How To Say Jesus In Aramaic

Jesus in Aramaic.

The word mshikha (משיחא)-the Messiah is related to the word mishkha (מישחא) which means oil or olive oil in Aramaic.

“He will be referred to as a Nazarene.” Matthew 2:23 (KJV) netiqre dnoroyo netiqre dnoroyo netiqre dnoroyo Natzrat (Jesus Nazarene) is an Israelite who was born in the city of Nazareth, which was a town in Galilee. He was known as a Nazarene because of his religious beliefs. The city of Nazareth gets its name from the Hebrew word Nazara, which means “truth.” Jesus was fluent in Galilean Aramaic, which was the native language of the people who lived in the area at the time. By that time, Hebrew had been virtually extinct as a spoken language since the period of the expulsion of the Jews from Babylon, and it was being utilized almost exclusively as a liturgical language.

When they returned to Judaea, they carried their newly learned language with them.

The historical name of Jesus (Jesus) in Amaraic was Yeshua, while the historical name of Jesus (Jesus) in Classical Syriac was Yeshua.

  • The name of Jesus is also commonly abbreviated as, which stands for Jesus Christ.
  • In many parts of the Middle East, anointing with oil was a typical part of the inauguration rite for new rulers.
  • The act of anointing with oil was significant in the ceremonies of many ancient Middle Eastern peoples, and it had the symbolic significance of elevating anything to the status of something sacred or heavenly.
  • Jesus the Messiah was anointed at the same time as he was elevated to the position of new king of his heavenly kingdom.
  • It derives from the Greek term X, which literally translates as ‘the anointed one,’ and is a translation of the Aramaic Msheekha (Messiah).
  • It is possible that the term mshikha (), which signifies Messiah, is derived from the word mishkha (), which means oil or olive oil in Aramaic.
  • In Biblical times, it was the act of being anointed for royalty.
  • As with every language, there are variations: Yeshuo Msheekho in Western Syriac and Yeshua Msheekha in Eastern Syriac, for example.
  • The video below demonstrates how to write Jesus’ name in the Estrangeloscript font.

Written in the Herodian script, which is a form of the square Aramaic alphabet that was in use in Judea during Herod’s time, is the name Yeshua. Herod was a client king of the Romans in the kingdom of Judea, and he governed during the period when Jesus was on the earth ministering to the people.

The name Jesus written in the Imperial Aramaic script. The Imperial Aramaic script is written as follows: Yeshua. Because it was the primary Aramaic script in the Persian Empire during the time of Jesus, the Imperial Aramaic alphabet was not in use during Jesus’ lifetime. I’m using it here retroactively just to provide as an example of how the script should be written. Now, have a look at this video, which explains the origins of the name Jesus.

This Is What Jesus’ Friends And Family Actually Called Him — And No, It Wasn’t Jesus

Even among people of different religious beliefs, the name “Jesus” is almost universally recognized. It may come as a surprise, however, that the name “Jesus,” which millions of Christians all over the world are urged not to use in vain, was not in fact the name of the historical figure. Despite the fact that the assertion appears to be controversial, the truth is that it is more of a translation issue.

What Was Jesus’ Real Name?

Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons “Isous” is the Greek transcription of Jesus’ given name, whereas “Yeshua” is the late Biblical Hebrew form of Jesus’ given name. Of course, neither English nor Spanish existed in their present forms during the time when the genuine Jesus was living, nor was the New Testament written at the time that the original Jesus was alive. Jesus and his followers were all Jewish, and as a result, they all received Hebrew given names – despite the fact that they would have spoken Aramaic.

As a result, the majority of academics think that the Christian Messiah’s given name was really “Yeshua,” which was a very popular Jewish given name during Jesus’ lifetime.

This raises the question of how the name “Jesus” got to be unique in the first place, given that there were apparently so many individuals called “Yeshua” moving around at the time.

How “Yeshua” Became Lost In Translation

Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons Because of this, the King James Bible was written in the “I” spelling rather than the “J” spelling. Given the fact that not every language has the same sounds, people have traditionally adopted their names in order to be able to pronounce them in a number of different languages. Even in modern languages, there are discrepancies in how Jesus is pronounced from one dialect to another. In English, the name is pronounced with a hard “J,” yet in Spanish, the name is pronounced with what would be a “H” in English, despite the fact that the spelling is the same.

