Romans are to blame for death of Jesus
Among religious specialists and laypeople alike, the soon-to-be-released Mel Gibson film “The Passion of the Christ” is causing quite a commotion in the media. Many people believe the film contains anti-Semitic implications. Although the Jews are often believed to have been involved in Jesus’ death, according to Dr. Frank K. Flinn of Washington University in St. Louis’ department of religious studies, the Romans are truly to blame for the death of Jesus. Frank Flinn is a songwriter and musician from the United Kingdom.
“Crucifications could only be authorized by the Roman authorities, and they frequently did so on a brutal, mass scale.” In the opinion of Flinn, an expert on Catholicism, Gibson’s film appears to merge all of the gospel stories about the Passion into one epic, a made-for-the-big-screen story that fails to show how opinions about the Jews’ role in the crucifixion have changed dramatically over time, as has been shown in other films about the Passion.
The author points out that our oldest accounts of the crucifixion, such as the Gospel of Mark, which was written about 60-70 C.E., make it apparent that Pilate was the one who ordered Christ’s execution.
“Matthew, most likely as a result of inter-Jewish competition, places the ultimate responsibility fully on the shoulders of the Jewish leadership,” Flinn explained.
- When it came to Jewish persecution and murder throughout the Middle Ages, the label “Christ-killers” became a rhetorical club to legitimize the ghettoization, persecution, and slaughter of Jews.
- A Guide to Taking in the Show Mel Gibson’s next film Written by Frank K.
- In his books The Jewish War and Jewish Antiquities, Josephus, the Jewish historian, records several incidents.
- Only the Roman authorities had the authority to authorize crucifixions, and they did so on a gruesome and mass scale on a regular basis.
- The earliest Galilean followers of Jesus regarded him as a prophet similar to Elijah, who roamed the Galilean hills healing the sick and raising the dead, as did the prophet Elijah.
- Sadducees and Pharisees were among the Jewish leaders who owed their positions to their patron-client relationship with the Roman authorities (note the word “some”).
- In addition to the teachers and prophets in rural Galilee and the Dead Sea Scrolls community of Qumran, other Jewish groups and individuals either rejected or rebelled against the corrupt relationship between Jerusalem and Rome.
- Along with the Temple tax, this tax was collected for Rome by the Temple authorities, who distributed it to tax farmers.
- Due to the periodic law of Jubilee, it should have been possible for the wealthy in Jerusalem to return this land to the original tribes, but they failed to do so.
According to Leviticus 19:4, “render unto Caesar” means “return to Caesar” his own coin with Caesar’s image on it (a blasphemy to the pious Jew!) and “return to God” what is God’s, which is the land itself, which God ultimately owns and which God gave directly to Israel in the covenant (Joshua 24:13)!” The message of Jesus was both spiritually and politically dangerous, first to the Roman authorities and then, secondarily, to their client appointees in Jerusalem, who were initially threatened by it.
- The Gospel of Mark, the earliest Gospel we have, was written between 60 and 70 CE.
- Matthew and Luke were written much later, around the year 80-95, and reflect a wide range of interests and points of view.
- Aside from his status as a Jewish follower of Jesus (Antioch was the site of the first use of the term “Christian”), Matthew also reflects on the period following the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, when conflicts broke out between rabbinic Yavneh Jews and Jewish followers of Jesus.
- It’s possible that the rabbis weren’t all that successful.
- (I always point out to my students that a Christian can attend any Jewish Sabbath service and participate fully in all of the prayers with complete religious sincerity.) Matthew goes to great lengths to disassociate himself from the actions of the Roman authorities.
- Perhaps as a result of intra-Jewish rivalry, the verse “His blood be upon us and our children” is added to place the ultimate responsibility squarely on the shoulders of the Jewish authorities (Matthew 24:25).
- The Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts should be read together as a single piece of literature.
We can now use the word “Christian” which occurs at Acts 11:26 for the first time, but the term was almost certainly a pejorative epithet in origin.
Luke is trying to justify Christianity in the face of criticism by the Romans who accused it of being “superstition.” Luke goes beyond Matthew to establish Roman innocence.
Then three times Pilate declares Jesus’ innocence to the crowd.
The Gospel of John, as most scholars maintain, stands by itself but one of the signs of its lateness in its present form (ca.
The stereotype is set for the later, fateful charge that “the Jews killed Jesus” although John does not say this.
It was not until after Constantine brought about a full breach with Judaism as such that the phrase “Christ-killers” was put to use.
John Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople (ca.
