ones mentioned in the Bible!
- The words ‘could this be the place…may these cliffs genuinely be proof showing where Christ was crucified?’ came out of my mouth like a stone.
- (See page 3).
- Another intriguing chapter in Cornuke’s book identifies Bible references that imply the Temple always faced east, as we see here in Ezekiel 47:1, ″because the front of the temple faced east,″ which suggests the Temple always faced east.
In support of Dr.Cornuke’s hypothesis that the curtain on the front of the Temple would have been on the Eastward facing side and visible from the Silwan Valley, this evidence has been uncovered.Many individuals have attempted to provide a solution to the issue of where Jesus was crucified.
- Cornuke also discusses why he does not believe the places officially designated as Golgotha and Calvary to be the real locations of Christ’s crucifixion and resurrection.
- The Church of the Holy Sepulcher and Gordon’s Calvary (found by General Charles Gordan in 1883) are both frequented by throngs of tourists on a regular basis, although they also suffer from a number of topographical problems.
- To put it another way, they are in conflict with biblical commands.
- In a subsequent chapter of this book, these contradictions with the Bible will be discussed in greater depth.″ (See page 7) Dr.
- Robert Cornuke’s latest book, Golgotha, is now available at Koinonia House Resource Center for those who are interested.
- You’ll learn how to sign up for a planned Christian Israel trip and discover where Jesus was crucified, which is a frequent question among Christians.
- Matthew 27:50-54: ″It is said, ″You shalt not eat of it.″ And Jesus cried out with a loud voice once again, this time yielding up His spirit.
- And behold, the temple curtain was ripped in two from top to bottom; the ground shook, and the rocks were split open in the process.
- The graves were opened, and many corpses of saints who had fallen asleep were resurrected; and as they emerged from the tombs after His resurrection, they entered the holy city and appeared to a large number of people there.
- When the centurion and those with him who were keeping watch on Jesus witnessed the earthquake and the events that were taking place, they became extremely alarmed and said, ″Truly this was the Son of God!″
March 30, 2012 ~ Where Was Jesus Buried?
KIM LAWTON is a correspondent with the Associated Press.During Holy Week, Christians commemorate the well-known tale of Jesus’ death and resurrection from the dead.But, more importantly, where does this narrative take place exactly?Only a few hints are provided by the Bible.REV.MARK MOROZOWICH (Catholic University of America): Thank you for your time.
- The Gospels were not truly written in order to document historical events.
- They were composed in order to serve as a testament of faith.
- LAWTON: According to the New Testament, Jesus was crucified outside of Jerusalem at a location known as Golgotha, which is derived from the Aramaic word for ″place of the skull.″ Calvaria is the Latin word for skull, and in English, many Christians refer to the location of the crucifixion as Calvary, which is the Latin word for skull.
- According to the Gospel of John, there was a garden at Golgotha, as well as a tomb that had never been opened.
- Because the tomb was close by, according to John, there is where Jesus’ body was laid to rest.
- According to the Gospel authors, the tomb belonged to a notable wealthy man named Joseph of Arimathea.
- They describe it as being carved out of rock, with a massive stone in front of the entrance that could be moved in to block the way.
- Catholic University of America’s School of Theology and Religious Studies is being led by Father Mark Morozowich, who is now serving as interim dean.
- MOROZOWICH: At the time of Jesus’ death on the cross, he was not a particularly prominent figure in Israeli society.
- I mean, there was definitely some envy, and he clearly had his supporters.
However, there was no church constructed to commemorate his death or to acknowledge his resurrection shortly after he died.IN THE FORTIETH CENTURY, when Emperor Constantine was bringing the Roman Empire under Christian rule, his mother, St.Helena, embarked on a journey to Jerusalem, according to historians.
- Her discovery of remnants of the crucifixion on which Jesus had been crucified is said to have occurred centuries ago.
- She discovered that the location had been revered by early Christians and determined that it was Golgotha.
- The construction of a basilica, which came to be known as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, was ordered by Emperor Constantine.
- MOROZOWICH: Now, throughout history, people have argued over whether it was actually there or if it was here.
- This rock and tomb were discovered not far from one another in that fourth century period, and as we can see even now in the cathedral, they were only a short distance from one another in terms of geography.
- LAWTON: Throughout the years, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre has been demolished, rebuilt, and remodeled on a number of different occasions.
- There have been several power conflicts over who should have control over it, and even now, violent squabbles occasionally erupt amongst the various Christian faiths that share authority over it.
