Whatever Happened to the Twelve Apostles?
The apostles were not the type of people you would have anticipated Jesus to choose to accompany him on his journey to spread the gospel throughout the world. There was nothing particularly noteworthy or noteworthy about them. The twelve apostles were basically regular guys who went to work every day. However, Jesus transformed them into the foundation of the church and entrusted them with the most amazing mission imaginable: summoning the whole world, including the mightiest empire the world had ever known, to repentance and faith in the resurrected Christ.
Despite popular belief, only two apostles are mentioned in the New Testament: Judas, who betrayed Jesus before going outside and hanging himself, and James the son of Zebedee, who was murdered by Herod in 44 AD.
Take a look at how each of the apostles went out into the world to service and evangelize, and how many of them died as a result of their beliefs.
How Did the Apostles Die?
Even though there are numerous reports and tales, and even though they are not always credible, it is reasonable to conclude that the apostles traveled far and wide as messengers of the gospel of the resurrected Christ. According to an early version, they cast lots and divided the world in order to choose who would travel where so that everyone might learn of Jesus’s birth. They suffered immensely as a result of their religion, and in the majority of cases, they died violent deaths as a result of their courageous witness.
Peter and Paul
Both were martyred in Rome in the year 66 AD, during Emperor Nero’s persecution of Christians. Paul was executed by beheading. Peter requested that he be crucified upside down because he did not believe he was worthy of dying in the same manner as his Lord.
Went to the “country of the man-eaters,” which is now in the Soviet Union, to collect information. Christians in that country believe he was the first to introduce the gospel to their country. As well as Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey, and Greece, where he is claimed to have been crucified, he preached across the world.
Most of his activity was most likely concentrated in the region east of Syria. His preaching is said to have taken him as far east as India, where the ancient Marthoma Christians venerate him as their founder, according to tradition. They report that he died after being cut through by the spears of four warriors while on the battlefield.
He may have had a great ministry in Carthage, North Africa, before moving on to Asia Minor, where he converted the widow of a Roman proconsul, according to some accounts. Philip was arrested and ruthlessly executed as a result of the proconsul’s actions against him.
The tax collector and author of a Gospel traveled to Persia and Ethiopia to minister to the people.
Some of the earliest records claim that he was not martyred, while others claim that he was stabbed to death in Ethiopia, according to the sources.
He is credited with extensive missionary journeys, including trips to India with Thomas, back to Armenia, as well as Ethiopia and Southern Arabia, according to legend. As a martyr for the gospel, he met his end in a variety of ways, according to different versions.
The son of Alpheus is one of at least three Jameses who are mentioned in the New Testament, according to scholars. There is considerable disagreement as to which James is which, but this James is thought to have served as a pastor in Syria, according to tradition. According to the Jewish historian Josephus, he was stoned to death before being clubbed to death.
Simon the Zealot
At least three Jameses are mentioned in the New Testament, all of whom are sons of Alpheus. The identities of the two Jameses are a little murky, but this James is believed to have served as a missionary in Syrian territory. His death was believed by the Jewish historian Josephus to have been caused by stoning and clubbing.
The apostle who was picked to take Judas’ place. Tradition has it that he will accompany Andrew to Syria and be burned to death.
Generally considered to be the sole apostle to have died a natural death due to old age, Paul was the only one to do so. He was the spiritual head of the church in the Ephesus area, and it is stated that he took care of Mary, the mother of Jesus, in his own house when she was there. During Domitian’s persecution, which began in the middle of the twentieth century, he was exiled to the island of Patmos. He is attributed for authoring the last book of the New Testament, the Book of Revelation, in that location.
Influence of the Apostles Today
The names of Jesus’ apostles have risen to the top of the list of the most popular male given names in the Western world. I’m curious how many people you know who have names such as John or Pete or Tom or Andy or Jim, or Bart or Phil. At least four of the apostles were fishermen, according to tradition. Is it possible that this was one of the reasons why the fish was one of the oldest and most renowned Christian symbols? The Greek word for fish, ichthus, was used to create an acrostic, which is Iesous Christos Theou Uios Soter, which literally translates as “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior” in English.
Despite this, the faith grew like wildfire, despite the fact that Christianity had been branded an illegal religion by the government.
What Happened To The 12 Disciples? — Faith on Hill Church
Our church heard about Jesus selecting 12 young men from among his disciples to preach about the arrival of the Kingdom of God on a recent Sunday morning. They were Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter), James son of Zebedee and his brother John (to whom he gave the name Boanerges, which means “sons of thunder” in Greek), Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him. (Mark 3:16-19, New International Version) Following Jesus’ ascension into paradise (Acts 1).
