What time was Jesus crucified? What time did Jesus die on the cross?
Answer The gospel authors make a number of references to the period of Jesus’ crucifixion in their writings. When we put all of these allusions together, we may obtain an approximation of when time of day Jesus died. The New American Standard Bible (NASB) will be used in this article since it provides a literal translation of the time references given in the original Greek. We know that Jesus was arrested in the middle of the night and brought before Pilate the next morning. “Now when the morning came, all the chief priests and elders of the people conspired together against Jesus, deciding that He should be put to death; and they tied Him, carried Him away, and handed Him to Pilate the governor,” Matthew 27:1–2.
Pilate, on the other hand, had to make the final call.
Pilate saw he was achieving nothing and that a riot was about to break out.
Then he freed Barabbas for them.
” When it was at the ninth hour, Jesus cried out in a loud voice and said, ‘Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?’ (Who is like God?) in other words, ‘My God, My God, why have You abandoned Me?’ In fact, when they heard it, several of the people who were gathered there immediately began to exclaim, ‘This man is asking for Elijah.’ So one of them dashed to the side of the road and, taking a sponge, filled it with sour wine, placed it on a reed, and handed it to Jesus to drink.
- The rest, on the other hand, replied, ‘Let us wait and see whether Elijah will arrive to save Him.’ And Jesus cried out with a loud voice once again, this time yielding up His spirit.
- Consequently, Jesus died “about the ninth hour,” according to Matthew.
- Mark 15:25 provides more detail, stating, “It was the third hour when they crucified Him,” and the rest of the tale is consistent with Matthew and Luke’s accounts of the hours of darkness and the death of Jesus.
- It was at the ninth hour when darkness descended from the sixth hour until the ninth hour, and Jesus died at about that time.
- Considering that a new day begins at midnight, the third hour would be 3:00 a.m., according to current reckoning.
- As a result, the third hour when Jesus was crucified would have been three hours after sunrise, or around 9:00 a.m.
- All of this is rather clear, except for the fact that John appears to record something entirely different.
It was approximately the sixth hour on the day of preparation for the Passover.” It was now the day of preparation for the Passover.
There are a number of plausible answers to the apparent disparity in the data.
If this is the case, the sixth hour would be approximately 6:00 a.m.
Andrew Kostenberger also notes that when referring to time in John 1:39, John appears to be referring to late afternoon (4:00 PM), rather than the traditional sunup-to-sundown frame of reference (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, “John,” Baker Academic, 2004, p.
As a result, it appears that the “Roman time” option is doubtful.
An early copyist of John, according to one view, mistyped the Greek numeral digamma (6 instead of 6) when writing the text (the Greek numeral gamma, or3).
Even though Kostenberger does not necessarily agree with the notion, he speculates that John may be making a theological argument rather than seeking to provide a literal indicator of the time (op cit, p.
The choosing of the Paschal lamb would generally take place at midday on the day before Passover, according to tradition.
This approach, on the other hand, has its own set of chronological challenges.
Given that Jesus had previously eaten the Passover with His followers, it appears that the dinner itself had already taken place at that point in time.
538) and Carson (p.
The day was commonly split into three-hour blocks before the invention of watches and other exact timekeeping technologies, and people frequently approximated and rounded off the time.
The nearest quarter or half hour is frequently used, even in current times when digital clocks can determine time to the second.
Alternatively, it is probable that John and Mark “rounded off” the timings as a matter of tradition.
“More than likely, we are in risk of requiring a level of accuracy in both Mark and John that could not have been accomplished in the days before watches,” Carson says.
“If the sun was moving toward the center of the sky, two separate observers may readily have peered up and determined that it was ‘approximately the third hour’ or ‘about the sixth hour,'” the author writes” (p.
Considering all of the evidence, it appears that Jesus was crucified at some point in the morning and died at some point later in the afternoon.
In this particular topic, the gospel authors were not excessively concerned with accuracy. In contrast, they were significantly more concerned with the theological ramifications, which they meticulously documented.
What time of day did the crucifixion happen?
Earlier in the day, about 6 a.m. or shortly afterwards, the Jewish leaders arrived to Pilate’s office (see John 19:14). It was approximately seven o’clock in the morning on Friday when Herod was summoned to court. Jesus’ second trial before Pilate began about 8 a.m., and according to Mark 15:25, it concluded with the crucifixion taking place at “the third hour,” which corresponds to nine o’clock in the morning using the Jewish way of counting. It was approximately 3 p.m. when Jesus cried out, “It is done,” and died on the crucifixion, which occurred around noon when He was hanging on the cross (see Matthew 27:45).
The trials of Jesus
In the Garden of Gethsemane, Jesus was apprehended by the Jewish religious authorities at roughly midnight, according to the majority of commentaries. In the home of Caiaphas, He was put on trial for the first time at roughly one o’clock in the morning, and the second effort to accuse Him happened an hour or so later, at approximately two or three o’clock in the afternoon. Then, somewhere between three and four o’clock in the morning, the trial before the Sanhedrin took place before the court.
- and the sun rises around 5:30 a.m.
- and the sun rises around 5:30 a.m.
- As a result, it was necessary to confirm it in broad daylight.
