What Do Sikhs Believe About Jesus?

Do Sikhs Believe In Karma?

Do Sikhs Believe in the Power of Karma? Here’s all you need to know about the subject:

Do Sikhs Believe In Karma?

Sikhs Have Belief In Karma, But Do They Believe In Reincarnation? You can find out all you need to know by reading this:

More Related Questions:

What Are 3 Things Sikhs Believe?

There are three beliefs that form the foundation of the Sikh religion: meditation and devotion to the Creator; truthful life; and service to mankind.

Do Sikhs Believe In Jesus?

Because Sikhism teaches that God is neither born nor dead, Sikhs do not believe that Jesus is the Son of God, according to the religion. Because Jesus was born and lived a human life, he is unable to claim the role of God in his own right. While some religious groups consider it to be banned and idolatrous, Sikhs, on the other hand, appreciate all religions.

Do Sikhs Drink Alcohol?

Although alcohol drinking is frequently connected with Punjabi culture, it is strictly prohibited in Sikhism. Sikhs who have been baptized are not permitted to drink, however some Sikhs who have not been baptized do. Although just a tiny proportion of Punjabi Sikh women are impacted, the great majority of those who do use alcoholic beverages do not have any issues.

Can Sikh Remove Pubic Hair?

Sikhs. Anyone who practices the Sikh religion is not permitted to shave or trim their body hair. They always have a blade with them in case someone attempts to coerce them into doing something that is against their religious beliefs.

Can A Sikh Marry A Non Sikh?

The judgement in the Sikh city of Amritsar has led to several gurdwaras no longer allowing Sikhs to marry non-Sikhs on their grounds. Because a non-Sikh does not view the Guru Granth Sahib as a Guru, he or she will be unable to offer the appropriate level of reverence to the Guru Granth Sahib, who will preside over the wedding ceremony.

Are Zodiacs Banned In Sikhism?

In terms of worth, all persons should be regarded on an equal footing. You shouldn’t place your trust in lucky dates, horoscopes, or astrological predictions. Take care not to become involved in criminal activities or associate with dishonest individuals.

What Is The Holy Book In Sikhism?

It is known as Adi Granth (Punjabi: ″First Book″), and it is often referred to as Granth or Granth Sahib, and it is the sacred text of Sikhism, an Indian religion. Over 6,000 hymns composed by Sikh Gurus (religious leaders) and other early and medieval saints from a diverse range of religious and ethnic backgrounds may be found in this collection.

Does Buddhist Believe In Karma?

Buddhists make an effort to create good karma while avoiding negative karma as much as possible.The objective of Buddhism, on the other hand, is to completely break away from the cycle of reincarnation, rather than simply accumulating good karma and being reborn into a more happy condition.Despite the fact that these states are better to human existence, they are fleeting: even gods perish.

What Does Mukti Mean In Sikhism?

″Mukti″ (liberation) is a Sanskrit term that literally translates as ″release.″ Many Sikhs believe that being reunited with Waheguru is their ultimate aim, and this is their greatest aspiration.An individual must rid themselves of all negative karma and concentrate on accumulating positive karma in order to reach mukti (liberation).Mukti is ineffable, which means it cannot be described in words.

Can Sikhs Eat Meat?

Freedom is the Sanskrit term for’mukti,’ which translates as ″freedom.″ Many Sikhs believe that being reunited with Waheguru is their ultimate aim, and this is their greatest aspiration and ambition.In order to reach mukti, a Sikh must rid themselves of all negative karma and concentrate on accumulating positive karma.In other words, Mukti is ineffable, which means that it cannot be defined or explained.

What Are The 5 Key Sikh Beliefs?

The Sikhs’ religious beliefs.God, community, and living in God are all important concepts.Sikhs conduct their lives with their focus on their relationship with God and their sense of belonging to the Sikh community at the forefront of their thoughts…..The relationship between God and the cycle of life….The God of grace….

How to get closer to God….God inside ourselves….God beyond ourselves

What Are The 3 Golden Rules Of Sikhism?

Everyone has a Divine origin, and by living a life guided by three moral precepts, they can achieve union with their Divine source. Sikhs adhere to the Three Golden Rules, which include remembering God at all times, making an honest life, and distributing their wealth to everyone via charitable contributions.

Can Anyone Become A Sikh?

Anyone can become a member of the Sikh faith. No matter where you reside, if you choose to walk this road, Waheguru will certainly bless you and guide you in the proper route. Educating oneself about Sikhism is a vital step in becoming more knowledgeable about the religion.

Fast Facts on Sikhism

Origins of Sikhism

Joining the Sikh faith is open to everyone. If you choose to pursue this road, Waheguru will certainly bless you and guide you in the correct route, regardless of where you reside. Being well-versed in the subject of Sikhism is a key step in understanding it better.

Sikhism Beliefs

The Sikh religious system can be summarized in the words of Guru Nanak’s first song, which states: ″There is only one God.Truth is what he is known for.He is the one who created everything.He is very fearless.He is completely devoid of hatred.He is both timeless and devoid of form.

He is the Enlightened One, who has transcended death.He can be identified via the grace of the Guru.″ God, despite the fact that he is unknowable, instructs those who would follow.They think that God may be seen in the natural world.

Followers are judged on their level of devotion to God, which is fostered via hymn singing and meditation, as well as their level of service to their communities.Sikhs believe that all individuals are equal and reject the concepts of caste and discrimination.

Sikhism Holy Books

In the Guru Granth Sahib, a compilation of hymns revealing God’s essence and emphasizing the necessity of meditation, the importance of meditation is emphasized.

Who Jesus Is to Sikhs

A major reason why Sikhs do not think Jesus is God is that their belief system says that God is neither born nor can die. They usually believe Jesus’ claim to be a prophet of God.

Followers of Sikhism

It is estimated that between 23.8 million and 27 million people would be affected.

Sikhism Teachings on Salvation

When Sikhs completely forsake all connection to earthly things, they believe they have achieved union with God and have put a stop to the cycle of misery and death that is perpetuated via reincarnation.

The Sikh Path to Accept Jesus Christ as Savior

Our Creator God

We are blessed with a wonderful Creator God.He is the only one, He is everlasting, He loves us, and He longs for a personal relationship with everyone of us.That is why He came to earth in the form of a man — God manifested in flesh – in the person of Jesus.He is the outward representation of the unseen God, and he is the firstborn of all creation.For it was He who created everything, including the things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; everything was made by Him and for His glory and benefit.(See Colossians 1:15-16 for further information.) There was a time when there was just the Word, and the Word was with God and the Word was God.

