What time was Jesus crucified? What time did Jesus die on the cross?
Answer The gospel authors make a number of references to the period of Jesus’ crucifixion in their writings. When we put all of these allusions together, we may obtain an approximation of when time of day Jesus died. The New American Standard Bible (NASB) will be used in this article since it provides a literal translation of the time references given in the original Greek. We know that Jesus was arrested in the middle of the night and brought before Pilate the next morning. “Now when the morning came, all the chief priests and elders of the people conspired together against Jesus, deciding that He should be put to death; and they tied Him, carried Him away, and handed Him to Pilate the governor,” Matthew 27:1–2.
Pilate, on the other hand, had to make the final call.
Pilate saw he was achieving nothing and that a riot was about to break out.
Then he freed Barabbas for them.
” When it was at the ninth hour, Jesus cried out in a loud voice and said, ‘Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?’ (Who is like God?) in other words, ‘My God, My God, why have You abandoned Me?’ In fact, when they heard it, several of the people who were gathered there immediately began to exclaim, ‘This man is asking for Elijah.’ So one of them dashed to the side of the road and, taking a sponge, filled it with sour wine, placed it on a reed, and handed it to Jesus to drink.
- The rest, on the other hand, replied, ‘Let us wait and see whether Elijah will arrive to save Him.’ And Jesus cried out with a loud voice once again, this time yielding up His spirit.
- Consequently, Jesus died “about the ninth hour,” according to Matthew.
- Mark 15:25 provides more detail, stating, “It was the third hour when they crucified Him,” and the rest of the tale is consistent with Matthew and Luke’s accounts of the hours of darkness and the death of Jesus.
- It was at the ninth hour when darkness descended from the sixth hour until the ninth hour, and Jesus died at about that time.
- Considering that a new day begins at midnight, the third hour would be 3:00 a.m., according to current reckoning.
- As a result, the third hour when Jesus was crucified would have been three hours after sunrise, or around 9:00 a.m.
- All of this is rather clear, except for the fact that John appears to record something entirely different.
It was approximately the sixth hour on the day of preparation for the Passover.” It was now the day of preparation for the Passover.
There are a number of plausible answers to the apparent disparity in the data.
If this is the case, the sixth hour would be approximately 6:00 a.m.
Andrew Kostenberger also notes that when referring to time in John 1:39, John appears to be referring to late afternoon (4:00 PM), rather than the traditional sunup-to-sundown frame of reference (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, “John,” Baker Academic, 2004, p.
As a result, it appears that the “Roman time” option is doubtful.
An early copyist of John, according to one view, mistyped the Greek numeral digamma (6 instead of 6) when writing the text (the Greek numeral gamma, or3).
Even though Kostenberger does not necessarily agree with the notion, he speculates that John may be making a theological argument rather than seeking to provide a literal indicator of the time (op cit, p.
The choosing of the Paschal lamb would generally take place at midday on the day before Passover, according to tradition.
This solution, on the other hand, has its own set of chronological difficulties.
Given that Jesus had previously eaten the Passover with His followers, it appears that the dinner itself had already taken place at that point in time.
538) and Carson (p.
The day was commonly split into three-hour blocks before the invention of watches and other exact timekeeping technologies, and people frequently approximated and rounded off the time.
The nearest quarter or half hour is frequently used, even in current times when digital clocks can determine time to the second.
Alternatively, it is probable that John and Mark “rounded off” the timings as a matter of tradition.
“More than likely, we are in risk of requiring a level of accuracy in both Mark and John that could not have been accomplished in the days before watches,” Carson says.
“If the sun was moving toward the center of the sky, two separate observers may readily have peered up and determined that it was ‘approximately the third hour’ or ‘about the sixth hour,'” the author writes” (p.
Considering all of the evidence, it appears that Jesus was crucified at some point in the morning and died at some point later in the afternoon.
In this particular topic, the gospel authors were not excessively concerned with accuracy. In contrast, they were significantly more concerned with the theological ramifications, which they meticulously documented.
When Did Jesus Die? The Year, Day & Time
Answer Regarding the hour of Jesus’ crucifixion, the gospel writers make a number of allusions. When we put all of these allusions together, we might obtain a sense of when time of day Jesus was killed. Because it provides a literal translation of time references contained in the original Greek, we shall be using the New American Standard Bible (NASB) throughout this essay. Known to us at this point is that Jesus was captured at night and brought before Pilate the next morning. “Now when the morning came, all the chief priests and elders of the people gathered together against Jesus, deciding that He should be put to death; and they tied Him, carried Him away, and brought Him to Pilate the governor,” Matthew 27:1–2 informs us.
In the end, Pilate was the one who had to make the call.
“When Pilate realized that he was doing nothing, but rather that a riot was erupting, he took water and washed his hands in front of the mob, declaring, ‘I am innocent of this Man’s blood; see to it yourselves.’ And all of the people cried out, “His blood shall be on us and our children!” When he had finished scourging Jesus, he delivered Him over to be crucified” (Matthew 27:24–26), he freed Barabbas in exchange for them.
- When Jesus was crucified, Matthew gives us several evidence as to when it happened.