The New Testament was initially written in Greek, which not only has a completely different alphabet than Hebrew, but also does not include the “sh” sound present in the Hebrew word “Yeshua,” which means “Yeshua.” After deciding to use the Greek “s” sound instead of the “sh” sound in the name Yeshua, the New Testament authors added a final “s” to the end of the name to make it more masculine in the original language.

When the Bible was translated into Latin from the original Greek, the term “Iesus” was used by the translators to refer to the person who had given the name.

For decades, this inscription has been a typical feature of portrayals of the crucifixion in Western Christianity as “INRI,” an acronym for the LatinIesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum, or “Jesus the Nazarene King of the Jews,” which translates as “Jesus the Nazarene King of the Jews.” Because Latin being the main language of the Catholic Church, the Latinized form of the name “Yeshua” was used to refer to Christ across the rest of Europe and beyond.

Even the King James Bible, which was first published in 1611, utilized the “Iesus” spelling.

How “Yeshua” Eventually Became “Jesus”

It’s difficult to identify precisely where the “Jesus” spelling originated, while some historians believe that a variant of the name that originated in Switzerland is the most likely candidate. It is more common for the “J” in Swiss to be pronounced like an English “Y” or the Latin “Ie” as in “Iesus.” In 1553, when the Catholic Queen “Bloody” Mary ascended to the English throne, thousands of English Protestant intellectuals fled, with a large number eventually settling in Geneva. It was at Geneva that a group of some of the best English minds of the day collaborated to create the Geneva Bible, which was the first to utilize the Swiss spelling of the name “Jesus.” Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons A significant contribution to the popularization of the “Jesus” spelling was made by the Geneva Bible.

Eventually, it was transported to the New World on the Mayflower, which arrived in 1620.

As a result, the name used by English speakers today is an English adaption of a German translation of a Latin transliteration of a Greek transliteration of an initially Hebrew name, which was then adopted by the English language.

See also:  Scriptures Where Jesus Says He Is God?

Then read about Jesus’ tomb being opened after it had been sealed.

“Saying Jesus’s Name Wrong”: A Fallacy of “Hebrew Roots”

Historically, it has been difficult to determine where the name “Jesus” originated; nonetheless, some historians believe that variant of the name may have originated in Switzerland. It is more common to hear the letter “J” pronounced as an English “Y” or as the Latin letter “Ie,” as in “Iesus.” Many of the English Protestant professors who had fled the country after the Catholic Queen, “Bloody” Mary, ascended to the throne in 1553 found asylum in Switzerland. This is where a group of the best English minds of the day came together to create the Geneva Bible, which was written in the Swiss spelling of the name “Jesus” for the first time.

This spelling was popularized by the Geneva Bible, which was published in Geneva in 1548.

Later, it was transported to the New World on the Mayflower, which arrived in 1620.

To summarize: The modern-day name for the city is an English adaption of a German version of a Latin transliteration of a Greek transliteration of a Hebrew name that originated in the ancient world.

After that, take a look at the history of Yeshua and the true name of Jesus, and find out why and how Jesus got white in the process. Continue reading about Jesus’ tomb being opened.

  1. When you refer to the Lord asYeshua (or Y’shua, orY’shua, orYah’shua, or any variant), there is nothing “traditional” about it. There is nothing “improper,” no form of syncretism, invention, or corruption in the traditional name of Jesus
  2. There is nothing “improper” in the traditional name of Jesus. In fact, to insist that Yeshuais the only proper name by which to address our Lord is to reject the entire received Christian tradition, to disown the Apostles and Evangelists, and even to deny Scripture itself — and to contradict the very message of the Gospel

An Invented Tradition

Proponents of “Hebrew Roots” frequently buttress their views with assertions that they are returning to the “genuine traditions” of the early Jewish Christians, which they believe to be true. Is this, however, a true statement? Tradition refers to something that has been passed down from generation to generation. And the truth is that until the beginnings of the “Messianic” movement in the nineteenth century, there was no tradition — no writings, no hymns, no inscriptions, no traditional teaching or custom — of our Lord being addressed asYeshua, passed down by the earliest Christians or by anyone else at all.