By the Middle Ages the epithet “Christ-killers” became the verbal club justifying the ghettoization, persecution, and murder of Jews.
My discussion lays out a sequence of who was responsible for Jesus’ death and the appropriate terms for each stage: Romans Romans /Jewish leaders High Priest, Scribes, Elders/Romans Chief Priest, Scribes, Elders, Crowd/Pilate (sort of) (sort of) Jews (in general) (in general) “Stiff-necked People”“Christ-killers…” From what I can gather about Mel Gibson’s movie in published reports, is that like many past movies about Jesus it merges all the gospel stories about the passion together.
As I show above, the different gospels say very different things.
This makes it sound like the notorious traditional Catholic Oberammergau Passion Play in Germany which in its original form was blatantly stereotypical and anti-Semitic.
Most importantly, the tendency in almost all Christian views of Jesus’ death is to assume, not the first term in the sequence I give above but the last, as one’s frame of reference. But to be fair, we have to wait until the movie comes out.
Birth of Christianity [ushistory.org]
Despite the fact that there is no record of Jesus’ physical appearance, countless paintings of his face have been produced after his death, all of which show his face. The Last Supper is being presided over by Jesus (in the middle). It was standard practice in the Roman Empire to have people crucified. Due to the widespread use of these practices, the crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth was barely observed by a tiny group of devout followers. To comprehend the life and death of Jesus, as well as the origins of Christianity, one must first comprehend the historical background of the Roman Empire.
- When Rome conquered the world in 30 C.E., it had grown to encompass practically all of the territories bordering to the Mediterranean Sea, including the territory previously held by the Hebrews.
- The Jews, on the other hand, had a theological justification for fighting Roman power.
- The Jews, on the other hand, were required by their faith to worship just one god: Yahweh.
- The emperors were accustomed to having their way, and they did not take the Jewish uprising in stride.
- In the same year, they selected Pontius Pilate as the ruler of the province of Syria.
- He has brought the Jews to the verge of insurrection on more than one occasion by breaching their sacred convictions in their holiest city, Jerusalem.
- This action culminated in a repressed insurrection that resulted in the deaths of a large number of Jews.
- In its place, God’s victory over all human sins and the building of God’s eternal reign were to take place.
- Many Jews were looking forward to the arrival of this messiah who would free them from Roman tyranny as well as their earthly concerns.
Jesus of Nazareth
The crucifixion, a bloodthirsty ancient method of punishment, was responsible for Jesus’ death. During a crucifixion, the person who has been sentenced is nailed and/or bound to a wooden cross. This illustration depicts a man who is chained at the arms and has metal spikes driven through his ankles. Jesus began to teach in the Jewish tradition from the beginning of his ministry. Preaching love and tolerance, as well as curing the ill and walking on water, he was rumored to have performed miracles as well as resurrecting people from the dead.
- Jesus taught that we should love even our adversaries because, in view of the impending kingdom of God, there was no reason to be hostile toward anybody.
- The majority of Jews in Galilee, a region in northern Israel where Jesus presented his views for the first time, were opposed to his beliefs.
- A period of time between 30 and 33 C.E., he opted to travel to Jerusalem in order to propagate his message.
- However, following his conversion to Christianity, he embarked on a lengthy tour across the country, preaching.
- There were other Jews who did not share the same views on their religion or their relationship with the Romans.
- He was entrusted by Pontius Pilate with the responsibility of controlling Jewish affairs and keeping the Jewish populace under control.
- It was determined by Jesus that he would take aim at these priests and their leadership of the Temple of Yahweh.
- It was he who orchestrated an attack against the Temple’s trade activities, which were a significant source of revenue for the temple’s priests.
Jesus was taken into custody on the night of the Passover Seder, sometimes known as the Last Supper among Christians. Jesus had been hiding, and one of his disciples, Judas of Iscariot, had informed the Roman authorities of his whereabouts and when he would return.
Crucifixion and the Growth of Christianity
Pontius Pilate, who was unsure of what to do with Jesus, brought him before the council. The followers of Jesus were a small minority, and the people demanded that Jesus be crucified. Jesus was sentenced to death by Pilate. He was beaten and nailed to a cross. The tomb of Jesus was discovered to be empty three days after his death. His followers believe that they experienced visions of Jesus having resurrected from the grave for the next 40 days, following in the tradition of Moses and other great Jewish prophets.
- The majority of Jews were opposed to the thought of Jesus as their messiah.
- With the arrival of Paul of Tarsus, everything changed.
- There were many individuals in the region who were impoverished and destitute who found comfort in the ideas of a loving god and a life beyond death.