- ‘My God, My God, why have You abandoned Me?’ he cries out.
- “Let us wait and see whether Elijah will arrive to save Him,” the remainder of the group decided.
- Then the curtain of the temple was ripped in two from top to bottom, and the ground shook with a violent earthquake, and the rocks were split” (Matthew 27:45–51).
- Jesus’ death is recorded in Luke 23:44–47, which corresponds with Matthew’s description of darkness falling at the sixth hour and Jesus’ death occurring at the ninth.
- Putting the stories from the Synoptic Gospels together, Jesus was crucified about 3 o’clock in the afternoon.
- Three hours of the time were spent in complete darkness.
The third hour would be 3:00 a.m.
The Jewish day, on the other hand, did not begin at sunset, but rather at sunrise, which would be about 6:00 a.m.
The sixth hour of darkness would be around noon, and the ninth hour of Jesus’ death would be approximately 3:00 PM.
“Therefore, when Pilate heard these statements, he dragged Jesus out and sat down on the judgment bench in a site called The Pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbatha,” according to John 19:13–14.
For the apparent mismatch, there are a number of viable answers.
If John is counting hours from midnight, the sixth hour would be approximately 6:00 a.m., according to another theory The problem of chronology is thus resolved; however, according to the findings of Henry Morris’ research, D.
Carson thinks that this is unlikely, as Roman legal documents were usually the only ones that used this method of reckoning (Pillar New Testament Commentary, “John,” Eerdmans, 1991, p 605).
363), which is supported by other scholars.
74–75; Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament, “Joshua,” Baker Academic, 2004).
It has also been suggested that the mention of the sixth hour by John was due to a mistake in the transcription of his speech.
In this case, John and Mark would appear to be completely in accord; nevertheless, Carson points out that there is no manuscript evidence for this variation (op cit, p.
In order to get this result, we must completely rely on guesswork.
on the day before Passover, when the Paschal lamb would be chosen.
This approach, on the other hand, has its own set of chronological problems.
Given that Jesus had previously eaten the Passover with His followers, it appears as though the dinner itself had already taken place at that point in time.
538) and Carson (p.
The day was traditionally split into three-hour blocks before the invention of watches and other exact timekeeping technologies, and people frequently approximated and rounded off the time.
There is no disagreement in this solution; rather, there is a variance in the way each writer assessed the amount of time they would require.
Following this method, the decision between the third and sixth hours would be based on the individual’s assessment.
Ultimately, it is possible that this is an instance of current scientific accuracy being expected from an antique text.
Most people, who could not take sundials or astronomical charts with them, had to make do with a rough estimate of the time they were experiencing.
Between three and six hours would have elapsed between his death on the cross, with a significant chunk of that time spent in complete darkness.
In this regard, the gospel authors were not excessively concerned with accuracy. However, they were considerably more concerned with theological consequences, which they meticulously documented.
Cultural Information to Keep in Mind
1. The gospel writers were more concerned with depicting Jesus as a person than they were with the precise chronology of his appearance. Dates have become increasingly important in today’s environment in order to provide proper news coverage. However, the Gospel authors were more concerned with the events themselves than they were with the precise date of the occurrences. They were attempting to introduce Jesus to a variety of audiences rather than providing a thorough biography. It was the day before the Sabbath that was designated as the Day of Preparation.
This is the day on which Jews prepared meals and completed all of the tasks that were prohibited from being completed on the Sabbath but that still needed to be completed.
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What the Gospels Say about Jesus’ Burial
The Gospel of Matthew contains the most detailed account of Jesus’ death and burial (Matthew 27:31-62). In this tale, we learn about Joseph, a wealthy man from Arimathea “who had himself become a follower of Jesus,” according to one piece (Matthew 27:57 b). In Matthew 27:58-61, it is said that Joseph approached Pilate and begged for permission to bury Jesus’ body. “The next day, the day after Preparation Day, the chief priests and the Pharisees went to Pilate,” we are told in Matthew 27:62. Joseph followed out this plan on Preparation Day.
In the Jewish calendar, it was Preparation Day (i.e., the day before the Sabbath).” (Matthew 15:42 a.) … Consequently, Joseph purchased some linen material, brought the corpse down from the casket, wrapped it in the linen, and buried it in a tomb dug into the rock.
Jesus died on the Day of Preparation, as confirmed by Luke and John: “Then he carried it down, wrapped it in linen fabric, and buried it in a tomb cut into the rock, in which no one had yet been lain.” As it happened, it was Preparation Day, and the Sabbath was about to begin” (Luke 23:54).
What Day Did Jesus Die? Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday?
Matthew’s narrative of Jesus’ death and burial is the most comprehensive (Matthew 27:31-62). In this tale, we learn about Joseph, a wealthy businessman from Arimathea “who had himself become a follower of Jesus,” according to one piece (Matthew 27:57 b). In Matthew 27:58-61, Joseph is said to have requested permission from Pilate to bury Jesus’ body. As a follow-up, we discover in Matthew 27:62 that Joseph carried out his plan on Preparation Day: “The following morning, the morning after Preparation Day,” the chief priests and Pharisees went to Pilate.