He was there with God at the beginning of time.All things were created through Him, and nothing that has been created was created without Him.There was life in Him, and that life was the light that shone on all people.

…The Word took on the form of a man and established His home among us.It has been our privilege to see His majesty, the majesty of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of mercy and truth (John 1:1-4;14).

Our Just God

The problem is that our sins keep us from being united with God.You have personally felt the consequences of your misdeeds.God is not unaware of their existence.He is omniscient and all-knowing.Even if you strive your hardest for all eternity, he knows you will be unable to save yourself because your efforts will be contaminated by your sin.For it is by grace that we are saved, through faith – and this is not your own doing; it is a gift from God – and not by our own efforts, so that no one can take credit for it.

The Bible says (Ephesians 2:8-9) Death exists in the same way that sin does.The ability to make decisions exists.And we only have one life to make things straight with God before we are subjected to that final judgment.

Our Savior God

  • God is just, but He is also kind and compassionate. While you’ve been attempting to locate Him, He has been attempting to locate you. He longs for you to be joined with Him via faith in Christ. Only by accepting Christ as your Savior can you discover everlasting life – as well as serenity and meaning in this life. And here is the evidence: God has provided us with eternal life, and this life is found in His Son, Jesus Christ. A person who believes in the Son of God has life
  • a person who does not believe in the Son of God does not have life. (12:11-12) 1 John 5:11-12 I am the only way, the only truth, and the only life. No one else can bring you to the Father but through Me. (See also John 14:6). God is present, and He is reaching out to you to come to Him. He is deserving of your adoration. Are you ready to hand over your heart to Him and let Him lead you? The following two tabs alter the content of the section below. Bio
  • Most Recent Posts

A Christ follower and freelance writer, Cheri Henderson has a heart for assisting other Christians in living the full and rich, triumphant, joy-filled lives that God wants for them to have.The product of a shattered and dysfunctional family, Cheri lost her mother and sister to suicide six months and one day apart about 30 years ago, six months and one day after each other.As she emerged from her experiences as a wife and mother, she turned to the Bible and the Holy Spirit for guidance, and she became determined to escape the bonds of sin and addiction that had been woven throughout her family tree.A passionate evangelist, discipler, and teacher, Cheri has served on short-term missions in both the United States and other countries across the world.She expresses her love for living sold-out, surrendered lives in Christ through her blog, which she started in 2009.A favorite verse of Cheri’s is Hebrews 7:25, which states, ″Therefore, He is able to save to the uttermost those who draw near to God through Him, because He always lives to make intercession for them.″ ″Consequently, He is able to save to the uttermost those who draw near to God through Him,″ Cheri says.

Cheri’s spare time is spent as a singer, crafter, grandma, workout fanatic, and serious home cook, all of which keep her in continual motion.

I’m a Sikh, and This Is What I Believe

To tell me that Jesus is not the only path to God is insulting, and I will take offense if you do so.There were a plethora of gurus that preached the same things that Jesus did.Following any of their examples will allow you to be every bit as good a person as Jesus expects you to be.That’s what I used to think, and it’s likely what the half-million Sikhs living in the United States believe now as well.However, when I became overwhelmed by my immorality, the confidence I had in my gurus’ teachings began to crumble.If the Holy Spirit had gotten my attention when I learned that the cause for Jesus’ death and resurrection had anything to do with the sin I couldn’t shake or heal by being a devout, pious person, I would have paid attention.

My choice to join Jesus did not occur as a result of a gospel presentation tailored to the way Sikhs are most likely to hear the gospel.However, now that I have been a Christian for over twenty years, I want my Sikh friends and family to come to know Christ as well.It is important to remember a few things if you have Sikhs in your community or will come into contact with them while on a mission trip.

Sikh Belief and Practice

When Sikhism initially formed in India, its first guru was dissatisfied with the alternatives of Islam and Hinduism available to him. He and future gurus worked together to create a delicate combination of the two. This is a synopsis of the most important aspects of their religious beliefs.


Believe in a single God who is all-good, all-knowing, and who epitomizes truth, Sikhs (pronounced sicks) are a religious sect. He is the creator and sustainer of all things, and he is everlasting.


Ten gurus have disclosed what they know about God, humans, and salvation to the world. Sikh holy book, Granth Sahib, is the tenth and last guru, and he is the tenth and final guru of the Sikh faith. Sikhs believe that, despite the fact that these gurus were not manifestations of God, they were sinless.


A copy of the Granth Sahib may be found in every gurdwara, or Sikh house of worship. Thousands of Sikhs flock to the gurdwara every day to worship their guru, fellowship with one another, as well as to give meals and accommodation to anybody who comes to visit, Sikh or not.


  • To establish a relationship with God and put a stop to the cycle of reincarnation, three elements must be present. A devoted meditation on the name of God since the name of God signifies greatness, holiness, and all else that we strive for in life. This procedure acts as a sanctification process, in which Sikhs match their thoughts with those of the Almighty.
  • Volunteering in service to the last guru (the sacred book) and the Sikh community
  • Although God has the authority to distribute grace as he sees fit, it is thought that enough grace may be gained by prayer and work.

Concepts or Practices Sikhs Don’t Acknowledge

Because Sikhism originated in the region of Hinduism, it is frequently misunderstood as a variant of that religion. This is what distinguishes Sikhism from other major religions such as Hinduism and Islam.

Multiple Gods

Sikhs would strongly disagree with the assertion that their faith is polytheistic. They believe in a single God, despite their idea that their gurus were blameless, but they do not think that they are God himself. (In an ironic twist, the Sikh in the photograph above is displaying photographs of respected Sikh and Hindu icons on his wall.)

See also:  How Many Times Did Jesus Predict His Death

One Way

Despite the fact that the vast majority of Sikhs adhere to just their ten gurus, they would never tell someone of another faith that their views are incorrect. Sikhs are not necessarily committed to the exclusivity of any particular religion.


Sikhs do not think it is their responsibility to evangelize those who are not Sikhs. They think that their divine mission is to help the poor, to serve their community, and to practice meditation.


Since the Sikhs do not think that God can be represented by forms or pictures, any sort of idol worship is forbidden to them.