- In the year of the crucifixion, Nisan 14, the day scheduled for the killing of the paschal lambs, occurred on a Thursday; the preparation for (or eve of) the Passover coincided with the preparation for (or eve of) the weekly Sabbath, resulting in a conflict between the two.
- Mark 15:42 to 16:2; Luke 23:5 to 24:1).
At What Hour was Jesus Crucified?
One charge brought by Bible critics is that there is a discrepancy between the accounts of the crucifixion in the Gospels of Mark and John (McKinsey, 2000, pp. 295-296; Wells, 2013). According to Mark’s account, the Lord was crucified at the third hour (15:25), however John’s account states that Jesus was brought before Pilate at the sixth hour (19:14), which would appear to be after the time Mark claims Jesus was crucified. Simple steps may be taken to bring this seeming discrepancy into harmony, which serves to emphasize the sophistication of Bible inspiration even further.
- We have the ability to determine the time in any location on the planet fast.
- in Montgomery, Alabama (which is on Central time), 10:00 a.m.
- in London, and 12:00 midnight in Sydney, Australia (all of which are on Eastern time).
- The ancients utilized a number of timekeeping techniques to keep track of the passage of time.
- The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, on the other hand, calculated their allusions to days and hours in accordance with Jewish calendar time (cf.
- 285; Lockhart, 1901, p.
- 376; Brewer, 1941, pp.
In light of these considerations, consider the following passage from John’s allusion to the “sixth hour”: When Pilate learned of this, he summoned Jesus and seated him in the judgment seat, which is known in English as The Pavement, but in Hebrew as Gabbatha, in a spot known as The Pavement.
“Behold your King!” he said to the assembled Jews.
“Crucify Him!” they cried out.
“We have no monarch save Caesar!” the leading priests said in response.
As a result, they arrested Jesus and brought Him away (John 19:13-16, emp.
Not the hour of the crucifixion, but the events preceding up to it that John describes, notably the broad timeframe in which Pilate turned Jesus over to Roman guards in order to begin the execution processes.
These occurrences began to take place “about” 6:00 a.m.
And they took Him to a location called Golgotha, which means “Skull Place” in English.
And after He was crucified, they divided His clothing among themselves, drawing lots to determine which garments each man should get.
The events leading up to the actual crucifixion are given ample time to unfold, the appropriate chronology is kept, and the Bible’s pure historicity is justified.
One who is honest and neutral will take the time to analyze the specifics of Scripture and give it a fair hearing, just as the skeptic wishes for himself.
While under constant attack by people who despise the Bible, an assault that has lasted more than two millennia, the Bible has remained unaffected in its claim to be of divine origin.
“Confessing for the Faith,” by George C. Brewer (1941). (Nashville, TN: Gospel Advocate). When Critics Inquire, Norman Geisler and Thomas Howe (1992), When Critics Inquire (Wheaton: IL: Victor). Clinton Lockhart’s Principles of Interpretation (Delight, AR: Gospel Light), updated edition, was published in 1901. New Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles, by J.W. McGarvey, published in 1892. (Cincinnati, OH: Standard). C. Dennis McKinsey’s book, Biblical Errancy, was published in 2000. (Amherst, NY: Prometheus).
- Article ID: 1254 subject ID: 288.
- Robertson, published in 1922.
- 1869, Dictionary of the Bible, compiled by H.B.
- Wells, Steve (2013), “The Skeptic’s Annotated Bible,” in The Skeptic’s Annotated Bible.
- REPRODUCTION PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING DISCLAIMERS:We are pleased to offer permission for this material to be used in part or in its full as long as our conditions are followed.
What Hour Was Jesus Crucified? Resolving an Apparent Bible Contradiction
As recorded in the Gospel of Mark, Jesus was crucified around 3 o’clock in the afternoon (Mark 15:25). The Gospel of John, on the other hand, claims that Pilate sentenced Jesus to death on the cross at “around the sixth hour” (John 19:14). In a book I co-wrote with Andreas Köstenberger and Alexander Stewart, we discussed what was going on here and why this was not a contraction of any kind. In order to address this question, we must first revisit some fundamental concepts regarding how “time” was seen in the first-century Mediterranean society.
How Jews Understood Time in the Day and Night
First and foremost, we must keep in mind that we, in the Western world, are exceedingly time sensitive, and we keep track of the passage of time down to the second. The time notations from the time of Christ and earlier were, however, extremely inaccurate, bearing little or no similarity at all to the present sense of timeliness, according to Johnny V. Miller. Sundials were not often used in the first century, and there was no time unit smaller than the “hour” that was widely accepted. Second, Jews believed that a day consisted of 12 hours, from sunrise to sunset, and that this indicated the length of a day.
Third, Jews used to split the day into three halves using three reference points.
- “the third hour,”
- s“the sixth hour,” and
- sthe “ninth hour” (Matt. 20:1-9)
These were generic references for the following topics, respectively: These are the only dates and times that are mentioned in the crucifixion narratives (Matt. 27:45;Mark 15:25,33;Luke 23:44;John 19:14). Fifth and last, we see something that is similar to how a first-century Roman or Jew might perceive the nighttime sky. The Lord instructs his followers to remain alert when discussing the approaching return of the Messiah, saying, “For you do not know when your lord ofthe house will arrive, in the evening or at midnight, or at first light of the dawn, or in the morning” (Mark 13:35).