This is a contentious issue because the Scriptures provide no clue as to whether or not God desired them to do so, and many believe that the apostle Paul is God’s evident substitute for Judas, which is a subject of contention.
God has called each and every one of us to the task he has for us, and there is no one more important, more holy, or more loved in God’s kingdom than anyone else in God’s kingdom.
All of them suffered severely as a result of their proclamation of Jesus as Lord, and their story continues to have a significant impact on our faith today.
Due to the intrusion of politics into men’s traditions, we have traditions that James, the brother of John, went to Spain, when the Bible clearly states that he was the first of the 12 apostles to be martyred (killed) for his faith in Jesus, when he was put to the sword in the early days of the church in Jerusalem, as the Bible clearly states.
- There are a variety of unsubstantiated stories surrounding his death, the most notable of which being that he was crucified upside down because he did not feel himself worthy of dying in the same manner as Jesus.
- In Jerusalem, King Herod ordered him to be assassinated by the sword (Acts 12).
- JOHN John is the author of the Gospel of John, the book of Revelation, and three epistles that bear his name.
- Tradition has it that he spent the latter years of his life ministering in the area around Ephesus in modern-day Turkey, and that he is buried there.
- Later, he journeyed to modern-day Turkey and Greece, where he was killed for his beliefs.
- In accordance with tradition, a Roman Proconsul was so angry by the fact that his wife had converted to Christianity as a result of Philip’s preaching that he ordered Philip’s violent execution.
- If this is the case, it is likely that Philip’s tomb has lately been located (read aboutHERE).
According to other tales, he traveled to India with Thomas, then to Armenia before making his way via the trade routes that connect Ethiopia with the southern Arabian states.
His given name is “Nathaniel” in some records, which might have been a family name or a nickname that he was known by in the congregation.
While some accounts do not mention how he died, others claim that he was stabbed to death in Africa, according to certain sources.
This other name is less difficult to identify and is most likely a family or tribe identity name.
While Thomas first questioned the resurrection, his confidence in the risen Jesus was powerful enough to propel him eastward through Syria and Iraq, where he finally ended himself in India, where the Marthoma Christian tradition believes him to be the founder of their religion.
JAMES THE SON OF ALPHAUESThought to be the brother of Matthew/Levi, James is thought to have preached in the northern parts of Israel.
He is also referred to as James the Younger (younger brother of Levi?) or James the Lesser (younger brother of Levi?) (which would have had different connotations then it does for us today).
I already stated that politics is intertwined with the traditions surrounding the apostles.
As a result, churches in locations like Turkey, Greece, Rome, and Jerusalem naturally possessed greater authority and influence than churches in places like Britain, France, Africa, and Spain, among other things.
Despite the fact that James was martyred in Acts 12, a Spanish bishop began to propagate the concept that James had traveled to Spain in the 12th century.
It appears that Simon was sawn in half in Persia, according to the prevailing opinion.
Some have attempted to link him to the Philip who appears later in the book of Acts, but the circumstantial evidence does not appear to support this other than the fact that they have the same name.
JUDAS THADEUS is a fictional character created by author Judas Thideus.
His gospel message is said to have been spread over the region now known as Northern Syria, Iraq, and Turkey according to tradition.
MATHISTRAdition holds that Matthias journeyed north, maybe all the way to and including the Caspian Sea.
PAUL Paul endured much hardship for the sake of the Lord throughout his life.
Once upon a time, I was stoned.
“Once I was stranded at sea for an entire night and a whole day.” Paul was killed at Rome in 66 AD, presumably at the same time as Peter, according to historical records.
This is significant since every single one of Jesus’ disciples died.
John passed away due to old age.
He was not the only one who betrayed Jesus; all of the other disciples deserted him, and Peter even went so far as to claim he had never heard of him.
But they all accepted God’s mercy and forgiveness, which was also extended to Judas.
If you’ve read this and have ever felt like Judas, believing that there is no hope, you should know that each and every apostle felt the same way at one time in their lives, but unlike Judas, they turned their gaze to Jesus and accepted his gracious offer of salvation.
You can take advantage of the same opportunity. Please keep in mind that this post has been changed from an earlier version to contain current information.
Apostles After the Death of Jesus
Photographs courtesy of.Photos.com/Photos.com/Getty Images The 12 apostles, also known as the 12 disciples, were the closest followers of Jesus Christ and made their influence on the history of Christianity. After betraying Jesus, one of the twelve apostles famously committed suicide by hanging himself. However, according to Christian tradition, the other apostles continued to spread the gospel after Christ’s death, albeit with a lack of the unity and strength that they had during Christ’s physical life.