Five Symbols Important to Sikhs

The religion and culture of the Sikhs are intricately linked.Despite the fact that the five things they have chosen may have religious connotations, such artifacts are often seen as symbols of Sikh heritage and ideals, regardless of their religious connotations.Uncut hair represents spirituality and distinguishes them from the rest of society.This is the primary reason why Sikh men wear turbans; their hair can be several feet in length at times.The majority of Sikh males carry a tiny dagger as a symbol of their responsibility to protect society against injustice.They are bigger and less disguised than the daggers that Sikhs ordinarily carry since they are being used for a particular occasion, as shown in the photo above.

Sikhs wear a steel bangle around their wrists, which represents their oneness with God.It also acts as a gentle reminder to pause before taking action.A comb is carried by both men and women as a sign of the importance of hygiene and discipline in one’s life.

In order to represent self-control and virginity, Sikh men wear short trousers or undergarments below their clothing.

What to Keep in Mind When You Share with Sikhs

Have Integrity

Sikhs are known for being extremely courteous and considerate of others’ relationships. If people get the impression that you are looking for a friendship only for the purpose of spreading the gospel, they will feel deceived and will remove themselves from you. Apologetics are ineffective because it makes Sikhs feel as though you are assaulting their way of life, which is false.

Leave Cultural Symbols Alone

It is not appropriate to utilize specifics about their religious or cultural beliefs as a jumping off point for a gospel presentation. Things people are proud of (their uncut hair, their knife, their book, etc.) would become objects of shame if they did so.

Focus on Grace

Sikhs have a strong connection to the notion of grace, despite the fact that their understanding of grace differs from ours significantly. Consider how God’s grace has influenced your encounters with Christ, and then share your testimony from that viewpoint with others.

Let the Holy Spirit Convict

People tell Sikhs in my neighborhood that if they embrace Jesus as their Lord and Savior, they must abandon all of their gods and stop attending gurdwaras, according to local Christians.Whenever you share with them, please avoid making this a point of focus in your communication.Hold off until the appropriate moment comes, explain pertinent Scripture to them, and allow them to decide whether or not to remove images of their gurus from their homes or quit their places of worship.Allow the Holy Spirit to work in you, and allow the Bible to speak on its own.The fact that they are being regenerated in their faith will enable them to make some significant decisions in the name of Jesus.B.

Singh is the pastor of a Baptist church in South Asia, where he also serves as the director of a church-planting network among Punjabis.In addition to his family and ministry, he works as a professional translator and dubbing in Hindi and Punjabi for a living.

Sikhism to Seeking Jesus

Shelley Singh’s own account of what happened.Despite the fact that I believe social media has problems (such as limiting genuine ″face-time″ and disseminating incorrect information), I believe it has many positive aspects.Some of those are meeting genuine Christians who are devoted to Christ.Shelley Singh, a woman who has been following my Think Divinely blog, is one of the people I’ve met so far.Shelley’s tale is remarkable in that she came from a background of Sikhism and then converted to Christianity.I was interested in her narrative since I am a Christian Apologist (a theology that incorporates studies of worldview differences), and I wanted to know more about her.

She was generous enough to share it with us!Shell’s tale is as follows:

Tell us a bit about your background.

I grew up in the suburbs of Toronto, Canada, where I was born and reared.I was raised in a traditional Sikh home, where I was exposed to a variety of customs and religious practices.My religious beliefs escalated out of control into strict religious extremism.I was certain that Sikhs should have their own nation, and I did not have a positive attitude of Indian politics.It was a short period of time before everything changed.We ended up relocating to India, which was precisely the location I despised!

I spent a few years living in North India, where I was exposed to the culture of the region.(With the exception of my admiration for some Punjabi folk performers, I had no religious knowledge or connection to Indian or Punjabi culture.) I had the impression that the fanatics who followed Sikhism knew what it meant to fully follow Sikhism, in contrast to the majority of Sikhs.″I felt it was my responsibility to assist them in their spiritual journey toward ″real enlightenment,″ as they put it.

Despite my involvement in these activities, I was aware of an inner struggle that began at a young age.I continued to seek consolation via religious practices, music, and culture as I embarked on a search for my own identity once we were forced to return to Canada.

What do Sikhs believe?

Sikhism is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab area of India and Pakistan roughly 500 years ago.It places a strong emphasis on doing good deeds in order to be freed from the cycle of rebirth.Sikh literature and inspirations draw from Hinduism, Islam, and the milder tones of Judeo-Christianity, among other religions.In comparison to orthodox Islam, Sufi Islam has a higher effect on Sikhism, and it is crucial to emphasize this contrast because Sikhs are frequently mistaken for Muslims all over the world.Because Sikhism condones the caste structure as well as the atrocities found in Hinduism and Islam, it serves the aim of demonstrating the correct way to enlightenment.However, because the caste system, honor murders, patriarchal structures, and conceptions of sin continue to pervade Sikh society and the fabric of Punjabi culture, Sikhism has been unable to attain this goal.

The concept of salvation differs between Sikhism and Christianity.When it comes to religion, Sikhism emphasizes liberation from the bonds of reincarnation with the sole goal of becoming one with God, whereas Christianity emphasizes the preservation of one’s individuality; in other words, being a Christian means you remain who you are forever…but with a better quality of life!

Christianity, on the other hand, believes that salvation is only available through the redemption of sin through trust in the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.This is all because of God’s grace.When it comes to understanding grace, it might be difficult for a Sikh to comprehend.Grace, in my opinion, is a gift given freely by a loving God to those who are deserving of it.Sikhs believe that the Sikh scriptures, which include principally the holy book known as Guru Granth Sahib, are the final authority and collection of teachings by the ten Sikh gurus or instructors, and that they are the ultimate authority and compilation of teachings.

Personally, it took me several years to have a revelation of grace that genuinely mirrored the heart and character of God, both because of this and because of my own background.Christianity provided me with the chance to engage in a relational and community discussion for the first time, resulting in the beginning of a healing process in my spirit and life.

How did you become a Christian?

My life was flipped upside down when my parents informed me that they would be relocating me from Canada to India to pursue my education and expose me to a culture to which I was not used at the age of thirteen.It was during my stay in India that I began to have doubts about God and resentment against my parents for pushing me to leave the one place where I felt at ease.I returned to Canada when I was 18 years old, following years of various psychological upheaval, which included an identity problem.As a result of my experience in India, I had developed a collectivist mentality that drove me to re-integrate myself into Canadian culture while yet experiencing feelings of displacement.Later, I attended a university that was just a few hours distant from my home.I was continually under the impression that I did not belong or fit in anywhere.