In the Jewish calendar, it was Preparation Day (i.e., the day before the Sabbath).
… Consequently, Joseph purchased some linen material, brought the body down from the casket, wrapped it in the linen, and buried it in a rock tomb.
Jesus died on the Day of Preparation, as confirmed by Luke and John: “Then he carried it down, wrapped it in linen fabric, and buried it in a tomb carved into the rock, in which no one had been lain before.” It was Preparation Day, and the Sabbath was just around the corner” (Luke 23:54).
As it happened, they placed Jesus there since it was the Jewish Day of Preparation and because the tomb was close by (John 19:42).
- The gospel of Matthew contains the most detailed description of Jesus’ death and burial (Matthew 27:31-62). In this tale, we learn about Joseph, a wealthy businessman from Arimathea “who had himself become a follower of Jesus” (Matthew 27:57 b). In Matthew 27:58-61, Joseph is supposed to have requested Pilate for permission to bury Jesus’ body. The following day, the day after Preparation Day, the chief priests and Pharisees went before Pilate, according to Matthew 27:62. On Preparation Day, according to Mark, Joseph buried Jesus. In the Jewish calendar, it was Preparation Day (that is to say, the day before the Sabbath).” (Matthew 15:42a.) … Consequently, Joseph purchased some linen material, brought the corpse down from the casket, covered it in the linen, and put it in a tomb dug into the rock. “Then he rolled a stone on the tomb’s entrance” (Mark 15:46). Jesus died on the Day of Preparation, as confirmed by Luke and John: “Then he carried it down, wrapped it in linen fabric, and buried it in a tomb cut into the rock, in which no one had yet been lain. “It was Preparation Day, and the Sabbath was about to begin” (Luke 23:54). As it happened, they placed Jesus there since it was the Jewish day of Preparation and because the tomb was nearby (John 19:42).
What Time Did Jesus Die?
According to Matthew Henry’s interpretation, Jesus was nailed to the crucifixion between the third and sixth hours, which corresponds between nine and twelve o’clock in the morning. After then, he died shortly after the ninth hour, which was sometime between three and four o’clock in the afternoon. Commensurate with the aforementioned practice, the Jews throughout the time of Christ measured days from dusk to nightfall. The Matthew 27:46 KJV, which is the “ninth hour,” can be translated into the Matthew 27:46 NIV, which is the “three o’clock in the afternoon,” according to Bible experts.
Timing of Jesus Death in Mark, Luke, and John
- Jesus was nailed on the cross between the third and sixth hour, which corresponds to nine o’clock and twelve o’clock, as Matthew Henry writes in his commentary. That is to say, between three and four o’clock in the afternoon, shortly after the ninth hour, he passed away. It has already been revealed that the Jews at the time of Christ timed days from dusk to nightfall, but there is more to it than that. The Matthew 27:46 KJV, which is the “ninth hour,” may be translated into the Matthew 27:46 NIV, which is “three o’clock in the afternoon,” by Bible experts.
What Year Did Jesus Die?
During this video, Doug Bookman, a New Testament professor at Shepherds Theological Seminary, shows why biblical academics have reached an agreement about the year Jesus died. “It all boils down to this. Pilate served as prefect of Judea and Samaria from 26 A.D. to 36 A.D., according to the evidence we have. So that’s our view out the window. The following question is: On what day of the week did Passover occur during the year that Jesus died? In the opinion of the majority, it occurred on Thursday or Friday.
Given all of this, the vast majority of researchers will agree that it leads to one of two conclusions: ” Theory 1: Jesus died about the year 30 A.D.
“At this point, the argument becomes pretty technical,” says Bookman of the situation.
I am convinced that the year 33 A.D.
3 Significant Events Shortly After Jesus’ Death
Doug Bookman, a New Testament professor at Shepherds Theological Seminary, outlines why biblical academics have come to an agreement about the year Jesus died and how this came about. In the end, it all boils down to this. Pilate served as prefect of Judea and Samaria from 26 A.D. to 36 A.D., according to the smallest of details. So that’s where we’ll be looking through the window. Next, we must determine what day of the week Passover fell on in the year Jesus died. The answer is: Generally speaking, it was considered to have occurred on Thursday or Friday.
Given all of this, the majority of experts will conclude that it leads to one of two outcomes: ” First, there is the theory that Jesus died in the year 30 AD.
“The debate becomes pretty technical,” according to Bookman at this point.
What time of day did the crucifixion happen?
Doug Bookman, a New Testament professor at Shepherds Theological Seminary, describes how biblical academics have come to an agreement about the year Jesus died. “It all boils down to this.” Pilate served as governor of Judea and Samaria from 26 A.D. to 36 A.D., according to what we can tell. So that’s where we’ll be looking. The following question is: On what day of the week did Passover fall during the year that Jesus died? The majority of people believe it occurred on Thursday/Friday. It began at sunset on Thursday and ended at sunset on Friday.
Theory 2: Jesus died in the year 33 AD.