Andrew, like the majority of the apostles, died as a martyr, according to a document written by the theologian Hippolytus of Rome. Around the year 70, this papyrus relates the story of Andrew being hung from an olive tree in Patrae, Achaia. Andrew is reported to have proclaimed the gospel of Christ to the Thracians and Scythians just before he was killed in battle. According to manuscripts collated by the Christian Classics Ethereal Library, some traditions describe his crucifixion as being performed in the spread-eagle posture.
After years of missionary activity in Armenia and India, Bartholomew – also known as Nathanael – is thought to have met his end by martyrdom in the year 70 A.D., following a similar path as Andrew. Despite the fact that nothing is known about Bartholomew’s death, Christians believe that he remained loyal to the very end, when he was crucified.
3James, Son of Alphaeus
According to Acts 12:2, the apostle James, son of Alphaeus, was killed by Herod Agrippa’s sword around 45 A.D., according to the Bible. According to the historian Eusebius’ “Church History,” James’ executioner was so moved by the apostle’s unshakable faith that he publicly declared his own belief in the resurrection of Christ and was executed with James.
4James, Son of Zebedee
After Christ’s death, James, the son of Zebedee, was appointed to lead the Christian church in Jerusalem. Christianity’s historians say James was assassinated in 63 A.D. by three men who demanded that he deny the legitimacy of Christ’s resurrection. In response to his defiance, he was hurled from the spire of his temple.
Because of his beliefs, even though John the Baptist was the only apostle who did not suffer martyrdom, the Roman Emperor Domitian, or maybe Nero, banished him to the island of Patmos. Revelation is said to have been written by John between the years 95 and 100 before his death from natural causes, according to tradition.
In the years following Christ’s death and resurrection, Matthew the tax collector is most known for writing the Gospel According to Matthew, which is still in print today. Christians believe Matthew was killed by beheading at Nad-Davar, Ethiopia, some ten years later, between 60 and 70 A.D., according to tradition. Even though it is a contentious issue, some academics believe that Matthew wrote the earliest Gospel of the New Testament. Others disagree.
Galatians 1:13 depicts Paul as a nonbeliever, but the resurrection of Christ caused him to be persuaded to believe in Christ. With his reputation as the disciple who succeeded Judas Iscariot, Paul – who is credited with writing more than half of the books of the New Testament – finally earned his place as one of the most important apostles in Christian history.
Paul was beaten throughout his life while he preached Christianity, and he was eventually killed by the Roman Emperor Nero in the year 67 A.D.
According to the gospels, Christ came to Peter a few days after his crucifixion and death. This event appears to mark Peter’s transformation from a fiery follower to a powerful leader who, according to the Acts of the Apostles, displays miraculous signs and preaches with fervor. Non-biblical writings and traditions generally indicate that Jesus was crucified on an upside-down crucifixion in Rome between 64 and 67 A.D., according to the most recent evidence. When Constantine became the first Christian Emperor of Rome, he thought that Peter was buried on the Vatican Hill, and bones discovered in a 1939 archaeological dig may provide evidence to substantiate this view.
The apostle Philip is credited with spreading the gospel throughout Phrygia, which is modern-day Turkey, following the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The apostle Philip labored as a committed missionary until he was tortured and executed by Phrygian Jews about the year 54 A.D.
Christian historians think Simon was one of the apostles who traveled the most, proclaiming the gospel in places as diverse as Egypt, Libya, and Persia before dying at the hands of a Syrian ruler in 74 A.D., according to Christian tradition. Simon is said to have died as a martyr, along with his companions.
Judas Thaddaeus, sometimes known as Jude, according to Christian academics such as Michael Patton of Credo House Ministries, continued to evangelize after the death of Christ. Patton claims that pagan priests in Mesopotamia beat Thaddaeus to death with sticks in the year 72 A.D., making him yet another apostle to die as a martyr in the name of Christ.
In John 20:25, Thomas expresses his initial skepticism about Christ’s resurrection. As a result of his personal encounter with Jesus Christ, the apostle proceeded to preach the gospel and, according to tradition, penned the Acts of Thomas and the non-canonical Gospel of Thomas. It is also thought that he was martyred in the year 70 AD; other accounts describe his death as a result of horrific agony, including spears and hot plates. Dan Ketchum has been a professional writer since 2003, and his work has appeared in a variety of publications, both online and offline, including Word Riot, Bazooka Magazine, Anemone Sidecar, Trails, and other publications.