Over the course of her time in Canada, my mother came into contact with a Sikh woman who had been healed of cancer in Toronto, and this woman shared the gospel with her.She miraculously embraced Christ in a short period of time!The opposite was true for me; I was reluctant and felt challenged by the situation.

For me, being liberal meant that I had to find my identity in a South Asian Diaspora (a religion), which meant that I had to let go of the fundamentalist components of my Sikh faith, which had earlier constituted the basis of my identity.Several years ago, an old friend sent me a book on Jesus, and it was this book that caused my first dream.Over time, I began to have more dreams and visions, which I couldn’t deny any more.I gradually came to believe that Christ is the one and only real God, as well as my personal Savior.I had no idea how to apply Christian ideas to my daily life at the time, and I was still struggling to reconcile my newfound religion with my cultural and familial upbringing.

What went wrong?

When I was younger, I wished to be married as soon as possible, and I already had a Hindu partner whom I desired to marry.Even though God had sent me a few cautions to avoid becoming ″unequally yoked″ (2 Cor.6:14), I didn’t comprehend the principles underlying them, and as a result, I disobeyed God.Because of societal pressure that was pervasive in the honor and shame paradigms of my religious heritage, I married my partner against my better judgment.The marriage was over in a few of months and was never re-established.This disobedient choice resulted in a great deal of suffering, including divorce, shame, debt, and so on.

I was really taken aback as I began to comprehend the spiritual realm.I saw visions of radical jihadists launching an attack on the United States and Christianity.I fell into a profound despair, and it required all of my energy just to get out of bed and go to work.

I had thought that Jesus would be the one to save my marriage, but this was only the beginning of the problems that were to follow.

The Persecution

Because of my divorce, I was subjected to public humiliation by my family.Persecutory treatment at work and from my pals all took their toll on my mental health.My weight had increased by 35 pounds within two years, and I was showing indicators of severe inflammation in all of my organ systems.After a while, I began to notice various growths on my body, which Jesus subsequently removed (in 2015).The Bible and the Holy Spirit were the only things that brought me comfort and tranquility.I didn’t listen to secular music or watch secular television or movies because I was really sensitive to those things at this period of my life, and I didn’t want to expose myself to them.

It was necessary for me to alter my way of thinking.As a result, I began reading and understanding the Song of Solomon, and I began to lay the groundwork for a Christian identity that would eventually cure me.This is how I first came to comprehend the notion of grace: through experiencing it.

Persevering by Grace

After experiencing a flurry of traumatic occurrences, I recognized that I needed to seek the Lord’s plan for my life.As a result, I began reading scripture after a period of reflection.I began to learn how to hear from the Holy Spirit as years of emptiness, melancholy, and suicidal impulses began to be replaced by resting in God’s presence, as well as fresh revelations—I began to learn how to hear from God.I discovered that the road to healing and wholeness was not insurmountable, but rather a trip that the Lord was dedicated to accompanying me on as I traveled.Although I was glad for His gentle presence, I was also mindful of the unexpected curve balls that appeared to be thrown my way in several aspects of my life.

  • As I opened myself up to the many aspects of the Father’s personality, I felt more at ease with the triune essence of God.
  • I am grateful that I was able to get consolation from the Holy Spirit, as well as guidance on how to become more adept at following the Spirit’s leading rather than following my natural wants.
  • I will be eternally thankful to God for the gift of intimacy, which has allowed me to experience the fullness of God’s grace in my life.
  • This was the path that lead me to ultimate freedom.
  • I was pushed to think and behave as a child of God, and as a result, I discovered that I had a new identity that gave my life a better sense of meaning and wholeness.

Evangelizing to Sikhs

As a former Sikh, I understand what it takes to win people over to Christ.Among many other features of Christianity, the notion of the Trinity is one that the Sikhs can not comprehend.As a result, it is critical that Christians who engage in discussion with Sikhs do so in the spirit of love and grace that is characteristic of the genuine, triune God.Respect Sikhs and attempt to realize that cultural differences play a vital part in the development of interpersonal connections while communicating with them.For example, there are components of Sikhism that are beneficial, such as serving mankind and advocating for the justice of all people, regardless of their religious affiliation.

  • Sikh religion and culture are frequently linked, and the most effective method to communicate is to answer questions while destroying prejudices about Christianity that may be firmly ingrained in the minds of some.
  • It was necessary for me to go through a process of unlearning and then relearning several things during my spiritual journey.
  • As I embark on my religious walk, it is my goal and prayer that you embrace Sikhs with the genuine love of God, just as Jesus hugged me with the tenderness of the Father’s whisper to begin my journey of faith.
  • a little about the author: Shelley Singh is a follower of Christ who has found that Love is the very core of God’s existence.
  • Her educational background includes a Bachelor of Science in Health Sciences from Canada and a Clinical Doctorate in Audiology from the United States.
  • She likes spreading the good news of God’s love and grace, and she is a serious student of the Scriptures.
See also:  What Does It Mean To Remain In Jesus?

Her research and teaching interests include international missions, world religions, prophetic intercession, and teaching methods and techniques.She is proficient in Punjabi, as well as Hindi and Urdu, and she also speaks English.She may be found on social media at @ShelleySinghAuD, where she can be followed.

BBC – Religions – Sikhism: Jesus through Sikh eyes

Jesus as Seen Through Sikh Eyes Early recollections of Jesus Christ are imprinted in my mind’s eye because of his physical attractiveness.His blond hair and blue eyes stood out in stark contrast to the rest of the folks I had met in India.The morning assembly at my Catholic high school consisted of the recitation of ″Our Father,″ and we were required to take classes in Moral Science.However, coming into the Convent where we sung psalms and collected lovely icons of Christ and Our Lady Of Fatima, after whom my school was named, was the most memorable experience for me.The situation was different at home, as you could expect.

  • It was a Sikh family in which the Guru Granth was the focal point of daily life.
  • The sacred book is revered as the divine revelation, and it is treated with the highest reverence and respect.
  • We used to assist our parents dress the Book in silks and brocades when we were kids.
  • It was placed on a pedestal in front of us, as we sat on the ground.
  • This powerful poem, which was inspired by the raga system of old India, was delivered by us.
  • At home, we were told about the lives of the Ten Sikh Gurus, who did not resemble Jesus Christ in appearance.