- Paul, on the other hand, went far and wide, and his successors did an incredible job of converting people.
- Crucifixion These are the words of a Religious Studies professor, who delivers this page on the crucifixion, which is not for the faint of heart.
- It also includes a graphic of a crucifixion as well as a photograph of some skeleton bones that were subjected to a crucifixion.
- Please report a broken link.
Despite its vastness, this comprehensive resource has a professional appearance and is separated into four distinct sections: “Hellenistic/Roman ReligionPhilosophy,” “Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls,” “Ancient Judaism,” and — of particular significance — “Christian Origins and the New Testament.” More information on Jesus, Paul, and the Bible may be found in the next section.
- Please report a broken link.
- You won’t find much in the way of eye pleasure on this site, except from the fancy border, but the information it contains is well worth the visit.
- Please report a broken link.
- Simply click on the link that says “Outline of Objects and Topics in Scrolls from the Dead Sea” to be sent to a page that has maps, photographs of the actual scrolls, dozens of artifacts from the time of the scrolls, and other useful information.
- From Jesus to Christ on the front lines From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians narrates the epic narrative of Christianity’s birth and climb to prominence.
- Discover how Jesus’ life was influenced by Judaism and the Roman Empire.
- Please report a broken link.
- Ancient Christian burial sites can be found beneath the surface of the city of Rome and its surrounding area.
- Yes, it is!
- View some magnificent images, as well as the extensive history that can be found on this website.
- Foods mentioned in the Bible This website examines the Bible from a novel perspective: it looks at the popular meals of the time period that are referenced in the Bible.
Get to know more about the ingredients of the day (there weren’t too many! ), as well as recipes for delectable delicacies such as Biblical butter and unleavened flatbreads. Pour a big glass of pomegranate juice over everything to wash it all down. Please report a broken link.
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Jesus was executed because he was a Jewish victim of Roman persecution. On this point, all documented authorities are in agreement. His execution was ordered by the Gentile Roman ruler, Pontius Pilate, who had him tortured and killed by Gentile Roman troops before he was executed. In fact, Jesus was one of thousands of Jews who were executed by the Romans. The New Testament not only attests to this fundamental reality, but it also provides for Jewish participation in two ways. A small group of high-ranking Jewish officials who owed their positions and authority to the Romans colluded with the Gentile leaders to have Jesus executed; they are claimed to have been envious of Jesus and to have regarded him as an existential danger to the status quo.
The number of individuals in this mob is not specified, nor is there any explanation provided for their actions (other than the fact that they had been “stirred up,” as stated in Mark 15:11).
As recorded in Matthew, the Roman ruler wipes his hands of Jesus’ blood, as the Jews exclaim, “His blood be upon us and upon our children!” (Matthew 27:25.) Throughout Jesus’ mission, the Jews are shown as desiring to murder him in John’s Gospel (John 5:18,John 7:1,John 8:37).
This shift in emphasis is not entirely clear, but one obvious possibility is that as the church spread throughout the world, Romans rather than Jews became the primary targets of evangelism; as a result, there may have been some motivation to “off-the-hook” the Romans and blame the Jews for Jesus’ death rather than the other way around.
However, by the middle of the second century, the apocryphal Gospel of Peter presents the Romans as Jesus’ supporters, and the Jews as those who crucify him, according to tradition.
As a result, anti-Semitism has fed such beliefs for ages, culminating in the crude demonization of Jews as “Christ-killers.” Christians have traditionally held, in opposition to such predictions, that the human actors responsible for Jesus’ execution are irrelevant: he offered his life voluntarily as a sacrifice for sin (Mark 10:45;John 18:11).
“Let his blood be upon us and upon our children!” cries out the congregation in most liturgical churches when Matthew’s PassionNarrativeis read during a worship service.
In most liturgical churches, when Matthew’s PassionNarrativeis read during a worship service, all members of the congregation are invited to echoMatt 27:25aloud, crying out, “Let his blood be upon us and upon our children!”
Mark Allan Powell is a professor of New Testament at Trinity Lutheran Seminary in St. Paul, Minnesota (Columbus, Ohio). He is the editor of the HarperCollins Bible Dictionary and the author of Introducing the New Testament (Baker, 2009) andJesus as a Figure in History (Westminster, 2009). He received his bachelor’s degree from Harvard University. John Knox Publishing Company, 2012). A gathering of individuals who are participating in religious services and are worshiping. The proclamation of “the good news” of Jesus Christ to the entire world.