The period of “night” (from sunset to daybreak) is split into four watches, as seen here:
Kevin Lipp created the following useful graphic assistance for us:
What Is Going on in Mark 15:25 and John 19:14?
When we come to a passage like Mark 15:25, it is probably best to understand the expression “the third hour” not as a precise reference to 9 a.m., but rather as an approximate reference to midmorning—from 7:30 or 8 a.m. until 10 or 10:30 a.m. When we come to a passage like Mark 15:25, it is probably best to understand the expression “the third hour” not as a precise reference to 9 a.m., but as Similarly, the “sixth hour” might refer to any period between 10:30 a.m. and 11 a.m. and 1 p.m. or 1:30 p.m.
Note that the “hours” were only rough estimations of the sun’s location in a quadrant of the sky, so keep that in mind.
and two witnesses were to look at the sun in the sky, one may round down to “about the third hour” and the other could round up to “about the sixth hour,” depending on other factors they would want to emphasize during the sentencing (for example, if John wants to highlight in particular the length of the proceedings and that the final verdict concerning the Lamb of God is not far off from the noontime slaughter of lambs for the Sabbath dinner of Passover week).
At the end of the day, there is no final contradiction, especially given the fact that John provides an estimate (“approximately”) of something that was never intended to be accurate to begin with.
When Did Jesus Die? The Year, Day & Time
There has been much speculation concerning the day and year of Christ’s crucifixion and death, owing to the absence of clear day-to-day linkage in the stories of the four Gospels. We know that Jesus died on Preparation Day because it is mentioned in each of the four Gospel narratives. But was it a Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday when that happened? In addition, what hour did Jesus die? There has even been discussion over the year in which he passed away. To figure out the day of Jesus’ death on the cross, we must piece together the evidence from his four Gospels and our understanding of his historical period and cultural context.
Cultural Information to Keep in Mind
1. The gospel writers were more concerned with depicting Jesus as a person than they were with the precise chronology of his appearance. Dates have become increasingly important in today’s environment in order to provide proper news coverage. However, the Gospel authors were more concerned with the events themselves than they were with the precise date of the occurrences. They were attempting to introduce Jesus to a variety of audiences rather than providing a thorough biography. It was the day before the Sabbath that was designated as the Day of Preparation.
This is the day on which Jews prepared meals and completed all of the tasks that were prohibited from being completed on the Sabbath but that still needed to be completed.
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What the Gospels Say about Jesus’ Burial
One of the primary concerns of the Gospel authors was the presentation of Jesus, rather than the specific time of his appearances. When it comes to providing proper news coverage, dates have become more important. In contrast, the Gospel authors were more concerned with the events themselves rather than the precise time of those occurrences. Instead of providing a full biography of Jesus, they hoped to convey him to a wide variety of audiences. Two days before the Sabbath, there was a Day of Preparation.
Because Jews at this time were required to refrain from working on the Sabbath, Jesus’ companions made certain that he was buried before the Sabbath began at sunset on Friday.
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What Day Did Jesus Die? Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday?
Over the years, academics have developed a variety of hypotheses about what occurred during the days of the week preceding up to Jesus’ death on the cross. These versions each offer a different day for Christ’s death, such as Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday.
- Wednesday The fact that Jesus was crucified on a Wednesday permits for Him to have been buried for three full days and nights
- Nevertheless, this also means that He resurrected on the fourth day. Furthermore, the Triumphal Entry would have taken place on Saturday, the day of Sabbath rest
- Instead, it took place on Thursday. With a Thursday crucifixion, the Triumphal Entry is moved to Sunday, which makes more sense and removes the necessity for a “quiet day” (a day during thePassion Weekwhen no events were recorded). On the other hand, we know that the Pharisees hurried to put Jesus in the tomb on The Day of Preparation (John 19:34-42), which is Friday, and before the Sabbath began at nightfall (the Jews timed days from the beginning of the nightfall to the beginning of the nightfall). Upon closer examination of the facts, we find that Friday is the most consistent with the Gospel narratives and the historical context. According to the New Testament, Jesus rose from the grave on the third day—not necessarily after three complete, literal days—and was buried on the third day (e.g.,Matthew 16:21
- Acts 10:40). As previously stated, Jesus had to be hustled inside the tomb on the day of preparation because of the crowds. In contrast to a Friday crucifixion, which would demand a “quiet day” (most likely Wednesday), this day gives the Sanhedrin the opportunity to make plans for Jesus’s arrest and following trials. As a result, the day is just “quiet” since we haven’t documented anything significant
What Time Did Jesus Die?
According to Matthew Henry’s interpretation, Jesus was nailed to the crucifixion between the third and sixth hours, which corresponds between nine and twelve o’clock in the morning. After then, he died shortly after the ninth hour, which was sometime between three and four o’clock in the afternoon. Commensurate with the aforementioned practice, the Jews throughout the time of Christ measured days from dusk to nightfall. The Matthew 27:46 KJV, which is the “ninth hour,” can be translated into the Matthew 27:46 NIV, which is the “three o’clock in the afternoon,” according to Bible experts.
