What Gifts Were Given To Baby Jesus?

What Gifts Would You Bring to Jesus?

  • Carey Kinsolving & friends
  • 2003 10 Dec

Wise men from the East presented presents for the infant Jesus, including gold, frankincense, and myrrh.What would you have brought as a present?Perry, who is 11 years old, wishes to send Jesus a large sum of money, a large sheep, and a balloon with the words ″It’s a boy!″ My understanding is that there were more than a few trumpets sounded in heaven when Jesus was born, so I’m not sure about the balloons.At least one angel was unable to suppress his excitement.

It was an angel who declared to a group of shepherds, ″I bring you good news of great pleasure that will be for all humanity,″ he said.According to Jordan, 6, ″If I had been one of the wise men, I would have brought a pillow and a blanket since Jesus could have been chilly.″ The humility of the savior’s birth is at the heart of the miracle of Christmas.A mother giving birth in an unhygienic barn would hardly be the first place she would choose bringing her kid into the world.

  1. This door was so low that even Jesus, the Lord of the universe, had to bend down to enter our planet through it.
  2. Is there something more to God’s message here than the fact that there was no place at the inn for Joseph and Mary to stay?
  3. It is God’s nature to go where he is desired.
  4. In the words of Pastor Joe McKeever, ″you will view it everything through the lens of Scripture.″ If you visit a city and no one welcomes you or listens to your speech, Jesus instructed his disciples to’shake the dust from your feet.’ Those who were aggressive or disrespectful were not to accept God’s truth.

″Tell me if this is not the most stunning picture in the Bible – Jesus Christ, the son of God, humbly imploring us to welcome him.″ He does not impose himself on anybody, but rather enters homes and hearts where he is welcomed.″ ″I’d bring him a buddy because it’s more enjoyable to play with other people,″ Laurie, seven, explains.Jesus had a soft spot for his buddies.He frequently dined with persons who were rejected by religious authorities.

He became renowned as the ″friend of sinners″ due to his charitable activities.In the case of Jesus, Hunter, 6, adds, ″I would have brought a dog because he needed protection.″ Baby Jesus was in desperate need of protection.King Herod desired to be certain that any potential rival rulers were killed (even baby ones).As a result, he instructed the wise men to inform him of the whereabouts of Jesus.God forewarned the wise men via a dream, and they returned home in secrecy without informing Herod.

He went completely insane after realizing he’d been duped by the deception.Because of his dissatisfaction, he ordered the execution of all children in Bethlehem who were 2 years old or younger.Joseph and Mary, on the other hand, were advised by an angel to flee to Egypt with the newborn Jesus.

″I’d bring Jesus a lamb since it’s a particular sort of animal,″ says Matthew, age seven, of bringing Jesus a lamb.″It’s a representation of Jesus.″ The shepherd has a soft spot for sheep,″ says the author.According to what you’ve told me, Matthew, you are undoubtedly aware that hundreds of lambs were sacrificed during the Passover celebrations.

  • While in Egypt for the first time, the angel of death passed over each and every Jewish dwelling that had lamb’s blood on its doorframes.
  • Jesus was referred to as ″the lamb of God who wipes away the sin of the world″ by the prophet John the Baptist.
  • If I could offer Jesus a gift, I would give him as much gold as I could find, but I can’t give him anything in exchange for his sacrifice on my behalf, says Kevin, a 10-year-old boy.

When approaching a superior in the ancient East, it was customary to bring a gift with you.Gold has long been regarded as the most valuable precious metal in the world.Frankincense was one of the spices used in the blend of incense that was burned on a regular basis in the Temple of Israel.

And myrrh was used to prepare Jesus’ body for burial after it had been anointed.The gifts of the three wise men have been interpreted by many as symbols of Jesus’ kingship, divinity, and death.’I’d gift him a gold crown because I adore him and because he is the king,’ Chelsea, 8, says of her father.What would you give to the King of Kings if you were to do so?

Bring a KTAG Arts Festival to your place of worship or educational institution.For further information, please see the Arts Festivals website at The New King James Version of the Bible is used for all Bible quotes.CAREY KINSOLVING HAS THE COPYRIGHT 2002.

What were the 3 gifts given to baby jesus

What are the three distinct gifts given to man upon birth?

If you were to base your response on the Bible, it may be recalled that the Three Wise Men, namely Caspar, Melchor, and Baltazar, presented the newborn Jesus with three gifts: gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh, which he accepted. In the Bible, gold is used as a representation of God. It is regarded to be a valuable metal and is valued accordingly.

What were frankincense and myrrh used for in biblical times?

According to the Biblical story, which is described in Matthew 2:1-12, a newborn Jesus of Nazareth was visited in Bethlehem on the eve of his birth by three wise men with presents of gold, frankincense, and myrrh who brought him gifts of wisdom. The essential oil of frankincense was often used as an incense, whereas myrrh was used in medicine and perfumery.

How many gifts did the Three Magi give to the infant Jesus?

According to Eastern belief, there were twelve Magi, although Western tradition believes there were only three. This is most likely due to the three presents of ″gold, frankincense, and myrrh″ (Matthew 2:11) that were brought to the newborn.

What is the symbolism of gold frankincense and myrrh?

According to scholars, in addition to the honor and status implied by the monetary value of the gifts of the magi, these three items were chosen for their special spiritual symbolism about Jesus himself—gold representing his kingship, frankincense representing his priestly role, and myrrh representing his future ascension—and that these three items were chosen because of their special spiritual symbolism about Jesus himself.

What are the 7 gifts from God?

Wisdom, insight, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and fear of the Lord are among the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit. While some Christans regard them as a definite list of precise characteristics, others see them as just examples of the Holy Spirit’s activity through the faithful to accomplish his purposes.

Who gave Jesus myrrh?

The three wise men brought gifts for the newborn king, including gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Gold, of course, was extremely valuable as a kind of payment. Frankincense is a highly prized fragrance. During the burial process, myrrh is a valuable ointment that is frequently utilized.

What are the 7 Holy herbs?

Parsley, chives, chervil, watercress, salad burnet, sorrel, and borage are among the herbs used in this recipe. Richters carries all of these plants in their inventory. To view the complete response, please click here. What are the therapeutic plants mentioned in the Bible, taking this into consideration?

What was myrrh used for in the Bible?