  • But they didn’t leave us any documentation or tradition of it.
  • In contrast to the Aramaic version of Yeshua, the Hebrew version of Yeshua is based on Hebrew pronunciation.
  • The rabbinical pronunciation of the biblical texts served as the basis for our transcription of Hebrew text.
  • In this case, the pronunciation of the word would be radically different between a first-century Jew on the street speaking Aramaic and reading the same characters and a rabbi reading from a biblical text.
  • Even if one accepts the rabbinic tradition of pronunciation —Yeshua is, like any other rendition, only a rough approximation in terms of meaning.

It is true that there have been Christians who have been speaking Aramaic for the past two thousand years, since the time of the Apostles, who have passed down the Christian faith in what can be considered its native language: the Syrian Christians, whose liturgical language is essentially Aramaic as Jesus would have spoken it —but they pronounce the Lord’s name ” Isho” instead of ” Yeshua.” Yeshuawas not passed down by anybody at all, but was created in contemporary times from imagined traditions.

This is what the Apostles left us, the earliest written documents of the Christian Church that have survived to this day: the New Testament Scriptures, which were written in Greek, not Hebrew or Aramaic, as was the case with the Old Testament.

The Name of Jesus

It is not true that the name Jesus was introduced by “Rome” in a late, syncretistic manner, nor that it is a “corruption” of true Hebrew teaching, nor that there is any other attempt to pull true Christians away from the “Hebrew Roots” of Christianity, as I am hearing more and more often from supporters of the “Hebrew Roots.” They transcribed His name aso(Isous) when the Apostles and their companions composed the New Testament Scriptures in Greek, under the direction and inspiration of the Holy Spirit, under the guidance and inspiration of the Holy Spirit.

  • This is supported by the fact that every manuscript of every book of the New Testament confirms it.
  • The name Joshua had already been in use in Greek for several centuries as the traditional transliteration of the Hebrew name (which is also often transliterated in English).
  • Greek-speaking Christians were adhering to long-established norms when they addressed the Christ with that name before He arrived on the scene.
  • With the translation of the Bible into English, the nameIesuswas a natural transcription of the Greek name into Latin, and then into English, as was the nameJesus.
  • Is it possible that the Apostles were agents of syncretization or dilution, and that they were responsible for steering the followers of Christ away from His “Hebrew Roots”?
  • Clearly, if there had been any difficulty, any heresy, corruption, or dilution in the process of translating the name of the Lord into the local languages of each of His peoples, the Apostles themselves would not have undertaken the project.

Every Tongue Shall Confess

Mikhail Nesterov’s painting Resurrection (ca. 1892). God has elevated him and given him the name that is above all names, so that at the mention of Jesus’ name, every knee should bend, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father, as St. Paul himself explains. —Philippians 2:9–11, emphasis added In Greek, which at the time was the lingua franca of the civilized world, the apostle Paul said, “Every tongue must acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord.” Similarly to the Latinlingua, the wordtonguein Greek,orglssa, could refer to language as well, just as we continue to use the wordtonguein English.

Without a doubt not: in that same line, Paul refers to Him as “Jesus in Greek.” Those who argue that only ” Yeshua,” or any other rendition of the name, is the correct and proper address for our Lord, are denying the entirety of received Christian tradition, as well as the transmission of the faith to all peoples, as the Apostles and their spiritual descendants have done for centuries.

In the same way that the Greek people received the name of the Lord aso, the English people accepted Him asJesus, the Spanish people received Him asJesus, and so on:

Names of the Lord in Various Languages

Language Name Transliteration
Albanian Jezusi
Amharic ኢየሱስ Iyesus
Aramaic ܝܫܘܥ Isho
Arabic يسوع ʿĪsā
Aragonese Chésus
Bengali যিশু Jishu
Chinese 耶稣
Greek (Koine) Ἰησοῦς Iēsous
Greek (Modern) Ιησούς Iēsous
Hebrew (Modern) ישו Yeshu
Hindi ईसा Jesu
Hungarian Jézus
Irish Gaelic Íosa
Italian Gesù
Korean 예수
Latin Iesus Jesus
Romanian Isus
Russian Иису́с Iisús
Church Slavonic Їисъ
Slovak Ježiš
Tagalog Hesus
Tamil இயேசு
Turkish İsa
Vietnamese Giê-su
Yiddish יעזוס Yezus
See also:  How To Act Like Jesus?