But life was not schizophrenic, for the two worlds, with their various languages, histories, imagery, and ways of worship coexisted together in a colorful interplay of contrasts.Together, they constituted an integral component of my psychological makeup.The ″question″ of my identification was never raised since I was well aware of my Sikh heritage, just as I was well aware of my own name.Nonetheless, it did not deter me from engaging enthusiastically in the holy realm provided by my Catholic professors, which was both strange and intriguing in its own right.

I can still recall the zeal with which I used to sing ″The Lord is my shepherd, I will not be afraid″ – despite the fact that I have no musical ability whatsoever!However, when I arrived in America to finish high school, I saw that Christ had permeated the fiber of western culture and that my own heritage had become incredibly remote.My self-consciousness increased as the only ″brown″ student in an all-white girls’ school where I was the sole ″brown.″ I remember finishing Walt Whitman’s Passage to India and setting off on my trek back home.This American poet, who saw himself in the position of Christ, inspired me to learn more about my Sikh ancestors and culture.

Contrary to popular belief, the more I was raised in a Christian context, the more I became conscious of my Sikh identity, with the result that the Jesus of my childhood imagination became hazy and misplaced.Growing up in postcolonial Punjab, I did not give much thought to the Sikh Gurus, and now that I am a resident of this region of the globe, I must confess that I did not give much thought to Jesus Christ.As a result, considering Christ from a Sikh point of view today is both an intriguing and demanding undertaking.Whenever I attempt to do so, the figure of Jesus from the multidimensional universe of my youth resurfaces, bringing me much joy and richness in the process.What is the identity of Jesus Christ?I view him as a fantastic parallel to Nanak, the first Sikh Guru, in terms of personality and character.

  • There is no clear relationship between Christ and the Gurus of the Sikh religion.
  • They do not cross paths with one another.
  • The two represent discrete and distinct time and spatial periods in our history, yet when we examine them attentively, we can see how they complement and highlight one another.
  • Through an examination of them as parallel occurrences, we not only gain a better understanding of the founders of Christianity and Sikhism, but we also gain a better understanding of ourselves, our neighbors, and the world in which we live.

Both Christ and Nanak are commemorated in very identical manners today.Hymns like ″Christ is the light of the world″ and ″satgur nanak pragatia miti dhundh jag chanan hoia″ (when Nanak came, mist and darkness faded into light) may be heard in churches and Sikh Gurdwaras alike.The universal patterns of our human imagination are revealed by the strong and substanceless light that has been employed throughout history and across civilizations.Jesus and Nanak heralded the beginning of a new way of life that was both enlightening and freeing.

  1. That they both stated they had no control over their utterances is noteworthy.
  2. They were able to reveal what they were blessed with spontaneously and readily.
  3. This is what the gospel of John says: ″I do not express myself on my own initiative.
  • What I say is based on what the Father has informed me.″ And Guru Nanak says, ″haun bol na janda mai kahia sabhu hukmao jio″ – ″I don’t know how to talk, therefore I utter anything you instruct me to utter″ – The Divine, then, is the Voice in each of these instances.
  • A strong similarity exists between their messages as well.
  • Both Jesus and Nanak, in opposition to ceremonial ceremonies and orthodox formality, drew their followers’ attention to the human situation.
  • It was an inner attitude toward life and living that they considered to be clean, rather than exterior norms and conduct, as is the case now.
  • The same way that Christ decried the superiority of all those who strolled around in long gowns, Nanak decried the superiority of those who wore loincloths and covered their faces with ashes.
  • The most essential thing is that both Jesus and Nanak gave us the way of love.

″The greatest commandment of all is this: love your God with all your heart, soul, mind, and strength, and love your neighbor as yourself,″ Jesus states in the Gospels.As well, the Sikh Gurus praised love as the greatest virtue, proclaiming it as ″sunia mania, manu kita bhau″ (love is the supreme virtue).A passionate love, or bhau, transports lovers to the depths of richness and fullness where they are free of all types of preconceptions and constraints.Putting their words into action, on the other hand, is essential.Love for the Divine would open and extend us towards our family and neighbors; it would help us to set away racism, misogyny, and classism, all of which are present in our current culture, and to embrace all people.

  1. We must keep in mind their message of love for all of our ″neighbors″ – rich and poor, black and white, men and women, and everything in between.
  2. In truth, it was Mary who was the first to receive Christ’s revelation.
  3. Throughout his career, he cured and assisted women, and he serves as a reminder of the ″mother’s delight″ that comes with the knowledge that a human being has entered the world.
  4. The Mother is a significant character in Sikh literature, because the transcendent One is both father and mother, and Guru Nanak frequently refers to the womb as the place where we are initially deposited in our bodies.
  5. Mother’s body and joy, as well as the land, which serves as our shared matrix to which we are all equally connected, are all praised throughout the Sikh sacred book.
  1. The patriarchs had access to Christ’s and Nanak’s teachings, and they were able to recall, understand, and preserve them for themselves because they had access to them.
  2. It is critical that everyone of us learns to perceive the Christian and Sikh texts with our own eyes and to experience the wonderful heritage that they have left behind them.
  3. So, who is Jesus Christ in the eyes of a Sikh like me?
  4. Despite the fact that I do not consider him to be one of the Ten Sikh Gurus, he is a distinct and crucial parallel who has played and continues to play a very major part in my life as an adherent of the Sikh faith.
  5. In a way, I can trace my pleasure and sense of belonging in contemporary America back to him since he introduced me to a different kind of spirituality when I was very young.
  6. Nothing about my being a Sikh was diminished by his presence.

As a matter of fact, the teaching of Guru Nanak was concretized by Jesus Christ, who said, ″Countless are the methods of meditation, and countless are the channels of love.″ (Japji, page 17) Jesus has been a beautiful mirror, who, through his distinct shape and terminology, has helped me to gain a better knowledge of myself.The picture of Christ that was ingrained in my mind from infancy has brought the poems of the Gurus to life for me.The meaning of Guru Nanak’s words ″Accept all people as your equals, and let them be your sole sect″ (Japji 28), as well as Guru Gobind Singh’s command to ″recognize the one caste of mankind,″ are clear to me.″manas ki jat″ translates as ″recognize the single caste of humanity.″ However, it also adds to the complexity of the matter.Due to my background in Sikhism, which is a pluralist religion in which saints from Hindu and Muslim traditions are included in the holy book and in which the Ultimate is received through a range of views and connections, I have some reservations about Jesus’ exclusivism.