Carrying On After Jesus Is ‘Gone’
When it comes to people who follow a liturgical church calendar, Pentecost is often considered to be the climax of the Easter season. In Acts 2, the Holy Spirit descended on the small group of believers who were gathered together praying in the Upper Room with a dazzling display of power. In one day, three thousand individuals came to believe in Jesus as a result of the disturbance that attracted the attention of the community. However, even while Pentecost marks the culmination of the previous 50 days in the Christian calendar, Ascension Sunday offers us with an opportunity for essential contemplation, without which Pentecost would be a bit of a waste of time.
- When the disciples had their last face-to-face discussion with Jesus, it was recorded in the first chapter of Acts.
- These same disciples did not comprehend the significance of Jesus’ impending death and resurrection until after the crucifixion.
- The fact that these same disciples want a bit more clarification regarding the next steps following Jesus’ resurrection makes reasonable, doesn’t it?
- However, in Acts 1, Jesus did not go into depth about what he was talking about.
The Great Commission
Then Jesus appeared to them and declared, “I have been given all authority in heaven and on earth.” As a result, go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, and instructing them to obey everything I have commanded you to do in the first place. And without a doubt, I will be with you constantly, till the end of the era.” Matthew 28:18-20 (NASB) With this pivotal commission, Jesus instructed them to “go and make disciples” all over the world.
- Their mission was to spread the good news of Jesus Christ to the farthest reaches of the globe.
- And we continue to regard it as our mission to this day.
- Approximately 0.03 percent of the Earth’s habitable land had been reached by the good news of his ascension by the time of his ascension.
- He nevertheless left this misfit band of tax collectors and fishermen, who scattered when they were afraid and appeared unable to discern for themselves the most fundamental aspects of the good news of Jesus, to evangelize the remaining 99.97 percent of the inhabitable world.
The First Sending
The Great Commission, as described in Matthew 28 and reiterated in Acts 1:8, is not God’s first commission to his children. Instead, it is God’s second commission to his children. When Jesus offered his final commission to his followers before ascending into heaven, he was referring to the very first commission or mandate God gave to mankind. God congratulated them and told them to “be fruitful and multiply, fill the world, and conquer it.” (Genesis 1:28) “You have authority over the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, and every thing that crawls on the surface of the land.” Genesis 1:28 (KJV) In Genesis 1, God effectively charged Adam and Eve with the responsibility of carrying out what he had just completed at the beginning of time.
- Going out into the freshly formed world as his image bearers and replicating what he had done, like self-similar, smaller fractal pictures expressing the creativity and character of the One True God throughout creation, was a noble vocation for them.
- Adam and Eve sinned and were expelled from the Garden before we were able to see the completion of their magnificent purpose.
- Aside from God’s proclamation of One coming who would destroy Satan in Genesis 3:15, it appeared as though the dignity of the calling in Genesis 1 and 2 had faded away completely.
- The death and resurrection of Jesus, though Satan snatched at the heals of Jesus, had in actuality struck Satan a knockout punch to the head with his death and resurrection.
- Redemption was and continues to be on the horizon.
- To put it another way, Jesus continued, “This message you just watched me preach in Jerusalem, Galilee, and Bethany?
After the Fall of Man, Jesus’ death and resurrection completed the redemption of the lofty vocation to bear God’s image out into the world, which had been lost as a result of that Fall. Then Jesus ascended to the throne of God.
The Great Commission, as described in Matthew 28 and reiterated in Acts 1:8, is not God’s first commission to his children. Instead, the Great Commission is God’s second commission to his children. It is a direct allusion to the very first commission or mandate God gave to mankind, which was given to Jesus’ apostles before he ascended into heaven. God congratulated them and told them to “be fruitful and multiply, fill the world, and conquer it.” (Genesis 1:28). “You have authority over the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, and every creature that crawls on the surface of the land.
- Going out into the freshly formed world as his image bearers and replicating what he had done, like self-similar, smaller fractal pictures reflecting the creativity and character of the One True God throughout creation, was a noble vocation for the chosen few.
- Before we could witness the completion of this great goal, Adam and Eve sinned and were expelled from the Garden of Eden.
- Aside from God’s proclamation of One coming who would destroy Satan in Genesis 3:15, it appeared as though the dignity of the calling in Genesis 1 and 2 had faded away entirely.
- The death and resurrection of Jesus, though Satan snatched at the heals of Jesus, had in actuality struck Satan a knockout punch to the head with his sacrifice and resurrection.