… I believe you have grasped the concept, and I’m having much too much fun with it. Only a few languages are represented here, and they are all taken from the Wikipedia page on Jesus. The point is as follows: Are any of these languages considered to be “wrong”? Were the apostles, missionaries, evangelists, and translators who transported the religion of Christ “to the ends of the world,” to each and every one of these peoples, “in the wrong?” By claiming that there is only one proper name by which Jesus can be addressed, one is denying the universality, the catholicity, of Christ’s message of salvation; one is also rejecting the very message of the Gospel, which is one of forgiveness, acceptance, and inclusion into Christ for all peoples.

Is Jesus a Jewish-only savior, or does he save all people?

The biggest risk that the “Hebrew Roots” movement has, in my opinion, is that it is essentially reviving the error of the Judaizers by claiming that the only real way to be a Christian is to be a Jew—an argument that Scripture rejects time and time again.

Jesus’ Name and its Meaning in Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic

In the New Testament, the power of Jesus’ name is a prominent subject that runs throughout the whole book. Demons flee, the sick are healed, and all of creation bends its head in adoration when the name of Jesus is spoken. When it comes to language, the name Jesus bears a great deal of significance in its native culture, and this is true both in the Greek and in the Hebrew languages. When you say Jesus’ name in English, you’re saying Isus, which is a translation of the GreekIesous, which is a transliteration of the Aramaic nameYeshua, which is a transliteration of the HebrewYehoshua, or Joshua, which comes from the Hebrew A combination of the Hebrew verbyasha, which means “he rescues,” and the personal name Ya, which is short for Yahweh, gave rise to this moniker for God.

Learn more about the language transition from Yehoshua to Jesus and why we speak “Jesus” now rather than “Joshua” by continuing to read this article.

From Joshua to Yeshua: Jesus’ Name in His Native Tongue (Aramaic)

As a second temple Jew growing up in early first century Israel, Jesus’ native language would have been Aramic, as would have been expected of him. Thus, his given name would have beenYeshua, which is merely the Aramaic version of the Hebrew nameYehoshua (Jesus Christ) (Joshua). The sound -h was omitted from the name Yehoshua at some time throughout the history of the Hebrew language, resulting in the spellingYeshua. This is the form that appears to have been chosen in later Hebrew, and it is the one that has made its way into Aramaic and other languages.

But how did we get from Yehoshua and Yeshua toJesus in the first place?

From Yeshua to Iesous: Jesus’ Name in the Langua Franca (Greek)

However, while Aramaic would have been Jesus’ native language, he would very have have comprehended and spoken Greek, as it was the dominant language at the time. With this in mind, Greek is the universal language that would have been used by everyone in the Mediterranean region for the sake of trade and other social interactions. The possibility that Jesus would have been addressed as Iesous by anybody, even by Greek speakers, is extremely remote. It’s likely that people still referred to him as Yeshua.

  • This means that they were only able to write in the Greek Alphabet.
  • Y-e-sh-u-aI-e-s-o-u-s The first three letters are understandable.
  • The final three letters require a little further explanation.
  • This indicates that the termination of a noun varies based on its case or function in the phrase, as indicated above.
  • So, in order to translate the Aramaic name Yeshua into Greek, you cannot simply transliterate it.
  • As a result, Yeshua became Iesou+, a Greek masculine noun with the ending-os.
  • Jesus’ given name is often spelt IesounorIesou.

It all depends on whether or not the name is a subject, an object, a direct object, or something else else. The ending -s was added to the nominativecase, or default case, in the Greek spelling ofYeshua, andYeshuawawas typically spelledIesous, as previously stated.

From Iesous to Jesus: Why We Don’t Call Him Joshua

It was the LatinIesus who succeeded the GreekIesous, and it is from this that we derive our spelling Jesus. Understanding why we spell and pronounce particular names in the Bible the way we do requires some background knowledge of the historical context in which our Bible was written. At first appearance, the solution appears to be rather straightforward. Our Old Testament is derived from the Hebrew Bible, while our New Testament is derived from the Greek texts of the early Christian church. Yes, that’s correct.