“At this point, the debate becomes pretty technical,” according to Bookman. “With regard to every one of the chronological questions, there is a case to be presented on both sides,” he continues. I’m convinced that the year 33 A.D. My teaching about Jesus’ life takes place within that framework.”
The trials of Jesus
Doug Bookman, a New Testament professor at Shepherds Theological Seminary, describes how biblical academics have come to an agreement about the year Jesus died. “It all boils down to this. Pilate served as governor of Judea and Samaria from 26 and 36 A.D., according to the evidence we have. So that’s what we’ve got. The following question is: On what day of the week did Passover occur during the year Jesus died? In the minds of the majority, it occurred on Thursday/Friday. It began at dusk on Thursday and ended at sundown on Friday.
Theory 2: Jesus died in the year 33 A.D.
“There is a case to be put on both sides of every one of the chronological questions,” he adds.
is the year in question.
You Asked: What Time Did Jesus Die?
Attention: Please send any theological, scriptural, and practical ministry questions to with your complete name, city, and state included. We’ll forward them on to the members of The Gospel Coalition’s Council and other friends in the hope of receiving a response we can share with you. Zack B. from Fort Wayne, Indiana, has the following question: According to the Gospel of Mark, Jesus was crucified at the “third hour” (Mark 15:25), whereas according to the Gospel of John, the sentence of crucifixion was carried out at “around the sixth hour” (John 19:14).
It was Justin Taylor, vice president of the book division at Crossway, and co-author with Andreas J.
In order to address this question, we must first revisit some fundamental concepts regarding how “time” was seen in the first-century Mediterranean society.
How Jews Understood Time in the Day and Night
First and foremost, we must keep in mind that we, in the Western world, are exceedingly time sensitive, and we keep track of the passage of time down to the second. “Time notations from the time of Christ and earlier were extremely inaccurate, having little or no similarity to the current sense of timeliness,” explains Johnny V. Miller. Sundials were not often used in the first century, and there was no time unit smaller than the “hour” that was widely accepted. Second, Jews believed that a day consisted of 12 hours, from sunrise to sunset, and that this indicated the length of a day.
- Third, Jews used to split the day into three halves using three reference points.
- 27:45;Mark 15:25,33;Luke 23:44;John 19:14).
- The Lord instructs his followers to remain alert when discussing the approaching return of the Messiah, saying, “For you do not know when your lord ofthe house will arrive, in the evening or at midnight, or at first light of the dawn, or in the morning” (Mark 13:35).
In this diagram, we observe the period of “night,” which spans from sunset to sunrise and is split into four watches: evening, midnight, rooster-crow, and morning. Kevin Lipp created the following useful graphic assistance for us:
What Is Going on in Mark 15:25 and John 19:14?
It is important first to remember that we are a time-conscious society in the Western world, with many people keeping track of the seconds that pass. “Time notations from the time of Christ and earlier were exceedingly inexact, having little or no similarity to the current sense of timeliness,” argues Johnny V. Miller in his book “Time Notations.” As early as the first century, sundials were not often used, and there was no measure of time utilized that was smaller than a “hour.” For the second time, Jews considered a day to be comprised of “12 hours,” from sunrise to sunset.
- ‘It is written in the book of John,’ says the author.
- The “third hour,” “the sixth hour,” and the “ninth hour” are all mentioned in Jesus’ parable of the vineyard and the laborers (Matt.
- Those were generic time references for mid-morning, mid-afternoon, and mid-afternoon, and those are the only time markers mentioned in the crucifixion stories (Matt.
- We also observe something that is comparable to how a first-century Roman or Jew might perceive the night.
- Evening, midnight, rooster-crow, and dawn are the four watches that comprise “night,” which lasts from sunset to daybreak.
7 Clues Tell Us *Precisely* When Jesus Died (the Year, Month, Day, and Hour Revealed)
When it comes to the killing of Jesus, how detailed can we be? Is it possible to pinpoint the precise date? We are in the midst of our yearly commemoration of Jesus’ death and resurrection, which began on Easter Sunday. All of us are aware that something like this occurred in Jerusalem during the first century. That distinguishes Jesus from mythological pagan deities, who were said to have lived in places and at times that no one could pinpoint precisely. When it comes to the killing of Jesus, how detailed can we be?
We have the ability to do so.
Clue1: The High Priesthood of Caiaphas
According to the gospels, Jesus was executed at the behest of Caiaphas, a high priest from the first century who was known for his ruthlessness (Matthew 26:3-4,John 11:49-53). Based on previous accounts, we know that he served as high priest from 18 to 36 A.D., which places Jesus’ death at that time period. However, we may be a little more particular. There’s a lot more.
Clue2: The Governorship of Pontius Pilate
All four gospels agree that Jesus was killed on Pontius Pilate’s orders, according to the New Testament (Matthew 27:24-26,Mark 15:15,Luke 23:24,John 19:15-16).
Due to information from other sources, we know when he served as governor of Judea — from A.D. 26 to 36 — and hence can restrict the time period down by several years. Nevertheless, how are we going to narrow the scope to a single day and year?