- Redemption was and continues to be on the horizon, Jesus then commissioned his followers, in a manner similar to what God did in Genesis 1, to go forth and proclaim this new King and kingdom to the nations.
- Let the rest of the world see what you’re doing, disciples.” “Be prolific,” God instructed Adam and Eve in Genesis 1.
- After the Fall of Man, the lofty calling to bear God’s image forth into the world was lost, but through Christ’s death and resurrection, it was restored.
The First Twenty Years: What Happened to the Church immediately after Jesus Died?
Leonardo da Vinci’s painting, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons What happened to the church in the hours and days after Jesus’ ascension into heaven? There was no New Testament book written during the first twenty years of the church’s existence. Paul did not begin writing until around twenty years after Jesus’ ascension, and the Gospels did not exist until nearly forty years after Jesus’ ascension. And, despite the fact that the book of Acts recounts crucial events from this early period, it can be difficult to piece together the overall image that Acts creates of the world.
In order to better understand this time of church history, the following is a quick overview of the first twenty years of Christian history.
The Last Forty-three Days before Jesus Ascends (A.D. 30)
Many people had turned their backs on Jesus as his ministry came to a close. Despite this, a handful of ladies, unidentified followers, and the twelve remained at his side. However, on the night of his treachery, even his closest followers fled from him in terror. And Peter himself denied the Lord three times throughout his ministry. From the perspective of an outsider, the Jesus movement appeared to be a colossal disaster. Jesus was executed as a criminal, and his disciples fled. Despite this, many, if not all, of his students returned to him.
- At this point, the apostle Paul appears to have counted more than “five hundred brethren” among the followers (1 Cor 15:6).
- When we think of the Jesus movement, we need to think of a tiny group of devout Jewish men and women who were committed to the cause.
- Christians, on the other hand, tended to come from middle- and lower-class backgrounds.
- However, this image would soon disappear because Jesus performed something that had never been done before: he rose from the dead.
- “He exhibited himself alive to them after his suffering by various evidence, coming to them throughout forty days and spoke about the kingdom of God,” according to the gospel according to Luke (Acts 1:3).
The Calm before the Storm of Pentecost (A.D. 30)
Jesus died during the Passover, resurrected from the dead three days later, and then spent forty days teaching his followers. As a result, on the forty-third day, Jesus ascended to the heavenly realm. Pentecost was celebrated a week later. On Jesus’ instruction throughout this week, one hundred and twenty disciples waited in Jerusalem (Acts 1:4). It was at this time that they “devoted themselves to prayer” (Acts 1:14) and selected Matthias as the twelfth apostle to replace Judas, who had betrayed Jesus (Acts 1:26).
A ragged collection of Jewish Jesus followers remained in Jerusalem, praying, despite the fact that many of them had quit their jobs.
These were presumably a small group of believers who were reliant on the generosity of a small number of supporters in Jerusalem.
Conflict without and within (A.D. 30–33)
And Peter delivered a sermon to a large crowd that had assembled in Jerusalem. Despite the fact that the church grew to around five thousand individuals (Acts 4:4), it did not happen without the resistance of religious authority (Acts 4). And, far from being a pure society, strife was introduced from the beginning. In those days, Christians provided assistance to widows who had no other means of support. These ladies were assisted by the church in obtaining social services. The Greek widows, on the other hand, believed that the church gave preference to Jewish widows (Acts 6:1).
- As a result of their efforts, Acts 6:1–6 records the formation of the first deacon board of the church.
- The persecution extended across the entire church.
- A large number of devout men buried Stephen and wept bitterly over his death.
- (See also Acts 8:1–3) We have a tendency to think of the early churches as fine-tuned machines.
- The first decade was characterized by phenomenal expansion, which was accompanied by internal turmoil and foreign persecution.
- However, just as its legs were about to go beneath its body, persecution struck.
They took off running. Moreover, the notion of holding a Sunday service at the local church was completely off the table. Saul and his associates were “ravaging the church,” going door to house in search of treacherous Jews who had abandoned Moses and accepted Jesus, according to tradition.
The Call of Paul (A.D. 30–33)
Following the assassination of Stephen and the church’s expulsion from Jerusalem, Saul (who we know as Paul) went to Damascus in order to continue persecuting believers. Instead, he came upon the resurrected Lord while traveling (Acts 9:23–25). The impact of Saul’s talk reverberated across the Jewish community in Israel. The persecutor was transformed into the persecuted in Damascus, and Paul was forced to quit the capital. He eventually ended up spending three years in Arabia (perhaps seeing Mount Sinai) before returning to Damascus (Gal 1:16).