  • What we have are copies of copies of copies of copies of copies of copies of the originals.
  • Textual criticism, which is used to identify what the original texts most likely stated, is used in our most contemporary translations such as the NIV or the ESV, which go back as far as possible to the original sources in order to get the most accurate translation possible.
  • Nevertheless, for hundreds of years, this was not the case with Bible editions.
  • The Latin Vulgate had a significant effect on the textus receptus.textus receptus Therefore, the Latin transliteration of the Greek is preferred by many of our English spellings and pronunciations above the Aramaic and Hebrew transliterations and pronunciations of the Greek language.
  • For this reason, the Latin spellingIesus is preferred over the Aramaic spellingYeshua and the HebrewJoshua in our English Bibles.

A Rose By Any Other Name

This has been a fairly nerdy post about one of my favorite subjects, which you can read about here. It doesn’t really matter if we call Jesus or Joshua by their given names at the end of the day, though. What matters is that Jesus’ name, and indeed his whole identity, is founded on the reality that Yahweh is a God who heals people from their sins. Yahweh is a God who is defined by his ability to save people. That is the name that was given to Jesus by the angel as well as by his father and mother.

  • And it is in the name of Jesus that every knee will bend in heaven, on earth, and under the surface of the earth.
  • And that is the name that we, as Christians, are called to bear with us on a daily basis throughout our lives.
  • Please let me know if I’ve missed anything in the comments section below!
  • Hello, my name is Tyler Martin.

I have a bachelor’s degree in biblical languages and a master’s degree in biblical interpretation. I’ve devoted my life to studying about the Bible, and I’m enthusiastic about assisting people in discovering the wonderful and creative world of the scriptures for themselves.

Eashoa Msheekhah (Aramaic), Jesus the Messiah (English) or the Christ (Greek)

His name is written in the ancient Aramaic script in the manner seen above. To hear the audio, simply click on the name. Eashoa’ is a Native American term that meaning “the Giver of Life.” Msheekha is a Sanskrit term that signifies “the Anointed One.” In the language of the Bible, Eashoa’ Msheekha means “the Anointed Life-Giver.” A large number of visitors to this page have contacted me via e-mail over the use of the name Jesus Christ. They question why you use English designations for Jesus and Christ because the genuine names of Jesus and Christ are “Eashoa” and “The Anointed One,” respectively.

See also:  When Was Jesus Anointed?

I like to use my own transliteration, which is Eashoa.

For starters, the name of Jesus does not differ from the name of Jesus in the original Greek language.

YEH is pronounced “J,” “SHEEN” is pronounced “s,” and “WAW” is pronounced “u.” The “ein” is pronounced “s,” and the “yeh” is pronounced “J.” It’s possible that this does not sound like the same name, but because three of the four letters in the name do not have counterparts in the English language, the English pronunciation has to be changed.

Christ’s name is derived from the Greek word meaning “anointed” (Christos).

The word “Msheekhah” comes from the Hebrew language and means “The Anointed.” Another good candidate for the title “Christ” is the Messiah, who comes from the Hebrew word “Msheekhah.” Throughout all of the languages, the same term is used to identify Jesus as the Messiah predicted by the Old Testament.

They are all, in my view, geared at diverting people’s attention away from the Truth, which is the belief in Eashoa (Jesus) the Messiah.

What word did Jesus use for God in Aramaic?

The name of God in the Hebrew Bible is YHWH, which may be either Yahweh or Jehovah depending on how you say it. There are several terms in the Hebrew Bible that are used to refer to the word ‘God’ (not the name of God), including words like Many orthodox Jews interpret the terms El (god), Elohim (god, plural form), El Shaddai (god almighty), Adonai (master), Elyon (highest), and Avinu (our father) not as names, but as epithets emphasising distinct characteristics of YHWH and the many ‘roles’ of God (source).

According to the Wikipedia page on Allah, The term Allah is derived from a contraction of the Arabic definite article al- “the” and the word ilh “deity, god” to al-lh, which means “the deity, God” ( o, ho theos monos), which means “the deity, God.” A number of different Semitic languages, including Hebrew and Aramaic, include names that are cognates of the term “Allah.” The plural form (but functional singular)Elohim is most frequently used in biblical Hebrew.