The Sikh Gurus affirm that Allah and Ram are one and the same, just as the Muslim Mosque and the Hindu Temple are one and the same.Sikhism, which emerged historically and geographically between the eastern tradition of Hinduism and the western faith of Islam, embraces both eastern and western ideas of the Divine, as well as their varied ways of devotion, with no distinctions made.But where do I stand when Christ alone is stated to be the Omega Point, or when Baptism is declared to be the only means of entrance into the Kingdom of God?As a Sikh, I have no place in this world.Personally, I find it difficult to comprehend how the God of Genesis can be revealed in the Gospels as the biological father of Jesus Christ.According to Genesis, God creates the planet, animals, and Adam and Eve – but he does so from a distance and a long distance away.

  1. How is it possible for this completely transcendent God to become the Father of Christ?
  2. How is it possible for him to have a child named Jesus?
  3. As a result, Guru Nanak is no longer seen as an incarnation of the Divine, but as an enlightener whose inspired poetry becomes the manifestation of the Transcendent One, as was the case previously.
  4. As a Sikh, I suppose the question of incarnation is one that bothers me a great deal.
  5. Creation in Christianity is modeled on a distant artist, more in the sense of a commander-in-chief, than than on the biological mother who gives birth to her kids in the traditional sense.

Positive signals about our bodies, our planet, and ourselves are sent when Christ is born as a virgin, according to the Bible.On reflection, saying ″Our Father″ in a language other than my own did not make me any less dedicated to Sikhism.On the contrary, it strengthened my commitment.However, it has left an indelible parental figure in my mind, which – despite all of my Sikh and feminist mental footnotes – continues to predominate despite all of my other interests.I sometimes wonder what my life would have been like if I had gone to a Hindu school and visited the goddess Kali’s temple, which was conveniently located near my house.Because everything was so ″distant″ in postcolonial Sikh society, it was safe and secure for Sikh children to attend Convent schools and even attend Catholic services.

Although Hinduism was geographically, historically, anthropologically and psychologically close to me, it was too dangerous and threatening to be in close proximity.Similar anxieties and phobias are already proliferating in our contemporary western culture, which I believe to be concerning.The fact that our world is becoming a smaller and smaller place causes us to become increasingly fearful of losing our individuality, or what we call our ″identity.″ As a result, rather than expanding our horizons and respecting others, we are becoming increasingly restricted and isolated.Our tunnel vision causes us to squint while we’re in the dark.

How can we continue to be terrified and intimidated by the faiths of our adversaries?It is not merely a question of tolerance, nor is it a matter of memorizing facts and data about different religious traditions, nor is it a matter of converting and convertings from one faith to another.It is also not a matter of simply tolerating others.As Jesus re-emerges in my consciousness, I am struck by the beauty and force of his personality for me, as well as the necessity of tearing down our mental fortifications.In the same manner that he captured the imagination of us Sikhs in faraway India, Sikhs and others must capture the imagination of people in the United States and everywhere in the world.We must recognize the ″light″ that Jesus and Nanak ushered in for all of humanity.

Thousands of Indians, Chinese, Japanese, Africans, and Middle-Easterners have built their homes in our city, yet we know so little about each other’s religious beliefs.Despite the fact that we may share the same classroom, work in the same office, and fly on the same planes, we continue to be separated on a basic level.For example, during the initial waves of migration, racial policies were essentially compelled to homogenize affairs, and in more recent waves, hallowed locations and sacred times have been limited to ethnic ghettos and are left to the discretion of their respective groups.As a result, what happened?We are in a state of poverty.

  • This means that we have missed out on the tremendously rich arabesques of pictures and languages as well as metaphysical teachings, religious practices, musical compositions, and poetry, among many other amazing riches of our global civilization.
  • Unhappily, even after a century and a half, we are still a long way from realizing Walt Whitman’s exhortation: ″Lo, soul, seest thou not God’s design from the beginning?″ The world is to be spanned and linked together by a network.
  • Races, neighbors, marrying and being given in marriage are all possibilities.
  • The oceans must be crossed, the faraway must be brought closer, and the lands must be joined together.

Walt Whitman was a poet and author who lived in the United States during the nineteenth century.Passage to the subcontinent of India!We may have achieved success in the creation of physical and technological networks, but we have fallen short in the creation of mental and spiritual connections.

We must ″weld together″ in order to succeed.We must come to terms with the fullness of human existence as well as the transcendence of the Divine.Christians, Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims, Jews, Buddhists, and Jains, as well as men and women, should celebrate the variety and diversity of our human civilization as a whole, rather than as individuals.It is no accident that Christians and Sikhs commemorate the founding of their respective faith groups on the first day of spring – known as Easter in northern Europe and Baisakhi in India – on the same day.As a community, we are carrying on the tradition of Jesus Christ and Guru Nanak via our yearly rebirth of life ceremony.

See also:  Who Found Jesus In The Tomb

What do Sikhs believe? What is Sikhism?

Founded in India in the fifteenth century, Sikhism has grown to become the world’s fifth most popular religion, according to the World Religious Data Base.Globally, around 30 million individuals are associated with the religion of Sikhism.Gender equality, rejection of discrimination based on caste, family, or religious convictions were both important principles in the original setting of the book’s publication.In addition, Sikhism incorporates elements of both Islam and Hinduism into its practices.It adheres to a single God, referred to as the Sat Nam (True Name) or Eckankar.

  • Furthermore, Sikhism clings to eastern beliefs of karma and reincarnation, believing that the cycle of reincarnations may be interrupted by mystical devotion to the name of God (Sat Nam).
  • Sikhism, like Islam, Judaism, and Christianity, clings to a fundamental source of divine literature, as do the other religions.
  • Instead of a Bible or Qur’an, however, it has an inspired document known as the Guru Granth Sahi or Adi Granth, which was released in 1604 and is considered to be the first book ever written.
  • It contains both the teachings of the Sikh religion and the music of the Sikh heritage.
  • For example, abstaining from alcohol, narcotics, and cigarettes, not cutting one’s hair, and being discouraged from accumulating worldly prosperity are some of the social precepts of Sikhism that stand out the most.
  • Sikhs are also prohibited from offering animal sacrifices, and they do not have a priestly class, as is the case in many other religions.