- spurious gospel purporting to have been authored by the apostle Peter, but which was rejected by the early Roman Catholic Church as part of the canonical New Testament canon because of its apocryphal nature.
- A narrative that has been written, spoken, or recorded.
- God’s character and actions are discussed through writing, conversation, or contemplation.
- 15:1111 (Mark 15:1111) The leading priests, on the other hand, incited the mob to demand that Jesus release Barabbas for them instead.
27:2525 (KJV) Following that, the entire population exclaimed, “His blood be on us and on our children!” 5:1818 (John 5:1818) In order to assassinate him, the Jews increased their efforts even further, believing that he was not only violating the Sabbath but also referring to God as his own Father in the process.
- He did not want to travel about in Judea since the Jews were searching for an occasion to attack him and his family.
- 1 2:14-1514 (Thess 2:14-1514) Because you, brothers and sisters, were models for the churches of God in Christ Jesus that are located in Judea, because you experienced the same things from your own compa, you became imitators of those churches.
- Observe further information 10:45:45 (Mark 10:45:45) The Son of Man, after all, did not come to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” 18:1111 (John 18:1111) “Put your sword back into its sheath,” Jesus instructed Peter to do.
- God, on the other hand, demonstrates his love for us by sending Christ to die for us while we were still sinners.
- More details may be found at1 Tim 1:515 p.m.
When it comes to Christ Jesus coming into the world to help sinners—of which I am the foremost—the phrase is certain and deserving of complete acceptance. Matt. 27:2525 (KJV) Following that, the entire population exclaimed, “His blood be on us and on our children!”
Religion in the Roman Empire
Several Greco-Roman gods, such as Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, and Mars, were worshipped as the official religion of the Romans throughout their time there. A Roman priest was in charge of ensuring that the gods were properly worshipped in the correct manner. It was the very prosperity of the Roman Empire that demonstrated to historians that the Romans had rightly worshipped their deities. Unlike other civilizations, the Romans were tolerant of other people’s deities, allowing indigenous peoples in their provinces to worship any gods they choose.
- In 63 BC, the Romans gained indirect control over Judea, establishing themselves as the country’s rulers.
- The involvement of the Romans in the divides produced by Jesus of Nazareth would ultimately influence the course of history.
- The Romans regarded Jesus as a danger to their authority and sentenced him to death on the cross.
- To begin with, Christianity, as the group became called after the Christo, the anointed one, was regarded as a mere religious sect inside Judaism, rather than a separate religion.
- Paul preached that Christ was the son of God, and that people may be saved by embracing Christ as their savior as taught by Paul.
- It is estimated that there were 100 churches throughout the Empire by the year 100.
- Christians, on the other hand, who refused to participate in Roman public rites dedicated to the gods came to be regarded as a danger to the empire at some time.
- Christianity, on the other hand, continued to grow in strength and popularity across the Empire.
- It was made the official religion of the Roman Empire during the reign of Theodosius, who reigned from 378 to 395.
The Roman Empire: in the First Century. The Roman Empire. Jesus
Several Greco-Roman gods, such as Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, and Mars, were worshipped as the official religion of the Romans. The correct ceremonial worship of the gods was the responsibility of a Roman priest. Indeed, the Roman Empire’s very prosperity served as proof that the Romans had rightly worshipped their gods. Unlike other civilizations, the Romans were tolerant of other people’s deities, allowing indigenous peoples in their provinces to worship whichever deities they choose. Individual families and areas had their own local gods, in addition to the official gods of the state.
- The Romans were frequently dragged into the conflicts that arose between various Jewish communities while they were in the region.
- As a Jew, Jesus called for greater fulfillment of the prophecies of Jewish prophets in his preaching.
- Many of his followers were convinced that he had been raised from the dead.
- However, after the Christo, or the anointed one, it became known as Christianity.
- According to him, the gospel of Jesus should be preached not just to Jews but also to everyone else.
- As Christianity expanded across the empire, it was a slow and steady progression.
- When Christianity first emerged, the Romans paid little attention to it.
- Following that, there was a period of sporadic suppression of Christians, which peaked under Nero’s reign.
After becoming the first Christian Emperor, Constantine reigned as the Roman Emperor until his death. It was established the official religion of the Roman Empire during the reign of Theodosius I, who reigned from 378 to 395.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is Pontius Pilate best known for?
Pontius Pilate, full name Marcus Pontius Pilatus, was a Roman prefect (governor) of Judaea from 26 to 36 CE under the emperor Tiberius who presided over the trial of Jesus and delivered the order for his death. He died after the year 36 CE.