  • The comparable Aramaic version islh in Biblical Aramaic andAlâh in Syriacas, both of which are used by the Assyrian Church and both of which mean simply ‘God.’ God’s name is not Elohim; rather, it is translated as ‘God’ in Hebrew.
  • However, the Bible refers to God by the name of YHWH rather than Allah, as some Muslim academics may attempt to link the two names.
  • So the God of the Bible is known as YHWH, whereas the God of the Qu’ran is known as Allah.
  • Finally, the word ‘Ayil’ takes us back to the root word ‘El,’ which is the source of all Semitic names for God.
  • For example, have a look at this average translation of Exodus 20:7 The name ofYHWH thy Elohim must not be used in a mocking manner; otherwise, YHWH will not absolve the one who uses his name in a mocking manner.
  • For example, as Jesus was hanging on the cross, He cried out in Aramaic to the Father.

At around three o’clock in the afternoon, Jesus called out in a loud voice, “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” (What is the meaning of the phrase? (which literally translates as “My God, my God, why have you abandoned me?”) Some manuscripts are available online. Eloi, Eloi, Eloi

What Language Did Jesus Speak?

Assuming, as most academics do, that Jesus was a genuine historical man, there has long been controversy about the events and conditions of his life as described in the Bible. In particular, there has been considerable debate in the past over what language Jesus used while he was a man living during the first century A.D. in the kingdom of Judea, which is now located in what is now the southern portion of the Palestinian territory. WATCH: JESUS: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Vault The topic of Jesus’ favourite language was brought up at a public meeting in Jerusalem in 2014 between Benjamin Netanyahu, Israel’s prime minister, and Pope Francis, who was visiting the Holy Land at the time.

  • Netanyahu, speaking to the Pope through an interpreter, declared: “Jesus was here, in this country.
  • ‘Aramaic,’ he replied, referring to the ancient Semitic language that emerged among a group of people known as the Aramaeans about the late 11th century B.C.
  • According to the Washington Post, a dialect of it is still used today by groups of Chaldean Christians in Iraq and Syria, but in a different form.
  • with an Aramaic inscription that reads “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus” on the lid.
  • Photograph from the Biblical Archaeology Society of Washington, DC (Courtesy of Getty Images).
  • Despite the fact that both the prime minister and the Pope were likely correct in their interpretation of the language, the news of the linguistic difference made headlines.

Jesus Was Likely Multilingual

The vast majority of religious academics and historians agree with Pope Francis that the real Jesus spoke primarily a Galilean dialect of Aramaic during his lifetime. By the 7th century B.C., the Aramaic language had spread far and wide, and it would eventually become the lingua franca throughout most of the Middle East as a result of trading, invasions, and conquering. According to scholars, it would have been the most widely used language among ordinary Jewish people in the first century A.D.

Netanyahu, on the other hand, was technically accurate.

Hebrew was the language of religious experts and sacred books, notably the Bible, in the ancient world, similar to how Latin is used now (although some of the Old Testament was written in Aramaic).

In the first four books of the New Testament, the Gospels of Matthew and Mark both record Jesus speaking in Aramaic vocabulary and phrases, but in Luke 4:16, he is portrayed reading from the Hebrew Bible in a synagogue (Matthew 4:16; Mark 1:11).

Alexander the Great Brought Greek to Mesopotamia

Alexander the Great is a historical figure who reigned from 323 to 323 BCE. Getty Images/CM Dixon/Print Collector/CM Dixon/Print Collector Other languages spoken at the time of Jesus were Aramaic and Hebrew, as well as Greek and Latin. Following Alexander the Great’s conquest of Mesopotamia and the remainder of the Persian Empire in the fourth century B.C., Greek became the official language in most of the region, displacing other languages in the process. As early as the first century AD, Judea was a province of the eastern Roman Empire.

According to Jonathan Katz, a Classics lecturer at Oxford University, Jesus was unlikely to have known more than a few phrases in Latin at the time of his death.

I am certain that he did not speak Arabic, which was a different Semitic language that did not arrive in Palestine until well into the first century A.D.

As is likely the case with many multilingual persons, the language in which he spoke varied on the context of his words as well as the audience to whom he was addressing at the time.

Is there any further evidence?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.