Timing of Jesus Death in Mark, Luke, and John
- The Gospel of Mark 15: 33:34, 37 “At midday, darkness descended across the entire region, lasting until three o’clock in the afternoon. Also, about three o’clock in the afternoon, Jesus said, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?” in an obnoxiously loud voice. (which translates as ‘My God, my God, why have you abandoned me?’). “Jesus breathed his last with a piercing scream.”
- Matthew 23:44-46 ” It was now around midday, and darkness descended upon the entire region until three o’clock in the afternoon since the sun had ceased shining. And the temple’s curtain was split in two by the earthquake. I put my spirit into your hands,’ Jesus said with a resounding voice, calling out to the Father. At the moment he stated this, he exhaled his final breath.” (See also John 19:14-16.) “It was approximately midday on the day of Passover preparations, and it was the day of Passover preparations. ‘Your king has arrived,’ Pilate said to the Jews. They, on the other hand, cried out, “Take him away!” Take him away from me! ‘Put him to death!’ ‘Do you want me to crucify your king?’ Pilate was the one who inquired. ‘We do not have a monarch other than Caesar,’ the leading priests responded. Eventually, Pilate gave him over to them, and they crucified him.”
What Year Did Jesus Die?
During this video, Doug Bookman, a New Testament professor at Shepherds Theological Seminary, shows why biblical academics have reached an agreement about the year Jesus died. “It all boils down to this. Pilate served as prefect of Judea and Samaria from 26 A.D. to 36 A.D., according to the evidence we have. So that’s our view out the window. The following question is: On what day of the week did Passover occur during the year that Jesus died? In the opinion of the majority, it occurred on Thursday or Friday.
Given all of this, the vast majority of researchers will agree that it leads to one of two conclusions: ” Theory 1: Jesus died about the year 30 A.D.
“At this point, the argument becomes pretty technical,” says Bookman of the situation.
“With regard to every one of the chronological questions, there is a case to be formed on both sides of the argument,” he continues. I am convinced that the year 33 A.D. “I teach the life of Jesus within the framework of that structure.”
3 Significant Events Shortly After Jesus’ Death
Matthew 27:51-54, Matthew 27:51-54 As a result of this, the temple’s curtain was split in half, from top to bottom. The ground trembled, the rocks cracked, and the tombs burst into flames. Many pious persons who had died were brought back to life by the power of the Holy Spirit. They emerged from the graves following Jesus’ resurrection and proceeded to the holy city, where they appeared to a large number of people. They were startled and cried, “Surely he was the Son of God!” when the centurion and others with him who were guarding Jesus witnessed the earthquake and everything that had transpired.
- The temple curtain had been ripped in half.
- We know from the laws of the Old Testament that entering God’s presence was a severe matter.
- The fact that this curtain was destroyed represented the completion of Jesus Christ’s accomplished work on the cross, which eliminated the barrier between sinful humans and holy God by becoming the ultimate High Priest and the ultimate sacrifice on behalf of all people.
- John Gill’s remark on the event states that “this was a demonstration of Christ’s authority over death and the tomb.” When Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his death, he demonstrated that he had destroyed both the power of death and the permanence of the grave.
- In addition to its grandiose claims, this event is noteworthy because it is a narrative predicting Christ’s second coming to collect the remainder of his people.
- This text in Matthew glosses over such a remarkable occurrence, but Christ’s resurrection is told in greater detail in Matthew 28, which is the gospel of Matthew (as well as inMark 16,Luke 24, andJohn 20).
(Jn. 19:14) Was Jesus crucified on the third hour or the sixth hour?
CLAIM: According to the Gospel of John, Jesus was still on trial at the “sixthhour” (Jn. 19:14). A similar passage in Matthew states that darkness descended between the hours of “the sixth hour. and the eleventh hour” (Mt. 27:45; Lk. 23:44). The Gospel of Mark, on the other hand, states that “it was the third hour when they crucified Him” (Mk. 15:25). According to Mark’s account, Jesus was crucified at 9 a.m., or “the third hour” (Mk. 15:25), although John’s account states that he was crucified at noon, or “the sixth hour” (Jn.
- Although Mark and Luke both agree that the darkness occurred from midday to 3 p.m.
- 15:33; cf.
- 23:44), they dispute over when the crucifixion of Jesus began.
- What can we do to get this resolved?
- This is a gloss that was added afterwards.
- This is an intriguing omission, because these other writings indicate the darkness from midday till 3pm, but they do not include this initial time signature, which seems to be a deliberate omission.
According to what we have already said (cf.
12:37), numerals were extremely simple to alter in the hands of a copyist.
Consequently, it’s probable that an early copyist made a mistake while transcribing Mark’s time (i.e.
This is totally plausible due to the fact that numbers were difficult to communicate.
This was something John was prone to doing (c.f.Jn.
According to this viewpoint, John was using a Roman clock in his gospel, whilst the other gospel authors were using a Jewish clock in theirs.
according to the Roman calendar.
on the Jewish calendar.
“It was approximately the sixth hour at the time” (Jn.
Due to the fact that individuals have traveled all day, this would correspond to the regular time that they would visit the well (6 p.m.).