- However, it is regarded as one of the holiest locations in all of Christianity, drawing a large number of pilgrims and inspiring profound spiritual devotion.
- Visitors can kiss the Stone of Unction, which, according to legend, represents the spot where Jesus’ corpse was cleansed in preparation for burial, as they enter the church.
- The gloomy chapel commemorating the crucifixion may be found in one top corner, while the tomb can be seen on the opposite side of the building.
MOROZOWICH: What a dramatic experience it would be to go through Jerusalem, the site of the crucifixion, to reflect at Golgotha, the site of Jesus Christ’s death, and the site of his resurrection.It is during these times that people might have a very profound relationship with God that they experience something truly beautiful and moving.In particular, during Holy Week, the Holy Sepulchre serves as the focal point for unique devotions, such as the Holy Fire ceremony, in which flames from within the tomb area are shared around candles held by believers.THE BISHOP OF MOROZOWICH: The light from the grave is brought out by the bishop, which lights and plays on this whole notion that light from the world is being brought forth once more.LAWTON: However, despite the long history and fervent devotion, some people are skeptical that this is the correct location.
It is possible that Jesus was crucified and buried in a separate location in Jerusalem known as the Garden Tomb, which some Christians, especially many Protestants, consider to be true.STEVE BRIDGE (Deputy Director, The Garden Tomb): Thank you for your time.In 1867, a tombstone was unearthed on the site.For hundreds of years before then, it had been buried behind layers of rock, debris, and dirt, with plants and animals growing on top of it.
LAWTON: Steve Bridge works as the assistant director of the Garden Tomb, which is located right beyond the Damascus Gate in the Old City of Jerusalem.His source claims that this location was advocated in the late nineteenth century by British General Charles Gordon, who claimed the hillside with the traits of a human skull may be an authentic crucifixion location.We’re staring at the bridge from the side now, and you can see what appears to be two eye sockets on the rock face where we were looking before.Jesus was crucified outside the city walls at a spot named Golgotha, which literally translates as ″the skull,″ and many people think that Skull Hill is in fact Golgotha, or the place of the skull, where Jesus was crucified and killed.
In Lawton, this Skull Hill towers above a historic garden, complete with cisterns and a wine press, which may imply that it was once the property of a wealthy individual.A mausoleum hewn from the rock stood in the middle of the garden.Bridge: The tomb itself is at least two thousand years old, according to archaeological evidence.Many believe it to be far older than that.
However, it is almost definitely more than 2,000 years old.It’s a Jewish tomb, and it’s definitely a rolling stone tomb, according to the evidence.A big stone would be rolled across the threshold, thereby sealing the entrance.LAWTON: Inside the tomb is a cross with the Byzantine phrases ″Jesus Christ, the Beginning and the End,″ which dates back to 1310 and is the oldest sign on the tomb.BRIDGE: As a result, there is enough burial space for at least two bodies, and maybe more.
- That, once again, corresponds to the biblical description.
- Joseph had constructed a family tomb for himself and his family, and it was dedicated to them.
- According to Bridge, Christians are emotionally touched by this visual representation of the location where Jesus may have been deposited when he was brought down from the cross.
- LAWTON: On that day, as far as people were concerned, it was the end of the tale, and it was also the end of one who they had believed would be the Messiah, for a dead Messiah is no good.
- BRIDGE: However, we believe that God resurrected Jesus from the dead three days later, and that this was the beginning of what we now refer to as Christianity.
- LAWTON: According to Bridge, the Garden Tomb is not attempting to establish a competitive relationship with the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.
- In terms of historical evidence, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre unquestionably has the upper hand, and we would never do or say anything that would imply that we believe they are incorrect about the site, or in turn that we believe they are correct about the site.
- What we believe we have here is something that corresponds to the description in the Bible.
- LAWTON: And Bridge claims that, in the end, it doesn’t really matter where the action takes place.
- LAWTON: On the other hand, we and the Holy Sepulchre would be precisely the same on that point, delivering the same tale but at a different location.
- THE CITY OF LAWTON: Father Morozowich believes that Christians, especially during the Easter season, should place greater emphasis on what Jesus did than than where he may have done it.
- MOROZOWICH: The path he took is extremely, extremely significant.
- At the same time, we recognize that Jesus is more than a historical man who once walked the world, and that his resurrection proves that he has transcended all of that and more.
As a result, he is just as real and present in Mishawaka, Indiana, and Washington, D.C., as he is in Israel.LAWTON: Hello, my name is Kim Lawton and I’m here to report.