Years before, Paul had stood by and watched the assassination of Stephen in the city of Jerusalem (Acts 8:1).
The crowd sought to assassinate Paul in the same manner that Stephen did before him (Acts 9:29).
It would be another eleven years before Paul would embark on his missionary missions in the New Testament (Gal 2:1).
Famine, Murder, and Schismatic Theology (A.D. 34?–47?)
With Paul having been converted and persecution still active across the region, one wonders if the situation for the fledgling Christian church could be much worse. Yes, it did. Agabus, a prophet at Antioch, predicted that there would be “a tremendous famine over the entire world” (Acts 11:28). “The disciples resolved, each according to his or her ability, to send aid to the brethren who were living in Judea” as a result of the impending disaster (Acts 11:29). To add insult to injury, Herod began persecuting Christians on top of the famine (Acts 12:1).
- Then Peter was arrested and imprisoned (Acts 12:3–5), though he managed to escape and may have never returned to Jerusalem.
- Paul would ultimately embark on his first missionary journey (about A.D.
- However, controversy would erupt once more, when false teachers infiltrated the Galatian church, stating that in order to be saved, one had to live in the manner of a Jew.
- The apostle Peter recognized that this couldn’t be correct because Jesus had stated as much (Acts 10–11), and Paul serves to remind him of the truth that all people, whether Jews or Gentiles, are justified by their trust in Jesus (Gal 2).
- However, this is not entirely true.
- “But other men came down from Judea and began instructing the brothers, saying, “Unless you are circumcised according to the law of Moses, you will not be saved,” according to Luke (Acts 15:1).
- Some members of the council contended that one must be circumcised in order to follow the rule of Moses.
- In other words, neither Jews nor Gentiles are saved by works of the law of Moses, but rather by the mercy of God.
- In spite of the fact that gentiles are exempt from keeping the law of Moses, the apostle instructs them not to upset Jewish believers by avoiding “from things defiled by idols, and from sexual immorality, and from that which has been strangled, and from blood” (Acts 15:20).
So the council establishes a compromise on specific rituals while maintaining the significance of Jesus Christ’s Gospel, which justifies both Jews and Gentiles on the basis of trust in him.
In the first twenty years of Christian history, two themes can be discerned: tremendous expansion and constant strife. The peaceful, immaculate early Church of the Middle Ages does not exist. What we discover is a fugitive church that has been attacked, murdered, famined, and accused of heresy. We discover a church that has been ravaged by internal strife and division. Although this is true, we can see Jesus’ promise in the middle of it: I will establish my church. Amidst all of the difficulties, the gospel was successfully disseminated throughout Europe (Acts 13–14) and Africa (see Acts 8) during this period.
That, however, is a story for another time.
WHY DID THE APOSTLES AND DISCIPLES STAY IN JERUSALEM
It is likely that the Apostles and disciples of Jesus of Nazareth were terrified for their own lives when he was executed on Good Friday, 30AD. To comprehend that, as terrified and bereaved as they must have been, they did not seek to leave Jerusalem to return to their own homes, but instead stayed for three days, according to the ancients’ reckoning, to witness the Resurrection of their Lord and Savior. Even though the Apostles were not fully aware of how the Scriptures were going to be fulfilled in the Resurrectionof Jesus of Nazareth, as Jesus Himself would teach them on Resurrection Sunday in Luke 24:26-27 and 44-47, the Apostles must have remembered those times during the last year of His ministrywhen Jesus attempted to prepare them for what they would be required to face by warning them that it was necessary for Him to die but that He would be raised from the dead.
In Matthew 16:21-23 (Mk 8:31-33; Lk 9:22), Jesus begins to make it clear to his disciples that he was destined to go to Jerusalem and suffer grievously at the hands of the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and to be put to death, only to be raised up on the third day.
Recognizing their anguish and consternation following the first pronouncement of His death and predicted resurrection, Jesus offered hope to His followers by telling them: “Truth be told, there are those standing here who will not taste death until they see the Son of man returning with His kingdom” (Matt 16:27-28).
- In Matthew 17:1-8; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36, Jesus gave Peter, James, and John a glimpse of the Resurrection when He brought them to the Mount of Transfiguration, where they saw Jesus in His glory with Moses and Elijah, two renowned prophets who symbolized the Law and Prophets.
- Throughout His discourse in Jerusalem, Jesus continued to speak of His Passion and Resurrection to His followers, as recorded in Matthew 17:22-23 (Mk 9:30-32; Lk 9:44-45), Matthew 20:17-19 (Mk 10:32-34; Lk 18:31-33), and John 12:31-33.