The three-hour intervals were approximated to the nearest interval by the participants. The fact that an event may have occurred at any moment between 9:00 a.m. and noon could have lead one individual to believe that it had occurred at the third (9:100 a.m.) or the sixth hour (12:00).
|Used theJewishclock.||Used theRomanclock.||Used theJewishclock.|
|The day ran from6 pmto6 pm.||The day ran frommidnightuntilmidnight —like a modern clock.||The day ran from6 pmto6 pm.|
|The “third hour” would’ve been 9 am on this clock, when the crucifixion started. The darkness didn’t occur until noon, according to Matthew (Mt. 27:45). Jesus died at 3 pm.||The sixth hour would have been at 6 am. However, notice that John says the trial was “about” this time.Later Jesus was handed over to be crucified (v.16). This would concord with Mark’s account that Jesus wasn’t crucified until 9 am.||Darkness fell from “thesixthhour… until theninthhour” (Mt. 27:45; Lk. 23:44). This would be from noon until 3 pm. However, Jesus had been crucifiedbeforethis darkness (see vv.30-44). This could be the time from 9 am until noon that Mark mentions.|
Lane, W. L., et al (1974). The Gospel of Mark is a collection of stories about a man named Mark (p. 567). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan. W. W. Mark Wessel is credited with inventing the term “wessel.” The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, Volume 8: Matthew, Mark, and Luke, edited by F. E. Gaebelein (F. E. Gaebelein, Ed.). Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1984, p. 780. The Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2004), p.538.
Furthermore, we should note out that all of these time estimations were approximations.
It was the sun’s location in the sky that they were using to determine the time of day.
7 Clues Tell Us *Precisely* When Jesus Died (the Year, Month, Day, and Hour Revealed)
When it comes to the killing of Jesus, how detailed can we be? Is it possible to pinpoint the precise date? We are in the midst of our yearly commemoration of Jesus’ death and resurrection, which began on Easter Sunday. All of us are aware that something like this occurred in Jerusalem during the first century. That distinguishes Jesus from mythological pagan deities, who were said to have lived in places and at times that no one could pinpoint precisely. When it comes to the killing of Jesus, how detailed can we be?
We have the ability to do so.
Clue1: The High Priesthood of Caiaphas
According to the gospels, Jesus was executed at the behest of Caiaphas, a high priest from the first century who was known for his ruthlessness (Matthew 26:3-4,John 11:49-53). Based on previous accounts, we know that he served as high priest from 18 to 36 A.D., which places Jesus’ death at that time period. However, we may be a little more particular. There’s a lot more.
Clue2: The Governorship of Pontius Pilate
All four gospels agree that Jesus was killed on Pontius Pilate’s orders, according to the New Testament (Matthew 27:24-26,Mark 15:15,Luke 23:24,John 19:15-16). Due to information from other sources, we know when he served as governor of Judea — from A.D. 26 to 36 — and hence can restrict the time period down by several years. Nevertheless, how are we going to narrow the scope to a single day and year?
Clue3: After “the Fifteenth Year of Tiberius Caesar”
The beginning of John the Baptist’s ministry is specified in the Gospel of Luke as follows: In the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar’s reign.the word of God came to John the son of Zechariah in the desert, where he remained for forty days. This specifies a certain year, namely A.D. 29. Because all four gospels represent Christ’s ministry beginning after that of John the Baptist (Matthew 3, Mark 1, Luke 3, and John 1), we may trim a few more years off our estimated time frame for his birth. The death of Christ has to take place within a seven-year time span: between A.D.
Clue4: Crucified on a Friday
There is unanimous agreement among the four gospels that Jesus was crucified on a Friday (Matthew 27:62, Mark 15:42, Luke 23:54, and John 19:42), immediately before a Sabbath, which was just before the first day of the week (Luke 23:54; John 19:42). (Matthew 28:1,Mark 16:2,Luke 24:1,John 20:1). Due to the fact that Friday was designated as “the day of preparation,” we know it was a Friday. This means that it was the day on which Jews made the preparations they required for the Sabbath, as they were not permitted to work on that day.
According to the Jewish Encyclopedia: Friday is referred to as ‘Ereb Shabbat’ since it is the day before Shabbat (The Eve of Sabbath).
In Josephus’ Antiquitiesxvi.
The day is referred to as “Yoma da-‘Arubta” in Yer. Pesaim iv. 1 of the Jewish calendar (Day of Preparation). There were still a significant number of Fridays between A.D. 29 and 36, despite the fact that six days of the week were eliminated. Is it possible to figure out which one it is?
Clue5: A Friday at Passover
It is also agreed upon by the gospel writers that Jesus was crucified in connection with the yearly festival of Passover (Matthew 26:2,Mark 14:1,Luke 22:1,John 18:39). We get into a slight snag here since the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke characterize the Last Supper on Holy Thursday as a Passover feast (Matthew 26:19,Mark 14:14,Luke 22:15). That would imply that Good Friday occurred the day after Passover was observed. On the other hand, while recounting the morning of Good Friday, John makes it clear that the Jewish rulers had not yet eaten the Passover meal.
- It was still early in the morning.
- As a result, Pilate walked out to meet them.
- There are a variety of options for dealing with this situation.