It is estimated that almost three-quarters of the world’s Sikhs live in the Indian state of Punjab, where they constitute a majority of the population.Growing migration of Sikhs for work-related reasons over the past two centuries has resulted in the establishment of communities in Canada, the United States, the Middle East, East Africa and the United Kingdom, as well as Singapore, Malaysia, and Australia.When comparing Sikhism to scriptural Christianity, a number of inconsistencies are discovered.First and foremost, the concept of God varies greatly from one religion to the next.

Sikhs believe in a single God, but it is a God that is very different from the Triune God of the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit, whom they adore.Second, the sacred scriptures of the two sects are quite distinct from one another.Sikhs believe that the Guru Granth Sahib is divinely inspired, whereas Christians believe that the Bible contains divinely inspired teachings.Third, salvation is a unique experience.

In contrast to the Bible, which states that all people are in need of salvation by faith alone in Jesus Christ, Sikhs follow a series of activities that they think will benefit them in the hereafter (John 14:6; Ephesians 2:8-9; Acts 4:12).The Sikh perspective of the afterlife, on the other hand, incorporates reincarnation rather than the biblical doctrines of paradise or hell beyond this life.Sikhism is not a fusion of Islam and Hinduism, and it is also incompatible with the teachings of the Bible, according to certain scholars.It exists as a separate and distinct religious movement, one that has had significant impact in areas of India and abroad while remaining fundamentally distinct from the teachings of biblical Christianity.Truths that are related: What distinguishes Christianity from other religions?What do Hindus hold as their beliefs?

  • What exactly is Hinduism?
  • What do Muslims hold as their beliefs?
  • What exactly is Islam?
  • What do Eckists hold as their beliefs?

What exactly is Eckankar?What are the major global religions that are currently in existence?Return to the page: Religion and the Truth