Historical and traditional accounts of the life of Pontius Pilate
Historically speaking, Pilate was a Roman equestrian (knight) belonging to the Samniteclan of the Pontii, according to the traditional version of his life (hence his name Pontius). He was appointed prefect of Judaea as a result of the intervention of Sejanus, a Roman emperor Tiberius’ favorite who was also a friend of the emperor. (An inscription from Caesarea in ancient Palestine attests to the fact that he held the position of prefect.) Despite being protected by Sejanus, Pilate alienated Jews in Roman-occupied Palestine by offending their religious sensibilities, such as when he posted portraits of the emperor around the city and had coins with pagan religious symbols produced.
Following Pilate’s onslaught on them on Mount Gerizim, the Samaritans reported him to Vitellius, the Syrian legate (36ce).
Eusebius of Caesarea’s Ecclesiastical History claims that Pilate committed suicide on the command of the emperorCaligula.
Pilate in the New Testament
Decisions about the man himself must be made inferentially, almost completely on the basis of subsequent Jewish and Christian literature, particularly those of Josephus and the New Testament, which are the most reliable sources. Josephus’ allusions appear to be constant throughout his writings. Their depiction seemed to be of a brash strictauthoritarianRoman commander who, although being both sensible and practical, never seemed to know how far he should go in a particular situation. He incited riots among both Jews and Samaritans, according to the Bible.
- Josephus expresses his inferential conclusion that Pilate “was strongly moved by their solid resolution,” implying that he had a strong character himself.
- Could it be that the crowd would be just as joyful if he freed Barabbas on the feast day instead of Jesus (Mark 15:6 ff.)?
- A revelatory dream she has had about Jesus is communicated to him by his wife, who encourages him to “have nothing to do with the innocent man” (Matthew 27:19), and Pilate abdicates his responsibility to the emperor.
- While Pilate is pronouncing judgment from a tribunal in front of the prefect’s palace, John’s depiction of Pilate does not conform to standard Roman protocol.
- Jesus in the presence of Pilate Jean Fouquet’s illuminated book of hours for Étienne Chevalier, c.
- Photograph courtesy of the Hulton Archive/Getty Images Even into the early twenty-first century, some churches continued to hold fast to an early church tradition that had taken a favorable view of Pilate.
His wife and himself are venerated in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, and their feast day is celebrated on June 25. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Michael Ray has made numerous revisions and updates to this article in the most recent version.
BBC – Religions – Christianity: Who killed Jesus?
It is believed that no trial or death in history has had such a dramatic effect as Jesus’ trial and execution in Roman-occupied Jerusalem two thousand years ago. But, more importantly, was it an execution or a judicial murder, and who was to blame? Beginning with Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem on a donkey, the tale opens with the Galilean rebelJesus, who is consciously fulfilling a prophesy in the Hebrew Bible about his advent as Messiah. He’s surrounded by a throng of admirers. Following that, Jesus enters the Temple, the center of Jewish Judaism, and assaults money-changers, accusing them of defiling a sacred space.
Jesus is captured in the Garden of Gethsemane and brought before Caiaphas before being judged by the Roman Governor.
Caiaphas was in an advantageous position. Caiaphas was a master political manipulator and one of the most powerful men in Jerusalem at the time of Jesus’ death. As High Priest of the Temple, he’d already lived 18 years (the average High Priest only lasts 4), and he’d formed a solid alliance with the Roman forces in control of the temple complex. Caiaphas was well-connected to everyone who mattered. At the time, he was the de-facto king of the whole Jewish community around the world, and he intended to maintain it that way.
This is the basis for the death penalty.
What were Caiaphas’ motives?
Caiaphas’ power was threatened by Jesus. Caiaphas could not afford to allow any upstart preacher to get away with challenging his authority, especially at such a sensitive time of year as Passover was approaching. This was the most important Jewish holiday, and academics estimate that over two and a half million Jews would have gathered in Jerusalem to celebrate the occasion. Caiaphas did not want to be seen as a fool.
Jesus threatened Caiaphas’ relationship with Rome
Caiaphas’ power foundation was the Sanhedrin, the ultimate Jewish council that ruled over both civil and religious law in the time of Jesus. It was comprised of 71 members, the majority of whom were chief priests, and Caiaphas presided over its proceedings. There were enormous benefits for the effort, since contemporary archaeologists have revealed that Caiaphas and his companions lived luxurious lives in homes that were vast and elaborately adorned. However, the Sanhedrin was only able to rule because the Romans granted them permission, and the only way to keep the Romans pleased was to maintain order in society.
In other words, if Jesus was causing difficulty, it was causing trouble for both Caiaphas and Pilate – and trouble for Pilate was still trouble for Caiaphas, as well.
Jesus was unquestionably a danger; the general public admired him, and it is possible that they paid more attention to him than they did to the priests; and the general public listened attentively to his criticism of what he perceived to be wrong with the religious system.
Jesus threatened the Temple’s income
Jesus was also posing a danger to a valuable source of revenue for the Temple’s priests. When it came to simple concerns like cleansing and the remission of sins, the Temple equipment brought in tremendous sums of money. Archaeologists have unearthed 150 mikvehs in the area surrounding the Temple of Solomon. Mikvehs are ceremonial baths that Jews take to cleanse themselves before participating in any religious activity. People who were ritually unclean could not enter the Temple, and practically everyone who arrived in Jerusalem for Passover was regarded to be ritually unclean.
- The mikvehs were under the supervision of the priests, who charged people to use them.
- Jesus felt the whole thing was a load of nonsense.
- The Temple’s apparatchiks have received some bad news.
- If this gets out of hand, it might spark a riot in the Temple.
- Jesus stormed into the Temple and accused the moneychangers and dealers of sacrificial doves of extortion and of turning the Temple into a den of thieves, according to the Gospel of Matthew.
- And God, as every Jew was well aware, has the authority to do so – he had shown this many times before.
- He needed to do something to demonstrate that he was still in charge, and he needed to do it soon; Jesus was on a roll, and no one could predict what he would do next.
What Caiaphas did
You don’t get to be High Priest unless you’re capable of making difficult decisions and seeing them through to completion. A gathering of the chief priests was summoned by Caiaphas as it became clear that Jesus had to be stopped. According to Matthew’s Gospel, Caiaphas informed them that Jesus would have to be slain. This was something that the priests were not entirely certain about. If Jesus were to be executed, there may be rioting. Caiaphas, on the other hand, received his judgment and put it into effect immediately.
We may disapprove of certain of Caiaphas’ self-interested motivations, such as maintaining his wealth and power base, but this does not amount to a crime of any kind in our eyes.
Jesus was raising a commotion in the city of Jerusalem. The man was a well-known rebel, and he was risking public order at a time when enormous and turbulent crowds were thronging the streets of New York. The decision to arrest him was totally justified.
The rigged trial
Caiaphas had stepped over into the wrong side of the law at this point. He arranged the trial in his favor. Caiaphas took on the positions of chief judge and prosecuting attorney, which are often incompatible. Scholars are familiar with the laws that applied to Jewish trials during that time period, and the trial of Jesus defied several of those norms, including the following:
- It took place at night since Jewish trials were required to take place during the day. A feast day had been observed, which was not permitted. Despite the fact that it took place at Caiaphas’ house, it should have taken place in the council chamber.
Caiaphas’ trial did not go according to plan. To establish that Jesus had threatened to demolish the Temple, which would have been treason and an offense against God, he would have to produce evidence. The witnesses, on the other hand, couldn’t agree on what Jesus had said. As a result, the accusation was dismissed. Caiaphas made the decision to see if he could trick Jesus into saying something he shouldn’t have. He confronted Jesus with a direct question: “Are you the Son of God, the Son of the Most High, the Son of the Most Holy?
- It’s sufficient.
- The other members of the Court are in agreement.
- There was only one problem: the court lacked the authority to carry out executions.
- Actually, there are two issues: first, blasphemy against the God of the Jews was not considered a crime under Roman law, and second, unless Caiaphas can come up with anything better, it may not be enough to persuade the Romans to execute Jesus unless he can come up with something better.
Caiaphas was dismissed from office shortly after Jesus’ death and retired to his farm in Galilee, where he lived in peace.
The case against Pontius Pilate
What was Pilate’s reasoning for executing Jesus when he thought him to be guiltless? Pilate was the Governor of Judea, which was a province of the Roman Empire at the time of Jesus’ death. He had 6,000 crack troops with him and another 30,000 on standby in neighboring Syria, according to reports. When it came to keeping Rome happy, Pilate had total authority, including the power of life and death, as long as he kept the peace with the people. The argument against Pilate is that he judged Jesus not guilty, but ordered his execution in order to maintain public order and maintain the peace.
The two Pilates
We don’t know what Pilate was like in his personal life. The Bible portrays him as a weak but innocent guy who did not want to put a man to death who he felt was innocent, but who caved in to political pressure because he was weak. Some historians, however, are of the opposite opinion. Philo, who was writing at the time, described Pilate as cold-blooded, harsh, and merciless. He was presumably a typical Roman with a contempt for any other civilization, believing that the Jews were not nearly as civilized as the Romans were.
Pilate was well-known for executing people without a trial, therefore it would not be surprising if he was the one responsible for the death of Jesus on the cross.
What were Pilate’s motives?
Pilate was determined to maintain the status quo. His ability to administer the province smoothly and effectively was critical to his future advancement in the Roman Empire. He had 6,000 soldiers on standby to preserve the peace in a metropolis with a population of 2.5 million Jews, which he commanded. The religious leaders, whose cooperation he required in order to live a peaceful life, urged him to put Jesus to death, and there was an angry throng clamoring for Jesus’ blood. It was conceivable that releasing Jesus would have sparked a riot, and Pilate may have lost control of the city and probably the entire province.
No matter how little he cared for the people of Judea, Pilate was unable to avoid attending the most important event of the year, the Passover. The message of Passover was one that was guaranteed to cause consternation among those who were attempting to maintain control over the Jewish people, for it commemorated the moment when God transported the Israelites out of Egypt and into the Holy Land, allowing them to shake off foreign occupation. Consequently, it is no coincidence that practically all of the riots that we learn about in the first century took place around the festival of Pesach.
And because unrest in such a circumstance is contagious, Pilate realized that he would have to be harsh in order to put an end to any chaos that arose in the situation.
When Caiaphas brought Jesus before Pilate, it’s likely that he was completely unprepared for the dilemma that was about to confront him.
A trial for treason
Instead of beginning with the conviction for blasphemy, Caiaphas asserted that Jesus was guilty of sedition, which was later overturned. Caiaphas said that Jesus believed himself, or that his supporters believed, or that people believed that he was the King of the Jews. The crime against Rome was a capital offense, and Pilate was obligated to deal with it, whether he wanted to or not. The rumor spread quickly throughout Jerusalem, claiming that Jesus of Nazareth was being tried for his life. Crowds began to form, some of whom were undoubtedly members of a mob organized by the Temple officials; this was exactly what a Roman governor looking for a quiet Passover did not want.
- Jesus didn’t say much or didn’t say anything at all.
- There was just no proof to support Jesus’ claims.
- The ruling infuriated the audience, who erupted in chants calling for Jesus’ execution on the cross.
- The alternative, on the other hand, was the execution of an innocent man.
- In ancient times, there were Passover amnesty laws in place, which authorized the Roman governor to free a prisoner during the holiday.
- They called for Barabbas to be liberated from his prison cell.
In his verdict, Pilate pronounced Jesus to be innocent and sentenced him to death by crucifixion. In front of the throng, he symbolically washed his hands, as if to assure them that he was not responsible for Jesus’ death.
Pilate was summoned to Rome in order to face prosecution for his ruthless treatment of Jews, but the Emperor Tiberius died before the trial could take place, and Pilate was never prosecuted. It is believed that he committed suicide in 37 AD, not long after the crucifixion had taken place. In Christian belief, Pilate and his wife finally converted to Christianity, according to the Bible.
The case against Jesus
Did Jesus have any idea what he was getting himself into during the events leading up to his execution? Many scholars think that Jesus himself was the one most responsible for the killing of Jesus, more so than anybody else in history. There is a substantial amount of evidence to imply that everything he did was premeditated and that he was fully aware of the repercussions of his decisions.
Jesus had a genuine belief that he was on a mission from God, and everything he did was in the service of that mission’s fulfillment.
Acting out the prophecy of the Messiah
When it comes to the events of Holy Week, it appears that Jesus is purposefully carrying out the prophesy in Hebrew scripture about Israel’s rightful ruler, the anointed one, the Messiah, who would come at long last to be God’s agent to rescue Israel. Even while his entry in Jerusalem on a donkey was a fulfillment of prophecy, it would not have been sufficient reason to have Jesus crucified on its own.
Attacking the religious establishment
When Jesus arrived to the Temple, he began not just a direct attack on the moneychangers’ business activities, but also a symbolic attack on the structure of the Temple itself. Jesus was well-versed in the religious traditions of his day, and he was well aware of the potential ramifications of his acts. He understood what it meant to declare the Temple’s destruction and to assert that a new kingdom, the Kingdom of God, was developing in its place. Jesus was well aware that the authorities would take action against him in due course, and he was well aware that the penalty would almost certainly be death.
But Jesus continued to put himself in harm’s way, staying in Jerusalem and celebrating the Passover with his disciples despite the threat.
In the midst of their meal, Jesus alluded to the bread they were eating as his broken body, and the crimson wine they were drinking as his spilled blood, as he sat with his disciples.
One of the Gospels records Jesus telling Judas, “Do what you have to do, but don’t take too long doing it.”
Jesus sweats blood
The account of Jesus’ night in Gethsemane provides compelling medical evidence that lends credence to the argument that he understood exactly what he was doing. It was at this place that Jesus was struck with a terrifying sense of uncertainty – was death, after all, what God had planned for him? He pleaded with God to save him from his predicament. It was at that point, according to St. Luke, who was himself a doctor, that Jesus sweated droplets of blood into the path in front of him. Doctors are aware that little blood veins supply the sweat glands that are found throughout our bodies.
The medical word for this condition is haematohydrosis, which means “blood sweat.” If Jesus had known what he was in for, he would have been unable to endure the tension, which would have caused him to break out in hives and sweat blood.
So was Jesus guilty of his own death?
Not in the sense of remorse that the majority of people would comprehend. A soldier who embarks on a mission that is almost guaranteed to result in death is a brave guy, not a coward or a criminal. However, Jesus was not guilty in the same way that Caiaphas and Pilate were. He remained faithful to his vocation, even though it resulted in death.
What Happened to Pontius Pilate — The Man Responsible for Crucifying Jesus?
In front of the crowd, Pilate presents Jesus to them. Wikimedia Commons has made this image available to the public. Pontius Pilate was unquestionably a historical person of importance. At 1961, a slab of limestone with inscriptions was discovered in Caesarea Maritima (modern-day Israel), stating that he served as the Roman governor of Judah during the reign of Emperor Tiberius and during the time period when Jesus was living. A number of documents connected to his rule have also been discovered in Rome among ancient writings.
The accusations of treason were brought against Jesus because he claimed to be the “King of all Jews,” which was a prohibited claim to make while Judaea was under the control of Rome.
For more than two centuries, Pilate had served as the ruler of that section of the Roman empire (and would continue to be until 36 AD).
Many pagan symbols were introduced into hallowed Jewish institutions as a result of his orders, which caused consternation among the local community.
He had a conversation with Jesus, and it appears that he first believed him to be innocent.
Then, three days after his death, Jesus resurrected from the dead, demonstrating to his disciples that he truly was the son of God (again, according toscriptures).
However, despite the significant role that Pontius Pilate had in its inception, the vast majority of people are unaware of what happened to him over the remainder of his life after that.
For them, the following few years were just another day at the office.
There were a slew of other suspected rebels who suffered a fate similar to Jesus’s later on throughout his reign.
Furthermore, because the inhabitants of Judaea were not citizens, Pilate was free to be as harsh as he pleased.
Other historical texts also describe how Pilate seized cash from a Jewish temple and used them to construct an aqueduct connecting Jerusalem to the rest of the world.
To do this, he had troops masquerading as citizens enter the unarmed throng and then beat a number of demonstrators to death with clubbing weapons.
In the end, his worst misfortune happened when a group of Samaritans went in search of items that were claimed to have been buried by the Prophet Moses at Mount Gerizim and found none.
Pilate was quickly summoned to Rome, where he was tried by Tiberius after some of the survivors reported to the Roman governor of Syria, Lucius Vitellius, about what had happened to them.
Nevertheless, while he was on his way, Tiberius passed away due to old age and was succeeded by Caligula.
Pilate had just recently resigned from politics and was surviving on a state pension and whatever money he had stolen from the people of Judaea to supplement his income.
Following his death, a vast deal of information about Pilate disseminated throughout Europe.
They just wished to avoid being persecuted any further than they were already being mistreated.
The dissemination of fake letters purporting to be authored by Pilate occurred as early as the 2nd century, according to historical records.
The “Acts of Pilate,” among other sources, described how Pilate allegedly declared, “I have discovered no grounds for the death punishment.
The Jewish mob, on the other hand, wanted him dead and fought back by screaming, “His blood be on us and our children!” To put it another way, they’ll accept responsibility for assassinating the son of God.
According to the author, this quotation was written several years after Christ’s death with the goal of shifting the responsibility from Pilate to the Jews, as previously mentioned.
Eventually, as the Roman Empire converted to Christianity, the guilt for Jesus’ crucifixion was shifted from the Jews to Pontius Pilate.
However, the harm had already been done in terms of the Gospels, which were blaming the Jews. In actuality, Pilate received no punishment at all for all of the atrocities he had done throughout his reign of terror (except perhaps eternal damnation).