- Another possibility is that Jesus simply moved the date of the Passover celebration for him and his disciples forward a few days.
- In the event that he announces, “We’re celebrating Passover today,” and it happens to be a day earlier than most people are used to, they would just accept it.
- No matter what Jesus’ movement did, we may use John’s remark about the kidnappers of Jesus to determine what the Jewish authorities or mainstream Judaism were like in those days: They were beginning their Passover celebrations on Friday evening, which is what we would call Friday.
- The following is a comprehensive list of the days between A.D.
- Monday, April 18, the year 29
- Friday, April 7, the year 30
- Tuesday, March 27, the year 31
- Monday, April 14, the year 32
- Friday, April 3, the year 33
- Wednesday, March 24, the year 34
- Tuesday, April 12, the year 35
- And Saturday, March 31, the year 36
As you can see, there are just two candidates remaining on the table: Jesus was crucified on either April 7th, A.D. 30 or April 3rd, A.D. 33, depending on the source. Which one was it, exactly? The year A.D. 33 is generally accepted as the date. There are a significant number of people that support the A.D. 30 date in today’s world. Do the gospels provide us the option of choosing between the two?
Clue6: John’s Three Passovers
During Jesus’ career, the Gospel of John mentions three separate Passovers: the first, the second, and the third.
- Jesus’ first public appearance was during the Passover Seder, which was described in John 2:13, towards the beginning of his career. 2nd Passover: This event is mentioned in John 6:4 and takes place in the midst of Jesus’ career. Passover3: This is mentioned in John 11:55 (and has been referenced several times thereafter), and it occurs near the conclusion of Jesus’ career.
That implies that Jesus’ ministry had to have lasted at least a couple of years longer than that. An in-depth examination would disclose that it lasted around three and a half years; yet, even if we believe that it began immediately before Passover1, the inclusion of two additional Passovers demonstrates that it lasted at the very least more than two years. That indicates the A.D. 30 deadline has passed. A ministry of at least two years cannot be accommodated in the period available between the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar (A.D.
29) and the next year’s Passover because there is insufficient time. The numbers don’t add up in this case. Consequently, the conventional date of Jesus’ death—Friday, April 3, AD 33-must be accepted as the true date. Is it possible to be any more specific?
Clue7: “The Ninth Hour”
Jesus died about “the ninth hour,” according to the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke (Matthew 27:45-50,Mark 15:34-37,Luke 23:44-46). The “ninth hour” is what we would regard to as 3:00 p.m. in our modern day. This permits us to narrow down the time of Jesus’ death to a very particular point in history: approximately 3:00 p.m. on Friday, April 3, A.D. 33, on the third day of the first month of the first century. Of course, there are a slew of thorough counter-arguments that I haven’t had time to address in this article.
This is the exact moment it occurred.
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The original version of this item published on April 10, 2013, at the Register.
April 3, AD 33: Why We Believe We Can Know the Exact Date Jesus Died
In our book, The Final Days of Jesus: The Most Important Week of the Most Important Person Who Ever Lived, Justin Taylor and I make an educated guess as to the date of Jesus’ crucifixion, but we do not argue for or against it. For a variety of factors, virtually all academics think that Jesus was executed in the spring of either AD 30 or AD 33, with the majority preferring the former. As a result of the astronomical data, the alternatives are reduced to AD 27, 30, 33, or 34). However, we would want to present our case for the date of Friday, April 3, AD 33, as the precise day on which Christ died in our place as atonement for our sins.
However, this does not rule out the possibility of understanding or importance.
No one makes this argument more forcefully than Luke, the Gentile physician who became a historian and inspired recorder of early Christianity.
The Year John the Baptist’s Ministry Began
In Luke’s account, John the Baptist began his public ministry soon before Jesus did, and the author provides us with a historical reference point for when the Baptist’s ministry began: “in the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar’s reign.” (See Luke 3:16). It is known from ancient Roman history that Tiberius succeeded Augustus as emperor on August 19, AD 14 and was approved by the Roman Senate on the same day. He reigned until the year AD 37. “The fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar’s reign” appears to be a straightforward date, but there are some ambiguities, beginning with when one begins the calculation.
Most likely, Tiberius’ reign was measured from the day he assumed office in AD 14 or from the first day of January of the following year, AD 15 (whichever came first).
When Tiberius’ “fifteenth year” began, it might have begun as early as August 19, AD 28, and it may have finished as late as December 31, AD 29, depending on the date of his death. So John the Baptist’s ministry began anywhere between the middle of AD 28 and the beginning of AD 29.
The Year Jesus’s Ministry Began
Because the Gospels appear to suggest that Jesus began his ministry not long after John, the most likely date for Jesus’ baptism would be late in AD 28 at the absolute earliest, according to the calculations above. Nevertheless, it seems more likely that it occurred somewhere around the first half of the year AD 29, because a few months had probably gone between the beginning of John’s career and the beginning of Jesus’ ministry (and the year AD 30 is the latest possible date). As a result, Jesus’ career must have began somewhere between the end of AD 28 and the beginning of AD 30 at the earliest.
The most plausible dates for Jesus’ birth are 6 or 5 BC, which means he would have been roughly thirty-two to thirty-four years old in late AD 28 to early AD 30.