Christianity vs Sikhism

Practices Prayer, sacraments (some branches), worship in church, reading of the Bible, acts of charity, communion. Daily prayers. The three pillars of Sikhism are: a) To remember God at all times which includes being thankful to God for what you have been given, b) To live your life honestly/with integrity and c) Sharing what you have with those less fortunate.
Use of statues and pictures In Catholic & Orthodox Churches. Not allowed as considered Idolatry. Pictures of the Sikh Gurus are considered Idolatry and are not accepted from a religious perspective. Gurus maybe praised because they are equivalent to God.
Place of origin Roman province of Judea. Punjab, in an area which was partitioned into modern-day Pakistan. Sikhs are now predominant in Indian-Punjab.
Belief of God One God: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The Trinity. Monotheism
Life after death Eternity in Heaven or Hell, in some cases temporal Purgatory. A constant cycle of reincarnation until enlightenment is reached. Sikhs believe that there are 8,400,000 forms of life and that many souls have to travel though a number of these before they can reach Waheguru. The goal is to merge with God.
Literal Meaning Follower Of Christ. Sikh means ″Student″ in Persian-Punjabi. It Means To Learn.Sikh means a person who learn all his life from others.
Founder The Lord Jesus Christ. Guru Nanak Dev Ji
Clergy Priests, bishops, ministers, monks, and nuns. The Granthi is appointed as one take care of Guru Granth Sahib besides No clergy. Raagi who sings the Granth Sahib Baani in Respective Raagas.
View of the Buddha N/A. There is an important person in Sikhism who is called Buddha.
Human Nature Man has inherited ″original sin″ from Adam. Mankind then is inherently evil and is in need of forgiveness of sin. By knowing right and wrong Christians choose their actions. Humans are a fallen, broken race in need of salvation and repair by God. People are essentially good; the divine spark within them needs only to be fanned into a flame of goodness. Sinning is following the veil of illusion ″Maya″. Karma is unavoidably paid f you sin.
Followers Christian (followers of Christ) Sikhs
Holy days/Official Holidays The Lord’s Day; Advent, Christmas; New Year, Lent, Easter, Pentecost, every day is dedicated to a Saint. No one day is deemed holier then another. However dates that have historical significance such as Vasaikhi and Gurpurabs are celebrated with Prayers in Gurdwaras.
View of other Dharmic religions N/A Sikhs respect other Dharmic religions.
Place of worship Church, chapel, cathedral, basilica, home bible study, personal dwellings. Gurdwara for congregational worship. Anyone may enter a Gurdwara, however-no matter their faith, caste, or skin color. Personal worship can be done in any place at any time. God resides in everything and everyone.
Original Language(s) Aramaic, Greek, and Latin. Punjabi was the original language in Sikhism and Persian also but Sikhs can learn as many languages as they want to learn.
Marriage A Holy Sacrament. Marriage can be arranged or it can be a love marriage. Monogamistic, against premarital sex. Marriage is the merging of two souls as one.
Means of Salvation Through Christ’s Passion, Death, and Resurrection. Worship God, do Good Deeds in the name of God, performing service for community. Fight 5 evils (5 sins) – Greed, Ego, Attachment, Anger, and Lust. Meditate, pray, and improve your relationship with God and God will forgive, cleanse, and save you.
Goal of religion To love God and obey his commandments while creating a relationship with Jesus Christ and spreading the Gospel so that others may also be saved. To merge with and have the greatest relationship with God possible. To love and obey God unconditionally. Guru Nanak Dev Ji stressed that we should not be afraid of God’s wrath, but instead be afraid of not receiving the full benefits of God’s love.
Authority of Dalai Lama N/A. N/A.
Religion which atheists may still be adherents of No. A person must believe in God to be a Sikh
Original Languages Aramaic, Common (Koine) Greek, Hebrew. Punjabi
Names of God God, Gud, Gott, Deo, Dios. Jehovah, YHWH, Eli Elohim, (depending on language Christians are of every language and culture around the world) Waheguru, Ik Onkaar, Sat Nam, Akhal Purakh.
Day of worship Sunday (most denominations), Saturday (Seventh-Day Adventist, Seventh-Day Baptist) Every day Sikhs worship the one God at their homes, even with or without a Gurdwara service.
Identity of Jesus The Son Of God. Jesus is looked as a ″saint″. Sikhs do not believe that Jesus is God because Sikhism teaches that God is neither born, nor dead. Jesus was born and lived a human life, therefore, he cannot be God. However, Sikhs still show respect to all beliefs.
Use of statues, images some denominations regard It as forbidden and Idolatry. Anglicans and Lutherans allow pictures but forbid venerating them. Catholics encourage pictures and statues and venerate them. Orthodox encourage pictures and venerate them. Forbidden.
Status of Muhammad N/A. Saint, a guru of time. He is mentioned in Sikhism- but is used to name the guru incarnate of god.(irrelevant to some)
About Christianity broadly consists of individuals who believe in the deity Jesus Christ. Its followers, called Christians, often believe Christ is ″the Son″ of the Holy Trinity and walked the earth as the incarnate form of God (″the Father″). A Religion spread by 10 Gurus to preach to worship one creator
Population Over two billion adherents worldwide. 30 million
Second coming of Jesus Affirmed. Irrelevant
Rites Seven sacraments: Baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance, anointing of the sick, holy orders, matrimony (Catholic and Orthodox). Anglicans: Baptism and Eucharist. Other denominations: Baptism and communion. Amrit Sanchar (Being Initiated into the Khalsa. Equivalent to baptism).
Symbols Cross, ichthys (″Jesus fish″), Mary and baby Jesus. The Khanda ☬
Praying to Saints, Mary, and Angel Encouraged in the Catholic & Orthodox Churches; most Protestants only pray directly to God. forbidden Worship is to be for One God only, gurus may be Praised because they are manifestations of God in the flesh.
Ressurection of Jesus Affirmed. N/A
Legislation Varies through denomination. Panj Pyare, (Akal Takht is meeting place)
Direction of Prayer Catholics and Orthodox usually face the Tabernacle in their prayers but it is not considered necessary, but recommended. God is present everywhere recent reforms have prompted many Christians to not face anywhere in their prayers. Sikh’s reject the notion of fixed direction of Prayer as God is everywhere.
Branches Roman Catholics, independent Catholics, Protestants (Anglicans, Lutherans etc.), Orthodox (Greek orthodox, Russian orthodox). Udasis – An order of ascetics & holy men who follow Guru Nanak’s son Baba Sri Chand. Sahajdharis – who are clean shaven but have chosen the path of Sikhism & eventual baptism. The Khalsa, who are baptized and follow the traditional practices of S
Use of Statues Varies by denomination. Not used in Protestant denominations; icons are used in Catholic & Orthodox denominations. Forbidden
Position of Mary Mother Of Jesus. Revered in all denominations. Degree of reverence varies from denomination. N/A
imams identified as N/A. N/A.
Religious Law Varies among denominations. Has existed among Catholics in the form of canon law. No necessary laws but a sikh may follow the 3 rules of their life such as 1)Naam Japna (remember/meditate on God) 2)Vand K Shakhna (give to those who need it) 3)Kirat Karna (earn by honest means).
Confessing sins Protestants confess straight to God, Catholic confess mortal sins to a Priest, and venial sins straight to God (Orthodox have similar practice) Anglicans confess to Priests but considered optional. God always forgives sins in Jesus. As the Divine light is in all of us, God already knows of our ″sins″. We are to pray to God for God to forgive us and cleanse us. Only through God and doing Good Deeds in God’s name in a way that God is pleased can we obtain salvation-escape from sin
View of other Abrahamic religions Judaism is regarded as a True religion but incomplete (without Gospel, and Messiah) Islam is regarded as a false religion, Christianity does not accept the Qur’an as true. All faiths will get what they work towards. Sikhism does not condemn others to Hell or say if you are not Sikh you are eternally damned. Sikhs prays for ″Sarbat Da Bhala″, meaning the good and prosperity of all Humanity regardless of differences.
Marriage and Divorce Explained by Jesus in Mathew 19:3-9 and said, ‘Therefore a man shall leave his father and his mother and hold fast to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh. Therefore what God has put together let man not seperate.’ One can marry peacefully and take Laavan (wedding prayer) in Gurudwara but if personal differences occur they can take divorce. Conservative Sikhs believe marriage is a holy bond that cannot be broken.
Prophet Moses, Samuel, Nathan, Elijah, Elisha, etc., as well as both Johns in the New Testament too. No prophets in Sikhism only direct relation with God with no mediator. No Prophets but Gurus existed.
Saints Catholics and Orthodox venerate very Holy people as Saints. Most Protestants do not do this, however they do look at them as inspirational figures. The Sikh notion of a saint or prophet is called a guru, meaning one who can offer salvation, and deliver a soul from darkness into light (Sanskrit: gu = darkness, ru = light).
God’s role in salvation Humans cannot save themselves or ascend on their own to a higher level. Only God is good and therefore only God is able to save a person. Jesus came down from Heaven to save mankind. God is generous and loving. mankind will reincarnate until he becomes a Sikh and achieves paradise.
Sacred Texts Christian Bible (includes Old and New Testaments). What is considered canon may vary slightly by sect/denomination. Adi Granth. Nihang Sikhs regard Dasam Granth and Sarbloh Granth also as sacred, but orthodox Sikhs consider them true but lesser. Janamsakhis provide stories of the gurus’ lives.
Number of Adherents An estimated 2.1 billion, largest religion in the world. A estimated 30 million, fifth largest religion in the world.
On Clothing Conservative Christians dress modestly; women may wear long skirts or dresses; men may wear dress clothes that do not show the chest, legs, and arms. More moderate or liberal Christians generally reject such clothing restrictions. Wear the 5 Ks (kangha, kara, kachera, kirpan, kesh)
View of Animistic religions Paganism is Heathenism. Witchcraft is communication and interaction with demons, fallen evil angelic beings. These have no real interest ultimately, in helping their worshipers. Demonic possession is common. Sikhism respects animistic religions.
On Women Equal to men. In some denominations, they may become nuns. Equal to men.
On Food/Drink Jesus said, ″’.Whatever goes into a person from outside cannot defile him, since it enters not his heart but his stomach, and is expelled?’ (Thus he declared all foods clean.)″ Mark 7:19 Do not drink intoxicating drinks, vegetarianism encouraged, eating animals killed ritualistically is forbidden. Only ″jhatka″ meat allowed, i.e. animal must be slaughtered in 1 stroke. Therefore, fish is not allowed.
On Race All races viewed equal in Christianity. Ho

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.