Clue3: After “the Fifteenth Year of Tiberius Caesar”
The beginning of John the Baptist’s ministry is specified in the Gospel of Luke as follows: In the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar’s reign.the word of God came to John the son of Zechariah in the desert, where he remained for forty days. This specifies a certain year, namely A.D. 29. Because all four gospels represent Christ’s ministry beginning after that of John the Baptist (Matthew 3, Mark 1, Luke 3, and John 1), we may trim a few more years off our estimated time frame for his birth. The death of Christ has to take place within a seven-year time span: between A.D.
Clue4: Crucified on a Friday
There is unanimous agreement among the four gospels that Jesus was crucified on a Friday (Matthew 27:62, Mark 15:42, Luke 23:54, and John 19:42), immediately before a Sabbath, which was just before the first day of the week (Luke 23:54; John 19:42). (Matthew 28:1,Mark 16:2,Luke 24:1,John 20:1). Due to the fact that Friday was designated as “the day of preparation,” we know it was a Friday. This means that it was the day on which Jews made the preparations they required for the Sabbath, as they were not permitted to work on that day.
- According to the Jewish Encyclopedia: Friday is referred to as ‘Ereb Shabbat’ since it is the day before Shabbat (The Eve of Sabbath).
- In Josephus’ Antiquitiesxvi.
- The day is referred to as “Yoma da-‘Arubta” in Yer.
- 1 of the Jewish calendar (Day of Preparation).
- 29 and 36, despite the fact that six days of the week were eliminated.
Clue5: A Friday at Passover
It is also agreed upon by the gospel writers that Jesus was crucified in connection with the yearly festival of Passover (Matthew 26:2,Mark 14:1,Luke 22:1,John 18:39). We get into a slight snag here since the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke characterize the Last Supper on Holy Thursday as a Passover feast (Matthew 26:19,Mark 14:14,Luke 22:15). That would imply that Good Friday occurred the day after Passover was observed. On the other hand, while recounting the morning of Good Friday, John makes it clear that the Jewish rulers had not yet eaten the Passover meal.
- It was still early in the morning.
- As a result, Pilate walked out to meet them.
- There are a variety of options for dealing with this situation.
- Another possibility is that Jesus simply moved the date of the Passover celebration for him and his disciples forward a few days.
- In the event that he announces, “We’re celebrating Passover today,” and it happens to be a day earlier than most people are used to, they would just accept it.
- No matter what Jesus’ movement did, we may use John’s remark about the kidnappers of Jesus to determine what the Jewish authorities or mainstream Judaism were like in those days: They were beginning their Passover celebrations on Friday evening, which is what we would call Friday.
Because of this, we can reduce the range of probable dates down to only a handful. The following is a comprehensive list of the days between A.D. 29 and 36 on which Passover began in the evening:
- Monday, April 18, the year 29
- Friday, April 7, the year 30
- Tuesday, March 27, the year 31
- Monday, April 14, the year 32
- Friday, April 3, the year 33
- Wednesday, March 24, the year 34
- Tuesday, April 12, the year 35
- And Saturday, March 31, the year 36
As you can see, there are just two candidates remaining on the table: Jesus was crucified on either April 7th, A.D. 30 or April 3rd, A.D. 33, depending on the source. Which one was it, exactly? The year A.D. 33 is generally accepted as the date. There are a significant number of people that support the A.D. 30 date in today’s world. Do the gospels provide us the option of choosing between the two?
Clue6: John’s Three Passovers
During Jesus’ career, the Gospel of John mentions three separate Passovers: the first, the second, and the third.
- Jesus’ first public appearance was during the Passover Seder, which was described in John 2:13, towards the beginning of his career. 2nd Passover: This event is mentioned in John 6:4 and takes place in the midst of Jesus’ career. Passover3: This is mentioned in John 11:55 (and has been referenced several times thereafter), and it occurs near the conclusion of Jesus’ career.
That implies that Jesus’ ministry had to have lasted at least a couple of years longer than that. An in-depth examination would disclose that it lasted around three and a half years; yet, even if we believe that it began immediately before Passover1, the inclusion of two additional Passovers demonstrates that it lasted at the very least more than two years. That indicates the A.D. 30 deadline has passed. A ministry of at least two years cannot be accommodated in the period available between the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar (A.D.
The numbers don’t add up in this case.
Is it possible to be any more specific?
Clue7: “The Ninth Hour”
Jesus died about “the ninth hour,” according to the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke (Matthew 27:45-50,Mark 15:34-37,Luke 23:44-46). The “ninth hour” is what we would regard to as 3:00 p.m. in our modern day. This permits us to narrow down the time of Jesus’ death to a very particular point in history: approximately 3:00 p.m. on Friday, April 3, A.D. 33, on the third day of the first month of the first century. Of course, there are a slew of thorough counter-arguments that I haven’t had time to address in this article.
This is the exact moment it occurred.
It is recorded in the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke that Jesus died at around “the ninth hour” (Matthew 27:45-50,Mark 15:34-37,Luke 23:44-46). It is 3:00 p.m. today, which is known as “the ninth hour” in medieval times. Because of this, we are able to pinpoint the exact hour of Jesus’ death to a very definite point in history: about 3:00 p.m. on Friday, April 3, A.D. 33, which is a very specific moment in history. I’m sure there are a slew of detailed points that I haven’t had the opportunity to address here.
Verse by Verse Ministry International
According to what I heard Pastor Armstrong preach, Jesus gave up His life at 6 a.m. on Thursday, however the scriptures declare that He gave up His spirit at night time. But it also doesn’t make sense to be at 3 p.m. because it never becomes dark at that time of day, and the gospels claim that there was darkness over the region as Jesus cried out to his Father. So, what time was it in the actual world? Unfortunately, we do not teach that Jesus died at 6 a.m. on Thursday, and we are not sure whatever doctrine you are referring to.
Rather than referring to our modern-day clock hours, the time references given in the Gospels pertain to the Jewish and Roman systems of calculating time, respectively.
It’s critical to grasp this in order to correctly evaluate the time references that appear in the text. An interesting graphic that compares the ways in which Romans and Jews measured the hours on the clock is shown below:
|12 midnight||Roman start of day||Jewish 6th hour of night|
|3:00am||Roman 3rd hour||Jewish 9th hour of night|
|6:00am||Roman 6th hour||Jewish start of day (sunrise)|
|9:00am||Roman 9th hour||Jewish 3rd hour of day|
|12 noon||Roman 12th hour||Jewish 6th hour of day|
|3:00pm||Roman 3rd hour||Jewish 9th hour of day|
|6:00pm||Roman 6th hour||Jewish start of night (sunset)|
|9:00pm||Roman 9th hour||Jewish 3rd hour of night|
Three Gospel writers (Luke, John, and Matthew) utilized the Jewish technique of measuring time, whereas Mark used the Roman method of reckoning time. When we compare the four Gospels and perform the required conversions in the appropriate time frame, we find that they all agree: When Jesus died on the death at 3 PM, He was lifted from the cross and buried before the sun set at 9 AM. He was crucified at 9 AM, hung on the cross for 6 hours, and was removed from the cross again at 6 PM. In other words, Jesus died at 3 PM on Thursday and was buried the same day, prior to the start of the Sabbath at sunset (see Luke 23:53-54).
Please see the following article for a more in-depth discussion of the day of Jesus’ death: What day of the week did Jesus die?
How Many Hours Did Jesus Suffer on the Cross?
Generally speaking, it is believed that Jesus endured on the Cross for three hours before to His death. Although this assertion is incorrect, it is also predicated on the assumption that the testimony of the synoptic Gospels (St. Matthew, St. Mark, and St. Luke) contradicts the testimony of St. John’s Gospel. Ultimately, the goal of this article is to determine what is causing the confusion about the length of time that Jesus suffered on the Cross, to determine the actual length of time that our Lord suffered on the Cross, and to resolve the issue by demonstrating that there is no contradiction between the testimonies of St.
- It appears that there is a conflict between the Gospel of St.
- John over the date on which Jesus was crucified, which is the basis of the uncertainty.
- Mark 15:25 expressly specifies that Jesus was crucified at the “third hour,” which corresponds to 9:00 a.m.
- Saint John’s Gospel claims that Jesus was on trial and turned over to be executed at the “sixth hour,” which would be noon if St.
- As a result, because St.
- Mark 15:33-37, and St.
- John 19:14 from the Gospel of St.
- However, according to the Gospels of St.
- Mark 15:33, and St.
- For example, how is it possible that the Gospel of St.
It appears that the synoptic Gospels are in accord on the specifics of the Crucifixion in this passage:
- When Jesus was crucified, the world went dark during the “third hour” (9:00 AM) — St.Mark 15:25
- When Jesus was hanging on the Cross, the world went dark during the “sixth hour” (12:00 PM) — St.Matthew 27:45
- When Jesus died on the Cross, the world went dark during the “ninth hour” — St.Matthew 27:46-50, St.Mark 15:33-37, and St.Luk
While the Gospel of St. John appears to be at odds with the synoptic Gospels in the following ways: It was the sixth hour of the day of preparation for the Passover, and it was the day of preparation for the Passover. “Behold your King!” he said to the assembled Jews. They chanted, “Away with him, away with him, crucify him!” they screamed out. “Do you want me to crucify your King?” Pilate inquired of them. As a response, the leading priests said, “We have no sovereign save Caesar.” Then he gave him over to them, who crucified him on the cross.
He carried his own cross to this location.
- Concerning the time of the events surrounding the Crucifixion, the evidence of the synoptic Gospels is at odds with the witness of John’s gospel. The Gospel of John provides accurate information about the time of Jesus’ crucifixion, but the synoptic Gospels provide inaccurate information. The synoptic Gospels are right regarding the date of Jesus’ death, despite the fact that they were incorrect about the day of His crucifixion and the date on which the world went black.
These three fundamental assumptions, on the other hand, are extremely troublesome since the Catholic Church holds that Sacred Scripture is without error. “Since, therefore, all that the inspired authors or sacred writers affirm should be regarded as being affirmed by the Holy Spirit, we must acknowledge that the books of Scripture firmly, faithfully, and without error teach that truth which God, for the sake of our salvation, desired to be confided to the Sacred Scriptures,” states paragraph 107 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC).
- John cannot be reconciled with the testimony of the synoptic Gospels, including the specifics of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection.
- John’s witness and the testimony of the synoptic Gospels, assuming they cannot be in contradiction?
- What if St.
- What if St.
- As a result, if the synoptic Gospels are referring to Jewish time and the Gospel of John is referring to Roman time, the Gospel stories are completely consistent.
- St.John 19:14states that Jesus is still on trial and is turned over for crucifixion during the “sixth hour” Roman time (6:00 AM), i.e., He begins bearing His Cross
- St.Mark 15:25states that Jesus was crucified during the “third hour” Jewish time (6:00 AM) (9:00 AM). There are three hours between the conclusion of Jesus’ trial and the time He is actually nailed to the Cross
- St. Matthew 27:45, St. Mark 15:33, and St. Luke 23:44state that the world turned dark during the “sixth hour” Jewish time (12:00 PM)
- St. Matthew 27:46-50, St. Mark 15:33-37, and St. Luke 23:44-46state that Jesus gave His life during the “ninth hour” Jewish time (3:00 PM)
With this perspective, we can clearly see that there is no conflict between the Gospel of St. John and the synoptic Gospels, and as a result, this interpretation sustains the inerrancy of Sacred Scripture, which the Church recognizes in CCC 107. Please study the following chart, which depicts the approximate link between Jewish time and Roman time, and always remember that the Gospel of St. John refers to Roman time, whilst the synoptic Gospels relate to Jewish time: Hours and Watches, for a better understanding of this.
” Recognition of these truths exposes something quite intriguing!
However, the manner in which we count hours and days differs from the manner in which the people of Jesus’ day numbered hours and days.
A counting series, on the other hand, always began with the number one. So, what precisely does that imply and imply? The distinction is as follows:
- Modern counting is as follows: 9:00 AM equals 0 hours
- 10:00 AM equals 1 hour
- 11:00 AM equals 2 hours
- 12:00 PM equals 3 hours
- 1:00 PM equals 4 hours
- 2:00 PM equals 5 hours
- 3:00 PM equals 6 hours.
- For example, if you are counting during the time of Jesus, 9:00 AM is one hour, 10:00 AM is two hours, 11:00 AM is three hours, 12:00 PM is four hours, 1:00 PM is five hours, 2:00 PM is six hours, and 3:00 PM is seven hours.
“The History of Zero:How was zero discovered?” by Nils-Bertil Wallin provides additional information about the origin of the zero placeholder. Jesus’ suffering on the Cross lasted seven hours, according to the Gospel writers and their intended audience, which is a significant amount of time in history. Why? The reason for this is because Jesus simultaneously fulfilled the Old Covenant while also transforming it into a new covenant, and the Old Covenant was comprised of seven agreements between God and man.
- Isn’t it fascinating how God works in mysterious ways?!
- When the Gospel accounts are read in their proper context, this understanding is gained.
- Jason Hull is a musician from the United Kingdom.
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April 3, AD 33: Why We Believe We Can Know the Exact Date Jesus Died
In our book, The Final Days of Jesus: The Most Important Week of the Most Important Person Who Ever Lived, Justin Taylor and I make an educated guess as to the date of Jesus’ crucifixion, but we do not argue for or against it. For a variety of factors, virtually all academics think that Jesus was executed in the spring of either AD 30 or AD 33, with the majority preferring the former. As a result of the astronomical data, the alternatives are reduced to AD 27, 30, 33, or 34). However, we would want to present our case for the date of Friday, April 3, AD 33, as the precise day on which Christ died in our place as atonement for our sins.
However, this does not rule out the possibility of understanding or importance.
No one makes this argument more forcefully than Luke, the Gentile physician who became a historian and inspired recorder of early Christianity. No other Gospel writer makes this point more forcefully than Luke.
The Year John the Baptist’s Ministry Began
In Luke’s account, John the Baptist began his public ministry soon before Jesus did, and the author provides us with a historical reference point for when the Baptist’s ministry began: “in the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar’s reign.” (See Luke 3:16). It is known from ancient Roman history that Tiberius succeeded Augustus as emperor on August 19, AD 14 and was approved by the Roman Senate on the same day. He reigned until the year AD 37. “The fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar’s reign” appears to be a straightforward date, but there are some ambiguities, beginning with when one begins the calculation.
Most likely, Tiberius’ reign was measured from the day he assumed office in AD 14 or from the first day of January of the following year, AD 15 (whichever came first).
So John the Baptist’s ministry began anywhere between the middle of AD 28 and the beginning of AD 29.
The Year Jesus’s Ministry Began
Because the Gospels appear to suggest that Jesus began his ministry not long after John, the most likely date for Jesus’ baptism would be late in AD 28 at the absolute earliest, according to the calculations above. Nevertheless, it seems more likely that it occurred somewhere around the first half of the year AD 29, because a few months had probably gone between the beginning of John’s career and the beginning of Jesus’ ministry (and the year AD 30 is the latest possible date). As a result, Jesus’ career must have began somewhere between the end of AD 28 and the beginning of AD 30 at the earliest.