The Length of Jesus’s Ministry
To determine how long Jesus’ public ministry lasted, we must first determine how long Jesus’ public ministry lasted. If Jesus’ public ministry lasted two or more years, it appears that the spring of AD 30 cannot be considered as a plausible date for the crucifixion. The Gospel of John records that Jesus attended at least three (perhaps four) Passovers, which were held once a year in the spring and were as follows:
- In Jerusalem, at the beginning of his public ministry (John 2:13–23)
- In Galilee, during the midpoint of his public career (John 6:4)
- And in Bethlehem, at the end of his public ministry (John 6:4). In Jerusalem, at the conclusion of his public ministry, that is, at the time of his crucifixion (John 11:55
- 12:1), there was a final Passover celebration. And it’s possible that Jesus attended another Passover that wasn’t reported in the Gospel of John, but was documented in one or more of the Synoptic Gospels (i.e., Matthew, Mark, and Luke)
This would make a date of a.d. 30 all but impossible as the date of Jesus’ crucifixion, even if there were only three Passovers in all. As previously stated, the earliest possible date for the beginning of Jesus’ career, according to Luke 3:1, is late in the first century AD. The first of these Passovers (which occurred at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry; John 2:13) would happen on Nisan 15 in the year 29 (since Nisan is in March/April, around the beginning of a year), which would be the first of these Passovers in the year 29.
If Jesus’ ministry corresponded with at least three Passovers, and if the first Passover occurred in AD 29, this suggests that he could not have been executed in ad 30, as previously thought.
The Passovers in the book of John would thus take place on the following dates:
|Nisan 15||AD 30||John 2:13|
|Nisan 15||AD 31||Either the unnamed feast in John 5:1 or else a Passover that John does not mention (but that may be implied in the Synoptics)|
|Nisan 15||AD 32||John 6:4|
|Nisan 15||AD 33||John 11:55, the Passover at which Jesus was crucified|
Jesus Was Crucified on the Day of Preparation for the Passover
It is also mentioned by the apostle John that Jesus was crucified on “the day of Preparation” (John 19:31), which corresponds to the Friday before the Sabbath of the Passover week (Mark 15:42). Earlier in the day, on Thursday evening, Jesus had a Passover meal with the Twelve (Mark 14:12), which is referred to as his “Last Supper.” Passover always falls on the fifteenth day of Nisan (Exodus 12:6), according to the Pharisaic-rabbinic calendar that was generally used in Jesus’ day. According to this calendar, Passover begins on Thursday after sundown and finishes on Friday after nightfall.
33, the year in which the crucifixion is most likely to have occurred, the most likely date for Jesus’ crucifixion is April 3 in the year a.d.
33, also known as the year of Jesus’ crucifixion. Accordingly, we created the following chart in The Final Days of Jesus to indicate the dates for Jesus’ final week in the year a.d. 33, which is shown below:
|April 2||Nissan 14||Thursday (Wednesday nightfall to Thursday nightfall)||Day of Passover preparation||Last Supper|
|April 3||Nissan 15||Friday (Thursday nightfall to Friday nightfall)||Passover; Feast of Unleavened Bread, begins||Crucifixion|
|April 4||Nissan 16||Saturday (Friday nightfall to Saturday nightfall)||Sabbath|
|April 5||Nissan 17||Sunday (Saturday nightfall to Sunday nightfall)||First day of the week||Resurrection|
The computations in the preceding section may look difficult, but in a nutshell, the reasoning goes as follows:
|Beginning of Tiberius’s reign||AD 14|
|Fifteenth year of Tiberius’s reign:Beginning of John the Baptist’s ministry||AD 28|
|A few months later:Beginning of Jesus’s ministry||AD 29|
|Minimum three-year duration of Jesus’ ministry:Most likely date of Jesus’s crucifixion||AD 33 (April 3)|
While this is, in our opinion, the most plausible scenario, it should be noted that many people think Jesus was killed in the year AD 30, rather than the year AD 33, as we have said. If, on the other hand, the beginning of Tiberius’ rule is set at the year AD 14, it becomes nearly difficult to fit fifteen years of Tiberius’ reign and three years of Jesus’ ministry between AD 14 and AD 30, as is the case. As a result, some have speculated that Tiberius and Augustus shared co-regency (combined rule) during the last few years of Augustus’ reign.
As a result, we believe that Jesus was most likely crucified on April 3, AD 33, as previously stated.
Because of this, when we celebrate Easter and walk with Jesus every day of the year, we may be certain that our faith is founded not just on subjective personal confidence, but also on solid historical evidence, which makes our faith a perfectly rational faith.
Crossway’s executive vice president and publisher for books, Justin Taylor, holds this position.
While this is, in our opinion, the most plausible scenario, it should be noted that many people think Jesus was executed in the year AD 30, rather than the year AD 33, as we have suggested. Assuming, as some have, that the beginning of Tiberius’ rule occurred in the year AD 14, it becomes extremely hard to fit fifteen years of the Tiberian dynasty and three years of Jesus’ mission between AD 14 and AD 30. Consequently, during the last few years of Augustus’ reign, some have speculated about a co-regency (shared rule) between Tiberius and Augustus.