In the Hebrew Bible and the Talmud, myrrh was a component of Ketoret, which was used in the First and Second Temples of Jerusalem to sanctify incense at the time of the Temple’s construction. Also included in the holy anointing oil is myrrh, which is used to anoint the tabernacle, the high priests, and the rulers of the people.

What is the difference between frankincense and myrrh?

Frankincense is derived from the dried sap of Boswellia trees, whereas myrrh is derived from the sap of the Commiphora tree’s lifeblood. The process of extracting the sap is a delicate balancing act; you must harm the tree without killing it. Myrrh was formerly used as an embalming fluid, which explains Hapshetsut’s obsessive fascination with the plant.

What did Balthasar give to Jesus?

Among the Magi who visited the child Jesus after his birth were Saint Balthazar, also known as Balthasar, Balthassar, and Bithisarea, according to legend. He was one of three biblical Magi, along with Caspar and Melchior, who paid him a visit after his birth. Balthazar is generally described to as the King of Macedonia, and it was he who presented Jesus with the gift of myrrh.

How did the shepherds find baby Jesus?

The shepherds were calmly going about their job when an angel appeared in front of them and told them to be still. When the angel spoke to them, he informed them about Jesus and his miraculous birth, and he explained how they could recognize him in such a populous town as theirs.

What religion are magi?

Zoroastrianism and the ancient faiths of western Iran were both served by Magi (/meda/; singular magus /mes/; from Latin magus), who were priests in both religions. On the Behistun Inscription, which was written by Darius the Great in trilingual script and is known as the Behistun Inscription, the term magi is first recorded.

What was frankincense used for in biblical times?

Both of these compounds, which have been shown to have demonstrated antibacterial and inflammatory qualities, were long thought to be good cures for anything from toothaches to leprosy, despite the fact that they are most commonly associated with incense and old ceremonies.

Was there a 4th Wise Man?

Artaban resided in the highlands of ancient Persia, and it was through his study of the planets and the stars that he was able to anticipate the arrival of the King of Kings.

What is the purpose of frankincense and myrrh?

For centuries, in the Western world, frankincense and myrrh have been used to enhance the spiritual atmosphere of religious and cultural activities. However, in traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine, they are primarily employed in the treatment of chronic ailments. The terpenoids and essential oils found in frankincense and myrrh are the most important chemical ingredients.

What did gold, frankincense, and myrrh represent?

What did the presents of gold, frankincense, and myrrh have to do with Christ’s gifts? What do you think the presents are representing?

Bible Answer:

Gold, frankincense, and myrrh were the gifts that the three wise men presented to Jesus according to Matthew 2:11. And when they entered the home, they saw the Child with Mary His mother, and they dropped to their knees and worshiped Him, and they gave Him with presents of gold, frankincense, and myrrh from their treasuries, which He accepted. Matthew 2:11 (KJV) (NASB)

Gift of Gold

The gift of gold was regarded as befitting a king’s dignity.Kings and pharaohs of ancient times left behind monuments and riches that served as reminders that gold was the prize of rulers and kings.Gold was highly regarded by both secular and biblical royalty.The next two verses explain that King Solomon obtained valuable wealth and that King Nebuchadnezzar created a gold idol or image of himself in the form of a gold idol or image.

Every one of King Solomon’s drinking glasses was made entirely of gold, and every vessel in his household’s residence in the Forest of Lebanon was made entirely of pure gold; silver was not regarded as precious during Solomon’s reign.2 Chronicles 9:20 is a verse from the Bible that says (NASB) Nebuchadnezzar the king erected a golden image on the plain of Dura in the province of Babylon, measuring sixty cubits in height and six cubits in breadth.He erected the image on the plain of Dura in the province of Babylon.

  1. Daniel 3:27-28 (NASB) While gold may be given as a present to anybody, it was considered to be a particularly appropriate gift for monarchs.

Gift of Frankincense

Frankincense is derived from the resin of trees.Frankincense was originally highly prized across the Middle East, from Rome to India, and it continues to be so today.In addition to being quite pricey, it has a beautiful scent.There are fifteen references to frankincense in the Bible.

Upon investigation, it is discovered that it was largely utilized in biblical times for the preparation of incense (Exodus 30:34) and as an element in sacrifices (Leviticus 2:1-2).According to the Song of Solomon 3:6 and 4:14, it was also used as a component in perfume.Due to the fact that frankincense was predominantly utilized in worship in the Bible, frankincense is associated with God’s adoration.

  1. ″Take for yourselves spices, stacte and onycha and galbanum, spices with pure frankincense; there should be an equal amount of each,″ the LORD instructed Moses.
  2. Exodus 30:34 (KJV) (NASB)

Gift of Myrrh

In the case of myrrh, the gum of the Commiphora myrrha tree is used in the extraction process.It was less costly than frankincense, yet it was nevertheless highly prized in its own right.It is referenced seventeen times in the Bible, with the earliest occurrence occurring in Genesis 37:25, when it is described as being transported by camels in a caravan.When it comes to biblical periods, myrrh was used for a number of functions, including as a perfume (Song of Solomon 1:13, 3:6, 4:6, 14; 5:1, 5, 13), as an anesthetic, for burial embalming (John 19:39), as a component of anointing oil (Exodus 30:23-25), and to deodorize garments.

Moreover, according to Esther 2:12, it was employed in a cosmetic intended for ladies.Myrrh was used at the burial of Jesus, according to the Bible’s account in John 19:39.Nicodemus, who had initially come to Him in the middle of the night, returned the next day with a combination of myrrh and aloes weighing around one hundred pounds.

  1. 19:39 (John 19:39) (NASB) Throughout the New Testament, the scent of myrrh is connected mostly with death.

Conclusion:

Because gold, frankincense, and myrrh were highly treasured by kings and emperors at the time of Jesus’ birth, the magi presented him with three extremely expensive presents.The gift of gold belonged to a king, because Christ is the King of the universe.Because Christ was the anointed One who deserved our adoration, frankincense was a fitting present for Him to receive.Myrrh was a prophetic gift, indicating that Jesus would die in order to atone for the sins of the world.

In relation to the three gifts, Dr.J.Vernon McGee expresses the following sentiment.

  1. His birth is commemorated in gold.
  2. He is born into the position of King.
  3. The aroma of His life is represented by frankincense.
  4. The scent of myrrh conjures up images of His dying.

All of this is reflected in the gifts that were delivered to Him during His first appearance on earth.

References:

The Bible, by Dr. J. Vernon McGee (Nelson Publishing, 1983), volume IV, page 16.