The most plausible dates for Jesus’ birth are 6 or 5 BC, which means he would have been roughly thirty-two to thirty-four years old in late AD 28 to early AD 30.
The Length of Jesus’s Ministry
To determine how long Jesus’ public ministry lasted, we must first determine how long Jesus’ public ministry lasted. If Jesus’ public ministry lasted two or more years, it appears that the spring of AD 30 cannot be considered as a plausible date for the crucifixion. The Gospel of John records that Jesus attended at least three (perhaps four) Passovers, which were held once a year in the spring and were as follows:
- In Jerusalem, at the beginning of his public ministry (John 2:13–23)
- In Galilee, during the midpoint of his public career (John 6:4)
- And in Bethlehem, at the end of his public ministry (John 6:4). In Jerusalem, at the conclusion of his public ministry, that is, at the time of his crucifixion (John 11:55
- 12:1), there was a final Passover celebration. And it’s possible that Jesus attended another Passover that wasn’t reported in the Gospel of John, but was documented in one or more of the Synoptic Gospels (i.e., Matthew, Mark, and Luke)
This would make a date of a.d. 30 all but impossible as the date of Jesus’ crucifixion, even if there were only three Passovers in all. As previously stated, the earliest possible date for the beginning of Jesus’ career, according to Luke 3:1, is late in the first century AD. The first of these Passovers (which occurred at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry; John 2:13) would happen on Nisan 15 in the year 29 (since Nisan is in March/April, around the beginning of a year), which would be the first of these Passovers in the year 29.
If Jesus’ ministry corresponded with at least three Passovers, and if the first Passover occurred in AD 29, this suggests that he could not have been executed in ad 30, as previously thought.
Assuming, however, that John the Baptist began his career in AD 29, it is reasonable to assume that Jesus began his mission in late AD 29 or early ad 30. The Passovers in the book of John would thus take place on the following dates:
|Nisan 15||AD 30||John 2:13|
|Nisan 15||AD 31||Either the unnamed feast in John 5:1 or else a Passover that John does not mention (but that may be implied in the Synoptics)|
|Nisan 15||AD 32||John 6:4|
|Nisan 15||AD 33||John 11:55, the Passover at which Jesus was crucified|
Jesus Was Crucified on the Day of Preparation for the Passover
It is also mentioned by the apostle John that Jesus was crucified on “the day of Preparation” (John 19:31), which corresponds to the Friday before the Sabbath of the Passover week (Mark 15:42). Earlier in the day, on Thursday evening, Jesus had a Passover meal with the Twelve (Mark 14:12), which is referred to as his “Last Supper.” Passover always falls on the fifteenth day of Nisan (Exodus 12:6), according to the Pharisaic-rabbinic calendar that was generally used in Jesus’ day. According to this calendar, Passover begins on Thursday after sundown and finishes on Friday after nightfall.
33, the year in which the crucifixion is most likely to have occurred, the most likely date for Jesus’ crucifixion is April 3 in the year a.d.
Accordingly, we created the following chart in The Final Days of Jesus to indicate the dates for Jesus’ final week in the year a.d.
|April 2||Nissan 14||Thursday (Wednesday nightfall to Thursday nightfall)||Day of Passover preparation||Last Supper|
|April 3||Nissan 15||Friday (Thursday nightfall to Friday nightfall)||Passover; Feast of Unleavened Bread, begins||Crucifixion|
|April 4||Nissan 16||Saturday (Friday nightfall to Saturday nightfall)||Sabbath|
|April 5||Nissan 17||Sunday (Saturday nightfall to Sunday nightfall)||First day of the week||Resurrection|
The computations in the preceding section may look difficult, but in a nutshell, the reasoning goes as follows:
|Beginning of Tiberius’s reign||AD 14|
|Fifteenth year of Tiberius’s reign:Beginning of John the Baptist’s ministry||AD 28|
|A few months later:Beginning of Jesus’s ministry||AD 29|
|Minimum three-year duration of Jesus’ ministry:Most likely date of Jesus’s crucifixion||AD 33 (April 3)|
While this is, in our opinion, the most plausible scenario, it should be noted that many people think Jesus was killed in the year AD 30, rather than the year AD 33, as we have said. If, on the other hand, the beginning of Tiberius’ rule is set at the year AD 14, it becomes nearly difficult to fit fifteen years of Tiberius’ reign and three years of Jesus’ ministry between AD 14 and AD 30, as is the case. As a result, some have speculated that Tiberius and Augustus shared co-regency (combined rule) during the last few years of Augustus’ reign.
As a result, we believe that Jesus was most likely crucified on April 3, AD 33, as previously stated.
Because of this, when we celebrate Easter and walk with Jesus every day of the year, we may be certain that our faith is founded not just on subjective personal confidence, but also on solid historical evidence, which makes our faith a perfectly rational faith.
Crossway’s executive vice president and publisher for books, Justin Taylor, holds this position.