- Jesus revealed this to them in His “sign of Jonah” prophesy, which He provided to the Jewish authorities in Matthew 12:38-40 and which He repeated to them.
- In order to prevent his followers from stealing him away and telling the people that “He has risen from the dead,” issue the order that the sepulcher be kept guarded until the third day after the resurrection.
- Because of Jesus’s continuous testimony to His death and resurrection, the Jewish people “knew,” and the Apostles “knew” because of the promise of His glory witnessed in the Transfigurationevent, which was observed by the Jewish people.
- There was something more, however, that kept Peter, James, John, and the other disciples in Jerusalem following Jesus’ crucifixion: the presence of the Holy Spirit.
- Sinai, which was the foundation of their faith.
- 2 On Friday, the day of Jesus’ crucifixion occurred; it was also known as “Preparation Day” for the holy Sabbath (Mark 15:42; Luke23:54; John 19:31).
- On top of that, there was a rule against traveling on Sundays.
- However, there was another rule written into the sacred Law that ensured that the disciples of Jesus remained in the holy city.
The body of the deceased had to be buried the same day, especially if the person was sentenced to death for a capital offense: If a man is sentenced to death for a capital offense and is hanged from a tree, his body must not remain on the tree overnight; it must be buried the same day, because anyone hanged is a curse from God, and you must not pollute the soil that Yahweh your God is giving you as your inheritance (Deut 21:22-23).
- Also required was the observance of the concept of “kevod ha-met,” which dictated that the departed be treated with regard and respect, as well as the principle of “kevod he-chai,” which mandated care for the well-being of the mourning family who had lost their loved one.
- The deceased’s body was prepared by the deceased’s relatives and closest friends, as well as a “meal of condolence” (Se’udat Havra-a) for the grieving family.
- A prayer called the “Tziduk Hadin” and another called the “Kaddish” are chanted throughout the week-long time of mourning.
- All His routes lead to justice; he is a God of trust who is without wickedness, who is just and fair; he is a God who is perfect in His work, because all His courses lead to justice (Jewish Tanach).
- The “Kaddish,” also known as the mourners’ prayer, is a statement of devotion for God, trust in His righteousness, and acceptance of His will on the part of the mourners.
- Even if He kills me, I will continue to put my faith in Him.
The Hebrew word “Shiva” (also written sheva or shaba) means “seven” and the ritual is based on Amos 8:10, which states: “And I will convert your feasts into sorrow.” 5 (the holy pilgrim feasts of Unleavened Bread and Tabernacles lasted seven days;Ex 23:14-15; Lev 23:6-7, 34, 39; Num 28:17; 29:12; Deut 16:16).
Due to their position as Jesus’ closest friends, the Apostles remained in Jerusalem with the rest of Jesus’ family, where they sat “Shiva” with the Virgin Mary, Jesus’ kinsmen, and the rest of those who adored Jesus, among other things.
Michal Hunt is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom.
The Agape Bible Study was held in 2008.
Information Supplementary to the above It is necessary to identify Emmaus, the biblical town where Jesus revealed himself in “The Breaking of the Bread.” Endnotes1 Because the ancients did not understand the idea of a 0-place value, the first number in every series was always considered to be number 1.
- The Sabbath is designated as a day of rest in 2Exodus20:8-10.
- These a slew of prohibitions are not contained in the Bible, but were inserted later by the church.
- The Pharisees were frequently critical of Jesus’ “working” on the Sabbath, which included curing the sick (Mk 3:1-6; Lk 13:10-14; 14:1-6) and permitting his followers to collect grain from a field when they were hungry (Mk 3:1-6).
- Matthew 12:3-8 contains Jesus’ response to their question (also Mk 2:27-28;Lk6:5).
- Resources: 4Ibid.5Ibid.4Ibid.
- Kolatch’s The Jewish Book of Why, vol.
- 3.A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ, I.ii., II.ii., Emil Schurer, Hendrickson Publishers, 1890, 2008.
- 4.The New Jerusalem Bible, published by Doubleday in 1985.
6.Ralph Novak’s Christianity and the Roman Empire, published by Trinity Press in 2001. Michal Hunt is a writer who lives in the United Kingdom. Copyright & Permissions (2005) Agape Bible Study All Intellectual Property Rights are Reserved.
Dispersion of the Apostles – Wikipedia
In the Christian Gospels of Mark and Matthew, it is said that, following Jesus’ ascension, his Apostles “went forth and preached everywhere.” In Mark 16:19 and 20, as well as Matthew 28:19 and 20, this is detailed in detail. According to a legend related by Eusebius, they dispersed around the earth in different directions. During the Middle Ages, the liturgical feast of the Dispersion of the Apostles was observed to honor their missionary activity and the establishment of episcopal sees around the world.