Our conclusion is that Jesus was most likely killed on April 3, AD 33, according to historical evidence.
As we celebrate Easter, and as we walk with Jesus every day of the year, we may be certain that our faith is founded not just on subjective personal confidence, but also on verifiable historical facts, which demonstrates that our faith is an eminently rational conviction.
Co-authored with Andreas Köstenberger, the book The Final Days of Jesus: The Most Important Week of the Most Important Person Who Ever Lived explores the final days of Jesus, the most important person who ever lived (Crossway, 2014).
- When Jesus was crucified, the world went dark during the “third hour” (9:00 AM) — St.Mark 15:25
- When Jesus was hanging on the Cross, the world went dark during the “sixth hour” (12:00 PM) — St.Matthew 27:45
- When Jesus died on the Cross, the world went dark during the “ninth hour” — St.Matthew 27:46-50, St.Mark 15:33-37, and St.Luk
While the Gospel of St. John appears to be at odds with the synoptic Gospels in the following ways: It was the sixth hour of the day of preparation for the Passover, and it was the day of preparation for the Passover. “Behold your King!” he said to the assembled Jews. They chanted, “Away with him, away with him, crucify him!” they screamed out. “Do you want me to crucify your King?” Pilate inquired of them. As a response, the leading priests said, “We have no sovereign save Caesar.” Then he gave him over to them, who crucified him on the cross.
He carried his own cross to this location.
- Concerning the time of the events surrounding the Crucifixion, the evidence of the synoptic Gospels is at odds with the witness of John’s gospel. The Gospel of John provides accurate information about the time of Jesus’ crucifixion, but the synoptic Gospels provide inaccurate information. The synoptic Gospels are right regarding the date of Jesus’ death, despite the fact that they were incorrect about the day of His crucifixion and the date on which the world went black.
These three fundamental assumptions, on the other hand, are extremely troublesome since the Catholic Church holds that Sacred Scripture is without error. “Since, therefore, all that the inspired authors or sacred writers affirm should be regarded as being affirmed by the Holy Spirit, we must acknowledge that the books of Scripture firmly, faithfully, and without error teach that truth which God, for the sake of our salvation, desired to be confided to the Sacred Scriptures,” states paragraph 107 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC).
- John cannot be reconciled with the testimony of the synoptic Gospels, including the specifics of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection.
- John’s witness and the testimony of the synoptic Gospels, assuming they cannot be in contradiction?
- What if St.
- What if St.
- As a result, if the synoptic Gospels are referring to Jewish time and the Gospel of John is referring to Roman time, the Gospel stories are completely consistent.
- St.John 19:14states that Jesus is still on trial and is turned over for crucifixion during the “sixth hour” Roman time (6:00 AM), i.e., He begins bearing His Cross
- St.Mark 15:25states that Jesus was crucified during the “third hour” Jewish time (6:00 AM) (9:00 AM). There are three hours between the conclusion of Jesus’ trial and the time He is actually nailed to the Cross
- St. Matthew 27:45, St. Mark 15:33, and St. Luke 23:44state that the world turned dark during the “sixth hour” Jewish time (12:00 PM)
- St. Matthew 27:46-50, St. Mark 15:33-37, and St. Luke 23:44-46state that Jesus gave His life during the “ninth hour” Jewish time (3:00 PM)
With this perspective, we can clearly see that there is no conflict between the Gospel of St. John and the synoptic Gospels, and as a result, this interpretation sustains the inerrancy of Sacred Scripture, which the Church recognizes in CCC 107. Please study the following chart, which depicts the approximate link between Jewish time and Roman time, and always remember that the Gospel of St. John refers to Roman time, whilst the synoptic Gospels relate to Jewish time: Hours and Watches, for a better understanding of this.
” Recognition of these truths exposes something quite intriguing!
However, the manner in which we count hours and days differs from the manner in which the people of Jesus’ day numbered hours and days.
A counting series, on the other hand, always began with the number one. So, what precisely does that imply and imply? The distinction is as follows:
- Modern counting is as follows: 9:00 AM equals 0 hours
- 10:00 AM equals 1 hour
- 11:00 AM equals 2 hours
- 12:00 PM equals 3 hours
- 1:00 PM equals 4 hours
- 2:00 PM equals 5 hours
- 3:00 PM equals 6 hours.
- For example, if you are counting during the time of Jesus, 9:00 AM is one hour, 10:00 AM is two hours, 11:00 AM is three hours, 12:00 PM is four hours, 1:00 PM is five hours, 2:00 PM is six hours, and 3:00 PM is seven hours.
“The History of Zero:How was zero discovered?” by Nils-Bertil Wallin provides further information on the origin of the zero placeholder. Jesus’ suffering on the Cross lasted seven hours, according to the Gospel writers and their intended audience, which is a considerable amount of time in history. Why? The reason for this is because Jesus simultaneously fulfilled the Old Covenant while also transforming it into a new covenant, and the Old Covenant was comprised of seven agreements between God and man.
Isn’t it fascinating how God works in mysterious ways?!
When the Gospel stories are read in their correct context, this knowledge is gained.
Jason Hull is a musician from the United Kingdom.
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