Suggested Links:

The Biblical Accounts of the Christmas Story The Visit of Gabriel to Mary Mary’s Magnificat Joseph’s Imagination Jesus is born in the town of Bethlehem.The Arrival of the Magi to Pay a Visit to Jesus Where was Jesus when the three wise men came upon Him and presented Him with gifts?Is there any proof that Herod killed kids under the age of two in the modern era?What exactly does the name Immanuel mean?

Is Isaiah 7:14-16 a prophesy concerning the coming of Jesus Christ?

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Why Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh Were Given to Baby Jesus

As we all know from our nativity scenes, some very important guests attended the birth of Jesus: three wise men from the east, who brought presents for the newborn king in the form of gold, frankincense, and myrrh for the newborn king to open.According to Matthew 2:11, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″It is written, ″When they arrived at the house, they were greeted by the child and his mother Mary, and they immediately fell to their knees and worshipped him.Then they opened their treasure chests and presented him with presents of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, among other things.″ Comparing the narrative we relate to the Bible’s description of the royal visit, we find that it is frequently embellished with a little additional detail.History and tradition have played a role in filling in the blanks about these guests, including their number, their names, and the day and time of their presence.

One part of the visit that has mostly remained intact is the list of gifts that were brought to Jesus, which included gold, frankincense, and myrrh among others.If you’re wondering what a newborn might do with these presents, you’re not alone in your curiosity.They were definitely gifts worthy for a king, and their immense value was the most important aspect of the gifts’ symbolic meaning.

  1. Aside from stating unequivocally that they were priceless goods offered as part of a worship service, Scripture does not clearly associate the gifts with any other symbolic significance.
  2. In any case, without delving too deep into extra-biblical conjecture, it’s feasible to derive a few probable meanings from the gifts delivered by the three wise men.
  3. The purpose of these priceless presents was plainly to glorify Jesus, but it’s likely that they also had a deeper theological meaning.

The Gift of Gold

As was traditional for royal visits, the wise men arrived with precious presents intended to be given to the newborn king in his honor.As it is now, gold was a highly prized item in the ancient world as it is today.The acquisition of gold was one of the most important markers of wealth among the various sorts of assets mentioned in the Bible (such as precious metals, animals, servants, jewels, and so on) (cf.Genesis 13:2, Ecclesiastes 2:8).

Because of its rarity and high worth, gold was particularly linked with royalty and aristocracy, as can be seen in 1 Kings 10 when the Queen of Sheba pays a visit to King Solomon and presents him with vast sums of gold as a gift from her husband.When the wise men presented Jesus with a gift of gold, they demonstrated that they did indeed regard him as a king.Some have speculated that the wise men’s gift of gold may have predicted another part of Jesus’ mission, in addition to highlighting his royal status.

  1. When God appeared to the priest in the Old Covenant, he would enter the Most Holy Place (also known as the Holy of Holies), which was an inner sanctuary within the Temple where the priest would confront God and give a sacrifice to atone for the sins of the congregation.
  2. In the same way, the incarnation of Jesus foreshadowed the presence of God—Immanuel—as well as the sacrifice of atonement he would make on their behalf when he died on the cross.
  3. Because, according to 1 Kings 6:20-22, the walls of the Most Holy Place and the altar within it were totally covered with—you guessed it—gold, the wise men may have been thinking about this link when they made their visit.

The Gift of Frankincense

It is an aromatic gum resin that is still widely used in regions of the Middle East and Africa today.Frankincense comes from the tree of the same name.It is made by scraping the bark of specific native species of trees and then gathering the resin beads that have formed as a result of the drying process.A powerful and attractive scent is released when the herb is burnt as incense.

Historically, the high expense of frankincense prevented it from being utilized as a popular household air freshener in the ancient Near East.Instead, the burning of frankincense was strongly tied with religious ceremonies in which a god was worshipped.So the gift of frankincense to Jesus may have suggested to the wise men that they believed the prophesy of the newborn king to be an assertion of divine authority.

  1. As with gold, it’s possible that frankincense had an implicit connection to Temple worship during the time of the Old Covenant.
  2. When God designed the sacrificial system for use in the Tabernacle and, subsequently, the Temple, one of its most important components was the burning of incense at the altar.
  3. According to Exodus 30, however, not just any incense would suffice to fulfill the requirements of the law.
  4. The only incense authorized on the altar was a particular combination of spices blended with ″pure frankincense″ (v.

34), which had to be sanctified as ″pure and holy″ (v.35) and consecrated as such.One might make a hypothetical analogy between this and Jesus’ life as a clean and holy gift to the Lord, as is described in the Bible.

The Gift of Myrrh

Originally from the Near East, myrrh is a fragrant spice made from the sap of a tree that bears the same name.As with frankincense, it may be used as an aromatic incense, but it was also widely employed in the ancient world as a perfume, anointing oil, and even as a medical tonic, according to certain sources.Myrrh was a vital element in the mixture of spices that was used to prepare bodies for burial during Jesus’ lifetime, and it was particularly significant in Jesus’ life (e.g., John 19:39-40).Perhaps the wise men intended this present to serve as a symbol of Jesus’ humanity and the way in which he would rescue his people—namely, that he would die on the cross in their place (cf.

Isaiah 53:5).Myrrh, like the other two gifts, has a relationship to the Temple, just as the previous two gifts did.According to Exodus 30, liquid myrrh was a key ingredient in the anointing oil that was used to ceremonially prepare the priests, the instruments, the altar, and the Temple itself before sacrifices could be offered.

  1. Exodus 30 also mentions that liquid myrrh was used to anoint the priests, the instruments, the altar, and the Temple itself.
  2. Again, there are direct analogies to Jesus’ consecrated life and sacrificial death that might be drawn to mind.
  3. In relation to Jesus’ life and mission, each of the three talents reveals implications that are thought-provoking.

What Did Mary and Joseph Do with the Gifts?

The blessings of the nations are described in Isaiah 60:6 as coming to God’s people via Christ.When Mary and Joseph received the gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, they saw a glimpse of what was to come.And in this particular instance, it is possible that the family’s riches was utilized to assist them in escaping to another country.According to Matthew, as soon as the wise men had left, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph, warning him of Herod’s wrath to come (Matthew 2:13).

Joseph was advised to seek shelter in Egypt, which required him to travel more than 100 kilometers.A journey of this size would be tough to pull off for a family with little financial resources.Despite the fact that we do not have any documentation to support this, it is possible to speculate that the rich gifts Mary and Joseph received from the wise men were used to fund the family’s departure to Egypt.

  1. Now that we understand the significance of the presents delivered to Baby Jesus, let us consider the relevance of the people who provided the gifts.

Who Were the Wise Men?

Consider the following passage from the Bible, which describes these pilgrims and their journey to meet the predicted king: Then, when Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea during the reign of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem and inquired, saying, ″Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews?″ Because we saw his star as it rose in the sky and have come to adore him.″ Herod the king, as well as everyone of Jerusalem, were alarmed upon hearing this, and he summoned all of the top priests and scribes of the people to ask them where the Christ would be born.They said that they did not know where the Christ would be born.According to what they informed him, ″In Bethlehem of Judea, for it is stated by the prophet: ‘And you, O Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for from you shall come a king who will shepherd my people Israel.’″ Then Herod called the three wise men in private and inquired of them as to what time the star had appeared on the horizon.They were dispatched to Bethlehem with the instructions to ″go and seek hard for the infant, and when you have found him, please send me news so that I can come and adore him as well.″ After listening to the king’s speech, they continued their journey.

It was then that they noticed a bright light rising above the horizon that followed them until it came to settle above the location where the youngster was.When they spotted the star, they were overjoyed and filled with a wonderful sense of accomplishment.In the midst of their adoration, they discovered the infant with Mary his mother, and they dropped on their knees and worshipped him.

  1. Then, when they opened their riches, they presented him with presents of gold, frankincense, and myrrh.
  2. And after being warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they decided to take a different route back to their own country.
  3. (2) (Matthew 2:12–13) Matthew introduces us to the travels with the words ″behold, smart men from the east arrived to Jerusalem,″ giving us no indication of their origins or motivations.
  4. But who were these folks in the first place?

When we talk about wise men, we are talking about astronomers or astrologers who worked in royal courts all across the ancient Near Eastern continent.They are also known as magi.Magi, for example, were considered as essential consultants in the Medo-Persian Empire because of their understanding of science, agriculture, and magic, all of which was in demand at the time.

Later, during the Babylonian Empire, Daniel came upon a group of important wise men who had been sent to interpret the king’s dream, and he was able to save them (Daniel 2:2,24).By the 1st Century AD, magi were more widely recognized as men who read holy literature and engaged in occult techniques, rather than as a specific group of people.The tale of Simon Magus in Acts 8 demonstrates that those who ″practiced magic″ were contemporaries of Jesus and his disciples in and around Palestine at the time of his death.Despite the fact that they were prevalent throughout the region, magi were most generally linked with the Parthian Empire, which was located east of Palestine (present-day Iran).Possibly, the wise men who came to see Jesus were from this region, which would explain their acquaintance with the Old Testament prophecy of the ″King of the Jews″ that Jesus would be born (Matthew 2:2).

Even after the Babylonian captivity, elements of Jewish culture continued to exist in that region, and it’s possible that the Hebrew Scriptures were among the sacred texts that these great men read in their quest for knowledge and understanding.

The Nations Shall Come to You        

A different perspective on the wise men and their gifts might be gained by looking at them through the prism of global missions.Israel was never supposed to be a halting point in the flow of grace; rather, God invited them to be a light for other peoples across the world.One of the most striking illustrations of this concept is found in Isaiah 60, which describes a future period in which the nations would be pulled to the brilliance of Israel—″nations shall come to your light, and rulers to the brightness of your rising″—and the people of Israel would be drawn to them (Isaiah 60:3).It was expected that the nations would arrive, but they would not arrive empty-handed: ″they shall bring gold and frankincense, and they shall bring good tidings, and they shall bring the praises of the Lord″ (v.

6).The three wise men represent a microcosm of the bigger truth that is to come: one day, people from every tribe, tongue, and nation will prostrate themselves before the throne of Jesus in devotion and praise of him (Revelation 7:9-10).A variety of perspectives may be taken on the Bible’s account of the three wise men’s visit, even though the story is pretty basic.

  1. Possibly, their presents were intended to show honor to Jesus’ monarchy, divinity, and humanity, rather than to any other purpose….
  2. Beyond that, they may have also had associations with the Temple and perhaps served as a metaphor to Jesus’ worldwide mission.
  3. Whether or whether you choose to draw deeper theological significance into them, one thing that is apparent is that these were major presents designed to demonstrate great homage to King Jesus.
  4. Scott James is a member of The Church at Brook Hills, where he serves as an Elder.

He and his wife, Jaime, are the parents of four children, and they live in Birmingham, Alabama, where he works as a pediatric doctor.Author of two family worship books (The Expected One: Anticipating All of Jesus in the Advent and Mission), he is also a speaker and trainer.A Two-Week Family Easter Devotional) as well as the illustrated children’s book The Littlest Watchman were all completed successfully.

Also by Scott James on Crosswalk: The Advent Calendar: Its Origins and Significance (and vice versa).Part of our wider Christmas and Advent resource library, this essay is focussed on the events leading up to Jesus’ birth and is available in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.It is our goal that these articles will assist you in understanding the significance and historical background of major Christian festivals and events, and that they will also encourage you as you take time to think on all that God has done for us through his son Jesus Christ!What really is Christmas?Appreciating the past, the origins, and the traditions When Was Jesus’ Birth Announced?

The history of the 25th of December The Bible’s account of Jesus’ birth, as well as Scripture verses Bible Verses for Christmas and a Biblical Story Prayers for the Holidays The following are the photo credits, listed in the order of appearance: Exels/Tookapic, Unsplash/JackT, Pixabay/xbqs42, Pixabay/Leo 65, Unsplash/GarethHarper, Unsplash/JakubJacobsky, Exels/InbalMalca, Unsplash/GarethHarper, Unsplash/JakubJacobsky, Exels/InbalMalca

What Are the Three Gifts Given to Baby Jesus?

Photograph by Marilyna/iStock/Getty Images One of the most well-known biblical Christmas tales tells of three kings, sometimes known as magi or wise men, who traveled for 12 days in search of the infant Jesus in Bethlehem after being guided there by the star known as the North Star.According to the Gospel of Matthew, this story served as the inspiration for Three Kings Day, also known as the Feast of the Epiphany, which is celebrated on January 6th by Christians across Spain and Latin America.

1 Three Prophetic Gifts

According to the book of Matthew, the three magi, later named as Caspar, Melchior, and Balthazar, presented the Christ infant with three gifts: gold, frankincense, and myrrh, which were later recognized as gold, frankincense, and myrrh.In this case, gold indicated a recognition of Jesus’ monarchy, while frankincense represented his future function as priest.As a funeral ointment, myrrh alluded to Jesus’ death on the cross and, hence, his role as the Redeemer of the world.

About the Author

Since beginning her professional journalism career in 2007, Nathalie Alonso has covered a wide range of issues for newspapers and publications in New York City, including arts, culture, and travel. She has also worked as a freelance writer. She graduated from Columbia University with a B.A. in American Studies and currently resides in Queens with her two kitties.

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Why Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh Were Given to Baby Jesus

If we compare our version of the royal visit to that recorded in the Bible, the tale we tell is frequently embellished with a little additional detail.History and tradition have played a role in filling in the blanks about these guests, including their number, their names, and the day and time of their presence.One part of the visit that has mostly remained intact is the list of gifts that were brought to Jesus, which included gold, frankincense, and myrrh among others.The fact that you’re thinking what these presents would be useful for a newborn is not an uncommon occurrence.For the most part, the importance of the presents rested in their high monetary value—they were, after all, gifts worthy for a king.

With the exception of stating categorically that these were vast treasures presented as part of a worship service (Matthew 2:11), Scripture does not clearly associate the gifts with any symbolic value.Even if we do not venture too far into extrabiblical interpretation, it is feasible to derive a few possible meanings from the gifts presented to the baby Jesus by the wise men. These priceless gifts were unquestionably intended to glorify Jesus, but it’s likely that they also had deeper theological meaning as a result of their existence.The Gift of Gold is an expression of gratitude.As was traditional for royal visits, the wise men arrived with precious presents intended to be given to the newborn king in his honor.

  • As it is now, gold was a highly prized item in the ancient world as it is today.
  • The acquisition of gold was one of the most important markers of wealth among the various sorts of assets mentioned in the Bible (such as precious metals, animals, servants, jewels, and so on) (cf.
  • Genesis 13:2, Ecclesiastes 2:8).
  • Because of its rarity and high worth, gold was particularly linked with royalty and aristocracy, as can be seen in 1 Kings 10 when the Queen of Sheba pays a visit to King Solomon and presents him with vast sums of gold as a gift from her husband.
  • When the wise men presented Jesus with a gift of gold, they demonstrated that they did indeed regard him as a king.
  • Besides underlining Jesus’ royal status, some have speculated that the wise men’s gift of wealth may have predicted another part of Jesus’ missionary endeavors.
  • When God appeared to the priest in the Old Covenant, he would enter the Most Holy Place (also known as the Holy of Holies), which was an inner sanctuary within the Temple where the priest would confront God and give a sacrifice to atone for the sins of the congregation.
  • Additionally, when Jesus was born, it announced the arrival of God, who was known as Immannual, as well as the sacrifice of atonement that he would make on their behalf when he was nailed to the cross.
  • Because, according to 1 Kings 6:20-22, the walls of the Most Holy Place and the altar within it were fully coated with gold, it’s possible that the wise men were thinking about this link when they made their visit.

Offering of Frankincense as a Gift It is an aromatic gum resin that is still widely used in regions of the Middle East and Africa today.Frankincense comes from the tree of the same name.It is made by scraping the bark of specific native species of trees and then gathering the resin beads that have formed as a result of the drying process.A powerful and attractive scent is released when the herb is burnt as incense.Historically, the high expense of frankincense prevented it from being utilized as a popular household air freshener in the ancient Near East.Instead, the burning of frankincense was strongly tied with religious ceremonies in which a god was worshipped.

  1. So the gift of frankincense to Jesus may have suggested to the wise men that they believed the prophesy of the newborn king to be an assertion of divine authority.
  2. As with gold, it’s possible that frankincense had an implicit connection to Temple worship during the time of the Old Covenant.
  3. When God designed the sacrificial system for use in the Tabernacle and, subsequently, the Temple, one of its most important components was the burning of incense at the altar.

According to Exodus 30, however, not just any incense would suffice to fulfill the requirements of the law.The only incense authorized on the altar was a particular formula of spices blended with â€pure frankincense†(v.34), which was to be consecrated as â€pure and holy†(v.35) and consecrated as ″pure and holy.″ The life of Jesus can be compared to that of a pure and holy gift to the Lord, which is a hypothetical analogy that can be drawn.Myrrh was given as a gift to the Holy Family.Originally from the Near East, myrrh is a fragrant spice made from the sap of a tree that bears the same name.

As with frankincense, it may be used as an aromatic incense, but it was also widely employed in the ancient world as a perfume, anointing oil, and even as a medical tonic, according to certain sources.Myrrh was a vital element in the mixture of spices that was used to prepare bodies for burial during Jesus’ lifetime, and it was particularly significant in Jesus’ life (e.g., John 19:39-40).Perhaps the wise men intended this present to serve as a symbol of Jesus’ humanity and the method in which he would redeem his people, namely, by dying on the cross for them (cf.Isaiah 53:5).Myrrh, like the other two gifts, has a relationship to the Temple, just as the previous two gifts did.

  • According to Exodus 30, liquid myrrh was a key ingredient in the anointing oil that was used to ceremonially prepare the priests, the instruments, the altar, and the Temple itself before sacrifices could be offered.
  • Exodus 30 also mentions that liquid myrrh was used to anoint the priests, the instruments, the altar, and the Temple itself.
  • Similarities between the consecrated life of Jesus and his sacrificial death are instantly apparent once more.
  • All three talents have ramifications that are thought-provoking in relation to Jesus’ life and work.
  • Â What Did Mary and Joseph Do With All of the Gifts They Received?
  • The riches of the nations is described in Isaiah 60:6 as being brought to God’s people via Christ.

When Mary and Joseph received the gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, they saw a glimpse of what was to come.And in this particular instance, it is possible that the family’s riches was utilized to assist them in escaping to another country.In Matthew’s account, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph as soon as the wise men had left, warning him of Herod’s impending wrath (Matthew 2:13).Joseph was advised to seek shelter in Egypt, which required him to travel more than 100 kilometers.A journey of this size would be tough to pull off for a family with little financial resources.Despite the fact that we do not have any documentation to support this, it is possible to speculate that the rich gifts Mary and Joseph received from the wise men were used to fund the family’s departure to Egypt.

  • Now that we understand the significance of the presents delivered to Baby Jesus, let us consider the relevance of the people who provided the gifts.
  • Who Were the Wise Men, and Why Did They Exist?
  • Consider the following passage from the Bible, which describes these pilgrims and their journey to meet the predicted king: And when Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea during the reign of Herod the Great, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, asking, ″Where is he who has been born king of the Jews?″ We came to adore him because we saw his star when it first appeared in the sky.

” Herod the king, as well as everyone of Jerusalem, were alarmed upon hearing this, and he summoned all of the top priests and scribes of the people to ask them where the Christ would be born.They said that they did not know where the Christ would be born.″In Bethlehem of Judea, because thus it is written by the prophet: ″And you, O Bethlehem of Judah,″ he was informed, ″are by no means least among the rulers of Judah;″ he was told, ″for out of you shall come a king who will shepherd my people Israel.″ ’”   Then Herod called the three wise men in private and inquired of them as to what time the star had appeared on the horizon.

When they arrived in Bethlehem, he instructed them to seek hard for the kid and to inform him of his whereabouts so that he may be brought to worship him as well as they were able.â€After listening to the king’s speech, they continued their journey.It was then that they noticed a bright light rising above the horizon that followed them until it came to settle above the location where the youngster was.When they spotted the star, they were overjoyed and filled with a wonderful sense of accomplishment.In the midst of their adoration, they discovered the infant with Mary his mother, and they dropped on their knees and worshipped him.They then presented him with presents, including gold, frankincense, and myrrh, which they had opened from their riches.

  1. And after being warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they decided to take a different route back to their own country.
  2. Providing no indication of their origins, Matthew merely introduces us to the pilgrims with the words, â€behold, wise men from the east arrived to Jerusalem.†” But who were these folks in the first place?
  3. When we talk about wise men, we are talking about astronomers or astrologers who worked in royal courts all across the ancient Near Eastern continent.

They are also known as magi.Magi, for example, were considered as essential consultants in the Medo-Persian Empire because of their understanding of science, agriculture, and magic, all of which was in demand at the time.A little later, during the Babylonian Empire, Daniel came across a group of prominent wise men who had been summoned to interpret the kingâ€TMs dream.Daniel intervened and rescued them (Daniel 2:2,24).By the 1st Century AD, magi were more widely recognized as men who read holy literature and engaged in occult techniques, rather than as a specific group of people.

These men who â€practiced magic,†as evidenced by the story of Simon Magus in Acts 8, were contemporaries of Jesus and his disciples who lived in and around Palestine.Despite the fact that they were prevalent throughout the region, magi were most generally linked with the Parthian Empire, which was located east of Palestine (present-day Iran).If the wise men who came to see Jesus were from this region, it is probable that they were familiar with the Old Testament prophecy of the â€king of the Jews,†which would explain their acquaintance with Jesus as the â€king of the Jews.†(Matthew 2:2).Although Jewish culture had been mostly extinguished in the region during the Babylonian captivity, elements of it remained, and it is possible that the Hebrew Scriptures were among the sacred works examined by these great men in their search of enlightenment.

″All the Nations Will Come to You,″ says the Lord.A different perspective on the wise men and their gifts might be gained by looking at them through the prism of global missions.Israel was never supposed to be a halting point in the flow of grace; rather, God invited them to be a light for other peoples across the world.One of the most striking illustrations of this concept is found in Isaiah 60, which depicts a future period in which the nations will be drawn to the brilliance of Israel, as described in the verses ″nations shall come to your light, and kingdoms to the brightness of your rising″ (Isaiah 60:3).

Even though the nations would arrive, they would not arrive empty-handed: â€They shall bring gold and frankincense, and they shall bring good tidings, the praises of the Lord†(v.6).The three wise men represent a microcosm of the bigger truth that is to come: one day, people from every tribe, tongue, and nation will prostrate themselves before the throne of Jesus in devotion and praise of him (Revelation 7:9-10).Despite the fact that the Bible’s narrative of the wise men’s visit is pretty clear, it may be seen from a number of various perspectives, as follows: Possibly, their presents were supposed to be a kind of tribute to Jesus’ royal status, god status, and humanity status.Aside from that, they may have also had associations with the Temple and perhaps served as a metaphor to Jesus’ worldwide mission.

No matter whether you choose to put deeper theological significance into these presents or not, one thing is certain: these were major gifts designed to demonstrate great reverence to King Jesus.Obtainable from: crosswalk

Who were the three kings in the Christmas story?

  • Culture
  • People in the Bible

The wise men from the East, while only making a brief appearance in the narrative of Jesus’ birth, had a lasting effect on the Christian imagination.As part of our coverage of the history of the Bible and the hunt for sacred books, National Geographic investigates important biblical personalities in our ongoing series People in the Bible.Many Christmas songs make mention of the three kings, who go to Bethlehem in the company of a star to pay their respects to the newborn Jesus.In the Bible, they are not referred to as kings, nor is their number given; rather, they are referred to as ″wise men from the East.″ The art of magic was performed by knowledgeable astrologers in several courts in the east, including ancient Babylon and Persia.These astrologers were typically appointed as priestly counsellors at these courts.

See also:  When Was Jesus Resurrected Year?

As a result of this interpretation, the three magi have come to be known as kings.A brilliant star guided the magi from the east until it came to rest ″over the area where the child was,″ at which point they entered the home and ″began to see the infant with his mother,″ according to the Book of Matthew (Matthew 1:24).The magi bowed down to the newborn Jesus and ″presented him with presents of gold, frankincense, and myrrh,″ according to the Bible.A possible parallel is made by their contributions to Isaiah’s prophecy of countries paying tribute to Jerusalem, which states: ″A multitude of camels shall cover you.″ It is they who will bring gold and frankincense, and they will sing the praises of the Lord″ (Matthew 2:11, Isaiah 60:6).(Read on to find out the difference between Arabian Camels and Bactrian Camels.

  • ) King Herod had heard tales about the birth of a new ″king,″ and he was enraged enough to go in search of the child.
  • It is recorded in the Book of Matthew that on their route to Bethlehem, the magi stopped at King Herod’s palace, where he requested that they inform him as to where the newborn infant was, so that ″I may also go and do him honor.″ However, the magi were cautioned not to return to Herod in a dream, and as a result, they ″went for their own country via another path″ and were never seen or heard from again″ (Matthew 2:12).

Building a backstory

Later versions of the narrative named the magi by their given names as well as their respective countries of origin: Melchior was from Persia, Gaspar (also known as ″Caspar″ or ″Jaspar″) was from India, and Balthazar was originally from Arabia.Their gifts also had unique symbolic significance: gold reflected Jesus’ title as ″King of the Jews,″ frankincense represented the infant’s divinity and identification as the Son of God, and myrrh alluded to the infant’s death.In this article, you will learn what archaeology has to say about the historical Jesus.Popular portrayals of Christmas tend to shorten the nativity story, making it look as though the three kings arrive in Bethlehem on Christmas, although traditional celebrations place their arrival in Bethlehem 12 days after the holiday season begins.As the formal celebration of the advent of the Magi (also known as Three Kings Day), Epiphany (also known as Three Kings Day) is one of Christianity’s earliest festivals and is celebrated on January 6th.

Epiphany is celebrated on January 6 by Roman Catholics, while it is celebrated on January 19 by Orthodox Christian sects.

Myrrh – Wikipedia

It is a gum-resin that is produced from a variety of tiny, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora, which is derived from the Semitic language (see Etymology for more information).Over the course of history, myrrh resin has been utilized as a perfume, incense, and medicinal.For general enjoyment and as an analgesic, myrrh blended with posca or wine was widespread in ancient societies throughout the ancient world.

Extraction and production

When a wound on a tree penetrates through the bark and into the sapwood, the tree secretes a resin that helps to seal the wound.Myrrh gum, like frankincense, is a resin of this kind.A process known as myrrh extraction involves repeatedly injuring trees in order to bleed the gum, which is waxy and coagulates fast.After harvesting, the gum hardens and becomes shiny in appearance.The gum is yellowish in color and can be either transparent or opaque in appearance.

As it matures, it darkens significantly and white streaks begin to appear.Myrrh gum is obtained from the species Commiphora myrrha, and it is widely used in traditional medicine.Another widely used term, Commiphora molmol, is now believed to be a synonym for Commiphora myrrha due to its similarity to the latter.Commiphora myrrha is found in Somalia, Oman, Yemen, Eritrea, Ethiopia (Somali Region), and portions of Saudi Arabia, where it is considered a noxious weed.It is known as Meetiga in the trade, and it is a kind of Arabian Myrrh that is more brittle and sticky than its Somali counterpart, and it lacks the white patterns of the latter.

  • The oleo gum resins of a number of different Commiphora species are also employed in the production of fragrances, pharmaceuticals (such as aromatic wound dressings), and incense materials, among other things.
  • Bdellium (which includes guggul and African bdellium), balsam (also known as balm of Gilead or Mecca balsam), and opopanax are the names given to these myrrh-like resins (bisabol).
  • The fragrant ″myrrh beads″ are manufactured from the crushed seeds of Detarium microcarpum, a West African species that is not related to the myrrh tree.
  • Traditionally, these beads are worn around the hips by married women in Mali, where they are arranged in many strands.
  • The plant Myrrhis odorata, often known as ″cicely″ or ″sweet cicely,″ is sometimes referred to as ″myrrh″ in some circles.
  • Myrrh liquid, or stacte, was a component in Jewish holy incense that was formerly highly prized but is virtually impossible to get in today’s markets.
  • Pliny wrote about it, and it was once widely available.

Etymology

The term myrrh is derived from a common Semitic root m-r-r, which means ″bitter,″ as in the Arabic word murr and the Aramaic word mureera, respectively.Originally from the Hebrew Bible, where it is known as mor, and later as a Semitic loanword, it appeared in the Greek myth of Myrrha and later in the Septuagint; in the Ancient Greek language, the related word v (moron) became a general term for perfume; in the English language, it is known as moron.

Attributed medicinal properties

Medicine

The contents of an ancient bottle of Tincture of Myrrh Myrrh is used as an antiseptic in mouthwashes, gargles, and toothpastes, according to the science of pharmacy.It is also found in several liniments and healing salves, which can be used to treat abrasions and other minor skin diseases when applied topically.Myrrh has traditionally been used as an analgesic for toothaches, and it may also be used topically to bruises, pains, and sprains as a liniment.

Myrrh is a frequent component in dental pastes and toothpastes.Borax in tincture can be used as a mouthwash, however long-term exposure to borax can be detrimental to internal organs, thus it is not recommended.In veterinary treatment, myrrh is used to make a compound tincture, sometimes known as horse tincture, that is used to cure wounds.Myrrh gum is widely believed to be effective in the treatment of indigestion, ulcers, colds, cough, asthma, lung congestion, arthritic pain, and cancer, among other ailments.

Traditional Chinese medicine

Myrrh is characterized as bitter and spicy in traditional Chinese medicine, and it has a neutral temperature in the body.It is supposed to have particular efficacy on the meridians of the heart, liver, and spleen, as well as ″blood-moving″ properties that help to clear stagnant blood from the uterus.The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, arthritic arthritis, circulation difficulties, foramenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menopause, and uterine tumors are all advised.

There are many similarities between the uses of myrrh and those of frankincense, and the two are frequently mixed as decoctions, liniments, and incenses.Combined with frankincense, myrrh has ″blood-moving″ properties, while frankincense is said to move the qi, making it effective for arthritic diseases.It is blended with herbs such as notoginseng, safflower petals, angelica sinensis, cinnamon, and salvia miltiorrhiza, and is used both internally and externally.It is often infused in alcohol and used both internally and physically.

Ayurvedic medicine

Myrrh is utilized in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine, both of which attribute tonic and rejuvenating effects to the resin’s constituent compounds.It (daindhava) is a component of various Ayurvedic rasayana formulae that have been specifically prepared.Non-rasayana myrrh, on the other hand, is contraindicated in the presence of renal failure or stomach discomfort, as well as in the presence of pregnancy or severe uterine bleeding in women.

In Ayurvedic medicine, a similar species known as guggul is believed to be one of the most effective medicines for the treatment of circulatory difficulties, nervous system abnormalities, and rheumatic ailments.

Religious ritual

In Ancient Egypt and Punt (Horn of Africa)

A record of the oldest reported journey to Punt, modern-day Horn of Africa, mainly Somalia, was kept by King Sahure of Egypt during the 5th dynasty period.The mission brought back significant amounts of myrrh, frankincense, malachite, and electrum from the region of Punt.Wild animals, including cheetahs, the secretary bird (Sagittarius serpentarius), giraffes, and Hamadryas baboons (all of which were considered sacred by the Ancient Egyptians), ebony, ivory, and animal skins were among the other things that were brought back.

In a relief from his funerary temple, which depicts him tending a myrrh tree in the garden of his palace and is titled ″Sahure’s glory leaps up to heaven,″ Sahure is seen celebrating the success of this effort.This relief is the only one in Egyptian art that depicts a monarch gardening, according to the author.Mummies were embalmed with myrrh and natron in the ancient Egyptian tradition, and myrrh was considered a sacred substance.

In the Hebrew Bible

Myrrh essential oil is a fragrant oil produced from the plant (Commiphora myrrha) Is myrrh a rare scent?The Hebrew Bible mentions myrrh as a precious perfume in various places.Jacob’s sons sold Joseph to a group of traders who had ″camels.

laden with spices, balm, and myrrh,″ according to Genesis 37:25, and Exodus 30:23–25 stipulates that 500 shekels of liquid myrrh was to be used as a primary element in the sacred anointing oil.In the Hebrew Bible and the Talmud, myrrh was a component of Ketoret, which was used in the First and Second Temples of Jerusalem to sanctify incense at the time of the Temple’s construction.An offering of the Ketoret was made on an unique incense altar, and it was a significant part of the temple’s overall worship rituals.Also included in the holy anointing oil is myrrh, which is used to anoint the tabernacle, the high priests, and the rulers of the people.

  1. Oil of myrrh is mentioned in Esther 2:12 as part of a purification ritual for the new queen to King Ahasuerus: Now when every maid’s turn came to go in to king Ahasuerus, after that she had been twelve months, according to the manner of the women, she took the oil of myrrh and poured it on her head and put it on her head (for so were the days of their purifications accomplished, to wit, six months with oil of myrrh, and six months with sweet odours, and with other things for the purifying of the women).

In ancient Nabataea

As early as the first century BC, Diodorus Siculus wrote of myrrh commerce that took place overland and by water, through Nabatean caravans and sea ports, which conveyed it from Southern Arabia to their capital city of Petra, from where it spread across the Mediterranean region.

In the New Testament

Myrrh is referenced in the New Testament as one of the three gifts (together with gold and frankincense) that the magi ″from the East″ delivered to the Christ Child on the occasion of his baptism (Matthew 2:11).Myrrh was also present at Jesus’ death and burial, according to tradition.At the time of Jesus’ crucifixion, he was served wine and myrrh (Mark 15:23).

According to the Gospel of John, Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea brought a 100-pound combination of myrrh and aloes to be used to wrap Jesus’ body in a linen cloth (John 19:39).In the Gospel of Matthew, it is stated that as Jesus was being led to the cross, he was given vinegar to drink mixed with gall, which he refused to drink after tasting it (Matthew 27:34); in the Gospel of Mark, the drink is described as wine mixed with myrrh, which he also refused to drink (Mark 14:22).(Mark 15:23).

In contemporary Christianity

The usage of myrrh incense during various Christian liturgical festivals has arisen from the fact that it is mentioned in the New Testament (see Thurible).In the process of creating icons, liquid myrrh is occasionally mixed into the egg tempera.It is blended with frankincense and other smells and is utilized in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, traditional Roman Catholic, and Anglican/Episcopal churches, as well as in other religious traditions.

Aside from that, myrrh is used to create sacramental chrism, which is utilized by many churches of both the Eastern and Western rites.The Eastern Orthodox Church has historically used myrrh-scented oil (along with other perfumes) to perform the sacrament of chrismation in the Middle East, which is referred to as ″getting the Chrism″ in English.

In Islam

As reported by Abu Nuaim on the authority of Abban bin Saleh bin Anas, Muhammad remarked, ″Fumigate your dwellings with mugwort, myrrh, and thyme,″ according to a hadith that has been passed down through generations.(Kanz-ul-Ummal).Similarly, according to the Encyclopedia of Islamic Herbal Medicine, ″The Messenger of Allah instructed people to fragrance their homes with al-shih, murr, and sa’tar.″ According to the author, this particular use of the term ″murr″ is intended to relate particularly to the plant Commiphora myrrha.

The other two are Al-Shih (which may be mugwort) and Sa’tar (also known as Za’atar – thyme), respectively.

Ancient myrrh

Pedanius Dioscorides defined the myrrh of the first century AD as most likely referring to a ″species of mimosa,″ characterizing it as ″like the Egyptian thorn.″ He also described the myrrh of the second century AD as ″like the Egyptian thorn.″ Its look and leaf structure are described as ″spinnate-winged″ by the author.

See also

  • Pliny the Elder’s Naturalis Historia, the Bdellium, Frankincense, Myroblyte Saint, and the Chrism are all mentioned.

References

  1. Amber: Golden Gem of the Ages, Author House, Bloomington, 2006, p.321
  2. Rice, Patty C., Amber: Golden Gem of the Ages, Author House, Bloomington, 2006, p.321
  3. Pliny the Elder, ″Wines Drunk by the Ancient Romans,″ The Natural History, book 14, chapter 15, trans. John Bostock and Henry Thomas Riley. Pliny the Elder, ″Wines Drunk by the Ancient Romans,″ The Natural History, book 14, chapter 15. 253 pages, London: H.G. Bohn, 1855. Books may be found on the Google Books website at: books.google.com/books?id=A0EMAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA253.
  4. 2nd edition, Vol 3, London, 1773, p.55
  5. Caspar Neumann, William Lewis, The chemical works of Caspar Neumann MD, 2nd edition, Vol 3, London, 1773, p.55
  6. The chemical works of Caspar Neumann MD, 2nd edition, London, 1773
  7. Chambers’s encyclopaedia, Volume 9, 1959
  8. Newnes, G., ed., Chambers’s encyclopaedia, Volume 9, 1959
  9. Published on the Internet: Accessed on February 24, 2014.
  10. The Plant List, Version 1.1, published in 2013. Trans. by John Bostock and Henry Thomas Riley from Pliny the Elder’s original Latin (1855) Pliny’s Natural History is a collection of writings about the natural world. Vol. 3, Book 12, Chapters 33–35, pp. 129–132, published by Henry G. Bohn in London, England, United Kingdom. According to Ch. 35, p. 130, ″Thetree spontaneously exudes, before the incision is made, a li

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