The Acts of the Apostles, the canonical sequel to the Gospel of Luke, depicts the dispersal as taking place a significant amount of time after the ascension, with the ministry initially based in Jerusalem and expanding from there, beginning with the conversion of the Ethiopian eunuch.
The dispersion of the Apostles
Following the death of our Lord, the holy apostles and disciples of our Saviour were scattered across the globe, according to Book 3 of the Church History of Eusebius. According to legend, Thomas was assigned Parthia as his area of labor, Andrew was assigned Scythia, and Asia was assigned John, who, after having spent some time in Asia, died in Ephesus, according to tradition. Peter appears to have preached to the Jews of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Bithynia, Cappadocia, and Asia, according to historical evidence.
So, what exactly do we have to say about Paul, who traveled from Jerusalem to Illyricum preaching the Gospel of Christ before being executed as a martyr in Rome under Nero’s reign?
Commentary by Arthur Cushman McGiffert: According to Lipius, the traditions of the apostles’ labors in other places were all initially related with the legend of their separation at Jerusalem, which dates back to the second century.
In the Decretum GelasiiasLiber, which is referred to as theDecretum GelasiiasLiber qui appellatus sortes Apostolorum apocryphus, it is stated that a lost book included the original narrative as well as an account of the fate of the apostles and that it was most likely ofGnosticorManicheanorigin.
- The various traditions not only ascribe diverse fields of labor to the individual apostles, but they also provide a variety of lists of the apostles themselves, which can be confusing.
- of Christ.
- 17 sqq.
- of Christ.
- 17 sqq.
- VIII, p.
- contains a translation of the existing Apocryphal Gospels, Acts, Apocalypses, and other apocryphal works that are now available.
Baronius believed that the slaying of James, son of Zebedee, and the departure of Peter “to another location” were the catalysts for the Apostles’ dispersion, a theory that was later challenged by Friedrich Spanheim and others.
The earliest surviving vestige of the liturgical feast of the Dispersion of the Apostles appears in the unquestionably authenticsequencecomposed for it by a certain Godescalc (d. 1098), while a monk atLimburgon theHaardt; he was also responsible for establishing the feast atAachen, when he served as provost of the Church of Our Lady. Considering that Godescalc was a close supporter of Henry IV, it is likely that he instituted this feast in the Church of Our Lady as a form of propaganda against Pope Gregory VII, with whom Henry was in direct competition during the Investiture Controversy.
It is also referred to as “feast duplex minus” in the 1583 “Order of Service for the Monastery of St.
Godescalcus explains that the purpose of the feast was to mark the departure (dispersion) of the Apostles from Jerusalem to various areas of the globe, maybe fourteen years after the Ascension of Jesus and likely following the Great Commission (Mark 16:14–20, Matthew 28:18–20).
Peter and St.
Sylvester on the feast of the “Divisio Apostolorum.” Several missionary societies in Germany and Poland, as well as a few English and French dioceses, as well as the ecclesiastical provinces of St.
The correct Office for this feast is consigned to the “Pro Aliquibus Locis,” or “For Other Places,” section of the service schedule.
In all but the proper Nocturns for Matins, this rubric is taken from the Common Office.
By the grace of our Lord.
- A few examples include: Mark 16:19–20
- Matthew 28:19–20
- AbThe Church History of Eusebius (translated with prolegomena and annotations by Arthur Cushman McGiffert, book III, chapter I)
- Acts 12:17
- Spanheim, Friedrich (1829). The Ecclesiastical Annals span the period from the beginning of Scripture History through the time of the Reformation. abc
- J. Smith
- Abc “CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Dispersion of the Apostles” is an entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia. retrieved on the 27th of September, 2020
- Michael McGrade is the author of this work (1996). “Gottschalk of Aachen, the Investiture Controversy, and Music for the Feast of the “Divisio apostolorum”” are some of the topics covered in this article. “Journal of the American Musicological Society.” 49(3): 351–408.doi: 10.1525/jams.1996.49.3.03a00020
- Bute, John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, and the Catholic Church in English (1908). With the Offices Since Granted and the Martyrology, Volume 3 – Summer, The Roman Breviary: Reformed By Order Of The Holy cumenical Council Of Trent
- Published By Order Of Pope St. Pius V
- And Revised By Clement VIII, Urban VIII, and Leo XIII
- Together With The Offices Since Granted and The Martyrology W. Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh