Who is responsible in the crucifixion of Jesus Christ
QUESTION: Who bears the primary responsibility for the crucifixion of Christ? Answer: This subject has been disputed for ages and the discussion continues now – who was the genuine assassin of Jesus Christ. What does the Bible say about this? It is revealed in Matthew 27:22–25 that the Jewish authorities asked that Jesus be crucified. The Romans, on the other hand, were the ones who physically crucified Jesus (Matthew 27:27-37). Who has the ultimate responsibility for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ?
Our sins were the cause of His death.
But God proves His own love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us, according to the Bible’s verse Romans 5:8.
Pilate was the one who inquired.
- “Crucify him!” they cried out even louder, as if they had something to prove.
- ‘I am not responsible for this man’s blood,’ he insisted.
- They stripped him down to his underwear and draped him in a red robe before twisting a crown of thorns together and placing it on his head.
- ‘Hail, king of the Jews!’ they cried out in jubilation.
- After they had made fun of him, they stripped him of his robe and dressed him in his own clothing.
- ” “As they were about to leave, they came upon a man from Cyrene called Simon, whom they compelled to carry the cross for them.
- They offered Jesus wine laced with gall to drink there, but after tasting it, he refused to take any more from the cup.
After Jesus had been nailed to the cross, they divided his clothing by drawing lots for it. They sat down and kept a close eye on him from that position. A printed indictment against him was placed over his head, which read: THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWISH GENTILES.”
Why Did Pontius Pilate Have Jesus Executed?
“What is truth?” Pontius Pilate asks Jesus of Nazareth in the Gospel of John, and Jesus responds with a question. It’s a question that may be raised regarding Pilate’s own personal background as well. According to the New Testament of the Christian Bible, the Roman ruler of Judea was a shaky judge who originally exonerated Jesus before bowing to the will of the multitude and condemned him to death as a result of his actions. Non-Biblical sources, on the other hand, present him as a barbaric commander who wilfully rejected the traditions of the Jewish people under his command.
WATCH: JESUS: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE VaultJesus before Pilate, just before he was crucified.
Pilate’s early life is a mystery.
Before his time as Roman governor of Judea, from 26 and 36 A.D., nothing is known about Pilate’s early life and career. While most believe he was born into an equestrian family in Italy, certain tales indicate that he was actually born in the Scottish Highlands. From the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria emerges one of the earliest—and most damning—accounts of Pilate’s reign as governor. Around the year 50 A.D., he denounced the prefect for “briberies, insults, robberies, outrages and wanton injuries, executions without trial, constantly repeated, endless and extremely severe brutality,” among other things.
- Patterson describes Pilate’s rule as “corrupt and full of bribery.” Patterson is an early Christianity historian at Willamette University and the author of several books, including The Forgotten Creed: Christianity’s Original Struggle Against Bigotry, Slavery, and Sexism.
- “Philo is a really dramatic writer,” she observes, “and one who has very apparent biases: persons who maintain Jewish rules are documented in highly favorable ways, whereas people who do not uphold Jewish laws are represented in quite bad ways.
- MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: The Bible asserts that Jesus was a real person.
- Prior to his crucifixion, Jesus had been tortured, and this was the culmination of that suffering.
Pilate clashed with the Jewish population in Jerusalem.
A pair of golden shields emblazoned with the name of the Roman Emperor Tiberius were allowed into King Herod’s ancient residence in Jerusalem, according to Philo, despite Jewish tradition. Writing more than a half-century later, the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus related a similar story, claiming that Pilate let troops bearing military standards with the likeness of the emperor into Jerusalem, despite Jewish law prohibiting the carrying of images in the holy city. A large number of people journeyed to the Judean city of Caesarea to express their displeasure, and they laid prostrate outside Pilate’s palace for five days until he finally yielded.
This account has the ring of a rookie governor experimenting with his powers and entirely underestimating the depth of local opposition to graven images.
Josephus related another event, this one with a bloodier conclusion, in which Pilate used cash from the Temple treasury to construct an aqueduct to provide water to Jerusalem.
They were successful. When he gave the signal, they withdrew clubs disguised in their clothing and beat many of the demonstrators to death with the clubs they had removed. More information may be found at: Where Is the Head of Saint John the Baptist?
The Gospels portray an indecisive Pilate.
Josephus also referred to Pilate’s well-known role in agreeing to Jesus’ death, which he had played previously. After being gravely concerned by his teachings, the Sanhedrin (an elite council of priestly and lay elders) arrested Jesus while he was celebrating the Jewish festival of Passover, according to the Gospels. They hauled Jesus before Pilate to be prosecuted for blasphemy, accusing him of claiming to be the King of the Jews, which they said was false. And they exerted pressure on Pilate, the only person who had the authority to sentence someone to death, to order his crucifixion.
According to the Gospel of Mark, Pilate intervened on Jesus’ behalf before caving in to the demands of the mob.
MORE INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND AT: Discovering the Early Christian Church’s Conversion Tactics from Within “Mark’s goal isn’t truly historical in nature,” Patterson explains.
Mark blamed the Jewish rulers in Jerusalem for the city’s collapse since the high priests and officials had turned their backs on Jesus when he had arrived in the city.
courtesy of DeAgostini/Getty Images Following this, according to the Gospel of Matthew, Pilate washed his hands in front of the assembled throng before declaring, “I am innocent of this man’s blood; take care of yourself.” When the Jewish people heard this, they yelled out, “His blood be on us and our children.” For millennia, it would be used to punish the Jewish people, and it is still being utilized now.
As Bond explains, “Matthew claims that, while Romans were accountable for carrying out the action, the Jews were liable—a line of thought that, of course, has had fatal ramifications ever since.” When Jesus was making problems during a gathering like Passover, when the city was packed to capacity, I don’t believe Pilate would have spent much time worrying about what to do with him.
According to the Gospels, the people preferred the criminal Barabbas than Jesus.
The so-called custom of freeing a prisoner on Passover has been investigated by scholars, but so far, according to Patterson, “they have not discovered anything in regard to this so-called ritual.” More information may be found at: Early Christians Didn’t Always Take the Bible Literally (Discovery).
Pilate disappears from history after his rule.
Following the use of disproportionate force to quell a suspected Samaritan rebellion, Pilate was dismissed from office and transported back to Rome, according to Josephus and the Roman historian Tacitus. Pilate vanished from the historical record as soon as he arrived in Rome. According to various legends, he was either executed by Emperor Caligula or committed suicide, with his remains being thrown into the Tiber River after his death. In fact, the early Christian author Tertullian said that Pilate had become a disciple of Jesus and had attempted to convert the emperor to Christian beliefs.
A portion of a carved stone with Pilate’s name and title etched in Latin on it was discovered face down in an antique theater, where it had been used as a stair.
According to a November 2018 article in Israel Exploration Journal, improved photography showed Pilate’s name engraved in Greek on a 2,000-year-old copper alloy ring recovered at Herodium, which was previously thought to be a Roman coin.
The Crucifixion of Jesus and the Jews
Jesus was executed because he was a Jewish victim of Roman persecution. On this point, all documented authorities are in agreement. His execution was ordered by the Gentile Roman ruler, Pontius Pilate, who had him tortured and killed by Gentile Roman troops before he was executed. In fact, Jesus was one of thousands of Jews who were executed by the Romans. The New Testament not only attests to this fundamental reality, but it also provides for Jewish participation in two ways. A small group of high-ranking Jewish officials who owed their positions and authority to the Romans colluded with the Gentile leaders to have Jesus executed; they are claimed to have been envious of Jesus and to have regarded him as an existential danger to the status quo.
The number of individuals in this mob is not specified, nor is there any explanation provided for their actions (other than the fact that they had been “stirred up,” as stated in Mark 15:11).
As recorded in Matthew, the Roman ruler wipes his hands of Jesus’ blood, as the Jews exclaim, “His blood be upon us and upon our children!” (Matthew 27:25.) Throughout Jesus’ mission, the Jews are shown as desiring to murder him in John’s Gospel (John 5:18,John 7:1,John 8:37).
This shift in emphasis is not entirely clear, but one obvious possibility is that as the church spread throughout the world, Romans rather than Jews became the primary targets of evangelism; as a result, there may have been some motivation to “off-the-hook” the Romans and blame the Jews for Jesus’ death rather than the other way around.
However, by the middle of the second century, the apocryphal Gospel of Peter presents the Romans as Jesus’ supporters, and the Jews as those who crucify him, according to tradition.
As a result, anti-Semitism has fed such beliefs for ages, culminating in the crude demonization of Jews as “Christ-killers.” Christians have traditionally held, in opposition to such predictions, that the human actors responsible for Jesus’ execution are irrelevant: he offered his life voluntarily as a sacrifice for sin (Mark 10:45;John 18:11).
“Let his blood be upon us and upon our children!” cries out the congregation in most liturgical churches when Matthew’s PassionNarrativeis read during a worship service.
In most liturgical churches, when Matthew’s PassionNarrativeis read during a worship service, all members of the congregation are invited to echoMatt 27:25aloud, crying out, “Let his blood be upon us and upon our children!”
Mark Allan Powell is a professor of New Testament at Trinity Lutheran Seminary in St. Paul, Minnesota (Columbus, Ohio). He is the editor of the HarperCollins Bible Dictionary and the author of Introducing the New Testament (Baker, 2009) andJesus as a Figure in History (Westminster, 2009). He received his bachelor’s degree from Harvard University. John Knox Publishing Company, 2012). A gathering of individuals who are participating in religious services and are worshiping. The proclamation of “the good news” of Jesus Christ to the entire world.
- spurious gospel purporting to have been authored by the apostle Peter, but which was rejected by the early Roman Catholic Church as part of the canonical New Testament canon because of its apocryphal nature.
- A narrative that has been written, spoken, or recorded.
- God’s character and actions are discussed through writing, conversation, or contemplation.
- 15:1111 (Mark 15:1111) The leading priests, on the other hand, incited the mob to demand that Jesus release Barabbas for them instead.
27:2525 (KJV) Following that, the entire population exclaimed, “His blood be on us and on our children!” 5:1818 (John 5:1818) In order to assassinate him, the Jews increased their efforts even further, believing that he was not only violating the Sabbath but also referring to God as his own Father in the process.
- He did not want to travel about in Judea since the Jews were searching for an occasion to attack him and his family.
- 1 2:14-1514 (Thess 2:14-1514) Because you, brothers and sisters, were models for the churches of God in Christ Jesus that are located in Judea, because you experienced the same things from your own compa, you became imitators of those churches.
- Observe further information 10:45:45 (Mark 10:45:45) The Son of Man, after all, did not come to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” 18:1111 (John 18:1111) “Put your sword back into its sheath,” Jesus instructed Peter to do.
- God, on the other hand, demonstrates his love for us by sending Christ to die for us while we were still sinners.
- More details may be found at1 Tim 1:515 p.m.
When it comes to Christ Jesus coming into the world to help sinners—of which I am the foremost—the phrase is certain and deserving of complete acceptance. Matt. 27:2525 (KJV) Following that, the entire population exclaimed, “His blood be on us and on our children!”
Who was responsible for Christ’s death? Who killed Jesus?
QuestionAnswer The solution to this question has a number of different sides. In the first place, there is little question that the religious leaders of Israel were directly or indirectly responsible for Jesus’ killing. “The chief priests and the elders of the people assembled in the palace of the high priest, whose name was Caiaphas, and they devised a plan to secretly arrest Jesus and kill him,” according to Matthew 26:3–4. The Jewish authorities asked that Jesus be put to death from the Romans (Matthew 27:22–25).
- (John 11:53).
- It was a Roman method of execution authorized and carried out by the Romans under the authority of Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor who sentenced Jesus to death on the cross.
- The people of Israel were also complicit in Jesus’ death, as was the Roman Empire.
- Crucify him!” “Crucify him!” the crowd chanted as He faced trial before Pilate (Luke 23:21).
When Peter told the men of Israel in Acts 2:22–23, he was confirming their suspicions: “You, with the assistance of wicked men, put him to death by nailing him to the cross.” As it turned out, the murder of Jesus was part of an elaborate conspiratorial scheme that involved the Roman Empire, Herod’s Jewish leaders, and the Jewish people themselves, a diverse group of people who had never worked together before or since, but who came together this one time to plot and carry out an unthinkable act: the assassination of the only begotten Son of God.
- At the end of the day, and maybe quite astonishingly, it was God Himself who executed Jesus.
- Jesus’ death on the cross secured the salvation of untold millions of people and provided the only means by which God could forgive sin without compromising His holiness and perfect righteousness, which was otherwise impossible.
- As opposed to being a victory for Satan, or an unnecessary tragedy, as some have suggested, it was the most gracious act of God’s goodness and mercy, the ultimate expression of the Father’s love for sinners.
- As the Bible says, “God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that through him, we may become the righteousness of God” (2 Corinthians 5:21).
- He died in order to pay the price for our sins (Romans 5:8; 6:23).
He did it this way to serve as a constant reminder to himself and everyone else that it was our sins that condemned Jesus to death on the cross. Questions regarding Jesus Christ (return to top of page) Who was to blame for the death of Jesus Christ? Who was responsible for Jesus’ death?
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Bible Study: Who Actually Killed Jesus Christ?
On January 9, 2019, we made some changes. The killing of Christina was orchestrated by six co-conspirators, each of them contributed to the process in their own way. Their motivations ranged from avarice to hatred to a sense of obligation. Judas Iscariot, Caiaphas, the Sanhedrin, Pontius Pilate, Herod Antipas, and an unknown Roman centurion were among those who were arrested. The Old Testament prophets had predicted that the Messiah would be taken to the slaughterhouse like a sacrificial lamb hundreds of years before.
Discover the role that each of the men who executed Jesus played in the most significant trial in history, as well as how they conspired to put him to death in the most important trial in history.
Judas Iscariot – Betrayer of Jesus Christ
James Tissot’s painting Judas betraying Jesus with a kiss is available for purchase. Images courtesy of SuperStock / Getty Images Judas Iscariot was one of Jesus Christ’s twelve chosen disciples, and he was betrayed by them. As the group’s treasurer, he was in charge of the money bag that was shared by everyone. While Judas did not have a role in organizing Jesus’ crucifixion, the Bible claims that he betrayed his Master for 30 pieces of silver, which was the usual price paid for a slave at the time.
Judas moved from being one of Jesus’ closest companions to becoming a guy whose firstname has become synonymous with betrayal.
Joseph Caiaphas – High Priest of the Jerusalem Temple
Photographs courtesy of Getty Images When Jesus of Nazareth came to Jerusalem, Joseph Caiaphas, the High Priest of the Temple in Jerusalem from 18 to 37 A.D., was one of the most powerful men in ancient Israel, yet he felt threatened by the peace-loving teacher. During the trial and execution of Jesus Christ, he played an important part. Caiaphas was concerned that Jesus might incite an uprising, resulting in a crackdown by the Romans, who were pleased with Caiaphas’ service. As a result, Caiaphas determined that Jesus would have to die.
Learn more about Caiaphas’ role in Jesus’ death by reading this article.
Pontius Pilate – Roman Governor of Judea
An illustration shows Pilate washing his hands as he issues orders for Jesus to be flogged and Barabbas to be released from his imprisonment. Eric Thomas is a Getty Images contributor. Pontius Pilate was the Roman Governor of ancient Israel, and he had tremendous authority over life and death. He was the only one who had the authority to put a criminal to death. However, when Jesus was brought before him for trial, Pilate could not find any justification to sentence him to death. Instead, he cruelly flogged Jesus before handing him over to Herod, who subsequently returned him to the cross.
In order to save themselves, they asked that Jesus be crucified, a tortuous punishment reserved exclusively for the most aggressive of offenders.
Pilate, ever the politician, symbolically wiped his hands of the situation by handing Jesus up to one of his centurions, who was then charged with carrying out the death sentence. Learn more about Pontius Pilate’s role in the death of Jesus by watching the video below.
Herod Antipas – Tetrarch of Galilee
The head of John the Baptist is carried to Herod Antipas by Princess Herodias. Stringer / Getty Images / Archive Photos / Stringer Herod Antipas was a tetrarch, or ruler of Galilee and Perea, who was selected by the Romans to serve as their representative. Due to Jesus’ status as a Galilean, who fell under Herod’s jurisdiction, Pilate sent Jesus to him. Herod had already assassinated the famous prophet John the Baptist, who was also Jesus’ friend and kinsman. Jesus was asked to perform a miracle for Herod, rather than finding the truth about what had happened.
Learn more about Herod’s part in the killing of Jesus by reading this article.
Centurion – Officer in Ancient Rome’s Army
Image courtesy of Giorgio Cosulich and stringer/Getty Images. Centurions were battle-hardened army leaders who were trained to kill with sword and spear under the Roman Empire. Jesus of Nazareth was nailed on the cross by a Roman centurion whose name is not revealed in the Bible. This order changed the course of history. The centurion and the troops under his direction executed the crucifixion of Jesus in a cold and methodical manner, following the commands of Governor Pilate. “Surely this guy was the Son of God!” he exclaimed as he gazed up at Jesus, who was hanging on the cross.
Romans are to blame for death of Jesus
Among religious specialists and laypeople alike, the soon-to-be-released Mel Gibson film “The Passion of the Christ” is causing quite a commotion in the media. Many people believe the film contains anti-Semitic implications. Although the Jews are often believed to have been involved in Jesus’ death, according to Dr. Frank K. Flinn of Washington University in St. Louis’ department of religious studies, the Romans are truly to blame for the death of Jesus. Frank Flinn is a songwriter and musician from the United Kingdom.
“Crucifications could only be authorized by the Roman authorities, and they frequently did so on a brutal, mass scale.” In the opinion of Flinn, an expert on Catholicism, Gibson’s film appears to merge all of the gospel stories about the Passion into one epic, a made-for-the-big-screen story that fails to show how opinions about the Jews’ role in the crucifixion have changed dramatically over time, as has been shown in other films about the Passion.
- The author points out that our oldest accounts of the crucifixion, such as the Gospel of Mark, which was written about 60-70 C.E., make it apparent that Pilate was the one who ordered Christ’s execution.
- “Matthew, most likely as a result of inter-Jewish competition, places the ultimate responsibility fully on the shoulders of the Jewish leadership,” Flinn explained.
- When it came to Jewish persecution and murder throughout the Middle Ages, the label “Christ-killers” became a rhetorical club to legitimize the ghettoization, persecution, and slaughter of Jews.
- A Guide to Taking in the Show Mel Gibson’s next film Written by Frank K.
- In his books The Jewish War and Jewish Antiquities, Josephus, the Jewish historian, records several incidents.
- Only the Roman authorities had the authority to order crucifixions, and they did it on a brutal and enormous scale on a regular basis.
- The first Galilean disciples of Jesus regarded him as a prophet similar to Elijah, who wandered the Galilean hills healing the sick and reviving the dead, as did the prophet Elijah.
- Sadducees and Pharisees were among the Jewish leaders who owed their positions to their patron-client relationship with the Roman rulers (notice the word “some”).
- In addition to the teachers and prophets in rural Galilee and the Dead Sea Scrolls community at Qumran, other Jewish groups and individuals either rejected or rebelled against the corrupt relationship between Jerusalem and Rome.
- Along with the Temple tax, this tax was collected for Rome by the Temple officials, who distributed it to tax farmers.
- Due to the annual ordinance of Jubilee, it should have been possible for the rich in Jerusalem to restore this territory to the original tribes, but they failed to do so.
According to Leviticus 19:4, “render unto Caesar” means “return to Caesar” his own coin with Caesar’s image on it (a blasphemy to the pious Jew!) and “return to God” what is God’s, which is the land itself, which God ultimately owns and which God gave directly to Israel in the covenant (Joshua 24:13)!” The message of Jesus was both spiritually and politically dangerous, first to the Roman rulers and then, secondary, to their client appointees in Jerusalem, who were first threatened by it.
- The Gospel of Mark, the earliest Gospel we know, was written between 60 and 70 CE.
- Matthew and Luke were written considerably later, in the year 80-95, and show a wide range of interests and points of view.
- Aside from his status as a Jewish disciple of Jesus (Antioch being the site of the first use of the term “Christian”), Matthew also comments on the era following the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE, when tensions broke out between rabbinic Yavneh Jews and Jewish followers of Jesus.
- It’s possible that the rabbis weren’t all that successful.
- (I constantly point out to my pupils that a Christian may attend any Jewish Sabbath service and participate fully in all of the prayers with complete religious commitment.) Matthew goes to great lengths to disassociate himself from the actions of the Roman authority.
- Perhaps as a result of intra-Jewish competition, the phrase “His blood be upon us and our offspring” is added to place the ultimate responsibility squarely on the shoulders of the Jewish leadership (Matthew 24:25).
- The Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts should be read together as a single piece of literature.
We can now use the name “Christian,” which appears for the first time in Acts 11:26, but the term was probably definitely coined as a derogatory slur in its original context.
Against the backdrop of Roman criticism, Luke is attempting to defend Christianity against the charge of “superstition” leveled against it.
The paragraphs about Jesus being crowned with thorns and being mocked have been omitted.
“But Jesus hedelivered over to theirwill,” says Luke, elaborating on Pilate’s guilt (Luke 23:26).
In its present form (ca.
100-110 CE) is that John does not place the blame for Jesus’ death solely on Pilate, or Pilate’s Jewish authorities, or even the Jewish authorities alone, but on “Jews” collectively (John 19:12).
The stage is laid for the later, tragic accusation that “the Jews murdered Jesus,” despite the fact that John does not state so explicitly.
It was not until after Constantine established a complete break with Judaism as such that the term “Christ-killers” was coined to describe these individuals.
Bishop John Chrysostom of Constantinople (ca.
By the Middle Ages, the label “Christ-killers” had evolved into a linguistic club used to legitimize the ghettoization, persecution, and death of Jews around the world, particularly in Europe.
My argument establishes a chronological order for determining who was responsible for Jesus’ killing, as well as the appropriate terminology for each stage: Romans Leaders of the Romans and Jews The High Priest, the Scribes, and the Elders/Romans Chief Priest, Scribes, Elders, and the general populace/Pilate (sort of) Jews are a group of people who live in a community that is surrounded by other Jews (in general) “Stiff-necked Individuals” “Christ-killers.” According to what I’ve read about Mel Gibson’s movie in published accounts, it appears to be similar to many other films about Jesus in that it combines all of the gospel tales about the passion into a single narrative.
As I’ve demonstrated above, the multiple gospels express quite different messages.
This makes it seem eerily similar to the infamous traditional Catholic Oberammergau Passion Play in Germany, which was in its original form grossly stereotyped and anti-Semitic in its content.
Most crucially, the inclination in virtually all Christian interpretations of Jesus’ death is to adopt as one’s frame of reference, not the first phrase in the sequence I listed above, but the last term in the series. But, to be fair, we’ll have to wait till the film is out before we can find out.
Who Killed Jesus?
Among religious professionals and plain people alike, the soon-to-be-released Mel Gibson film “The Passion of the Christ” is causing quite a commotion in the media. Numerous critics have claimed that the film contains anti-Semitic undercurrents. Although the Jews are often believed to have been involved in Jesus’ death, according to Dr. Frank K. Flinn of Washington University in St. Louis’ Department of Religious Studies, the Romans are truly to blame for the death of Jesus. Frank Flinn is a musician and songwriter from the United Kingdom.
- Flinn, a Catholic expert, said Gibson’s film appears to combine all of the gospel accounts about the Passion into a single epic, a made-for-the-big-screen scenario that fails to demonstrate how attitudes of the Jews’ part in the crucifixion have shifted radically over time.
- Even though Matthew and Luke were written considerably later, they show a variety of interests and opinions, with each gospel placing more blame on Jews.
- ‘In Luke, the “whitewashing” of the Romans comes close to being finished.
- All of us are well aware of the conclusion to this tragic chapter.” Who was the assassination victim?
- Flinn’s contribution Because Jesus posed a political threat to the Romans, they executed him, just as they had done with a large number of other prophets, brigands, and rebels throughout the first century.
- It is likely that Jesus would have been stoned if the Jewish authorities had been directly involved, as Stephen was in Acts 7.
- They have demonstrated their ruthless power through the rebellion and crucifixion of Sparticus’ army.
The Messiah, like all of the prophets before him, called for a renewal of the terms of the covenant (Leviticus 19), a return of the land to its original tribal owners (the law of Jubilee), and he spoke out against the corrupt leadership in Jerusalem on a number of occasions.
The procurator of Judea was appointed by the emperor, and the High Priest was appointed by him.
Julius Caesar had previously exempted Jews from participating in imperial worship by requiring them to pay a special tax to the Roman government in exchange for their exemption.
Poor farmers in Galilee were forced to mortgage their ancestral lands to the powers that be in Jerusalem as a result of the persecution they suffered under the Roman occupation.
Jesus preached the kingdom of God in the same way that the prophets of old had done in their time.
It was Jesus’ message that was both spiritually and politically dangerous, first to the Roman authorities and then to their client appointees in Jerusalem, who were first and foremost targets of Jesus’ message.
However, Mark 15:15 makes it clear that Pilate was the one who ordered Jesus’ death, whereas he portrays it as a sort of 50/50 collusion between the compromised leaders and Pilate.
Using Moses as a model, Matthew portrays Jesus as a “Super Teacher” or “Rabbi.” Aside from his status as a Jewish follower of Christ (Antioch was the site of the first use of the term “Christian”), Matthew reflects on a period following the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, when conflicts broke out between rabbinic Yavneh Jews and Jewish followers of Jesus.
- However, it is possible that the rabbis were not particularly effective.
- (I always remind my students that a Christian can attend any Jewish Sabbath service and participate in all of the prayers with complete religious sincerity.) A great deal of effort is expended by Matthew to disassociate himself from the Roman authorities.
- He adds the verse “His blood be upon us and our children,” which is most likely a result of intra-Jewish rivalry, to place ultimate responsibility squarely on the shoulders of Jewish authorities (Matthew 24:25).
- The Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts should be read together as a single piece of literature.
- Even though we can now use the term “Christian,” which appears for the first time in Acts 11:26, the term was almost certainly intended to be used as a derogatory epithet at the time of its invention.
- Against the backdrop of Roman criticism, Luke is attempting to defend Christianity against the charge of “superstition” leveled at it.
- There are no longer any passages about Jesus being crowned with thorns or being mocked.
“But Jesus hedelivered up to their will,” Luke says of Pilate’s responsibility (Luke 23:26).
In its present form (ca.
100-110 CE) is that John does not place the blame for Jesus’ death solely on Pilate, or Pilate’s Jewish authorities, or even the Jewish authorities alone, but on “Jews” in general (John 19:12).
Despite the fact that John does not say it, the stereotype is established for the later, fateful charge of “the Jews killed Jesus.” The “Jews” were portrayed by Christian apologists as a “stiff-necked people” who refused to see the light of salvation in the centuries that followed.
A fascinating subtext can be found in any situation.
398-407) was the first to accuse Jews of being “Christ-killers,” but he did so because his Christian congregants were continuing to attend the local synagogue, no doubt because the rabbis were more learned than many priests and were better biblical preachers than the priests themselves.
All of us are well aware of the tragic conclusion to this saga.
The High Priest, the Scribes, the Elders/Romans, and other officials Priests in authority, scribes, elders, and the general populace/pilate (sort of) Jews are a group of people who live in a country that is predominantly Jewish (in general) Christ-killers.” “Stiff-necked People” I’ve read enough about Mel Gibson’s movie to conclude that, like many previous films about Jesus, it will combine all of the gospel stories about the passion into a single narrative.
I’m looking forward to seeing it.
Second, according to Gibson himself, the film is bloody and gory, and it places a strong emphasis on the role of Mary in a way that is not reflected in the gospel accounts.
What’s more, the tendency in almost all Christian interpretations of Jesus’ death is to assume as one’s frame of reference not the first term in the sequence I’ve listed above but the last term in the sequence We’ll have to wait until the film is released before we can find out for certain.
Jews Lacked A Motive for Killing Jesus
Indeed, most historians believe that it would have been more rational to place the responsibility for Jesus’ execution on the Romans. Crucifixion was a common form of punishment among the Romans, not among the Jews. At the time of Jesus’ execution, the Romans were enforcing a harsh and ruthless occupation on the Land of Israel, and the Jews had been rebellious at times throughout the occupation. The Romans would have had good cause to desire to silence Jesus, who had been dubbed “King of the Jews” by some of his disciples and was well-known as a Jewish upstart miracle worker at the time of his death.
The many factions of the Jewish society at the period — including the Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and others — had numerous differences with one another, but none of the organizations orchestrated the death of the leaders of the other purportedly heretical sects.
READ: The History of the Land of Israel Under Roman Control Nonetheless, the notion that Jews murdered Jesus can be found in Christian foundational literature dating back to the early days of the Jesus movement, and it is unlikely that it will be readily abandoned simply because of historians’ arguments.
The New Testament Account
The notion that Jews assassinated Jesus is parodied in this 1896 cartoon, which substitutes Uncle Sam for the historical figure. (Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) “The Jews who killed the Lord, Jesus,” Paul writes in his writings, which are considered by historians to be the earliest works of the New Testament (written 10 to 20 years after Jesus’ death), and he addresses them very briefly: “the Jews who slaughtered the Lord, Jesus” (I Thessalonians 2:14-15). While the idea that the Jews bear primary responsibility for Jesus’ death is not central to Paul’s understanding of Jesus’ life and death, the idea that the Jews bear primary responsibility for Jesus’ death is more prominent in the four gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, each of which presents a slightly different account of Jesus’ life.
Eventually, the high priest comes to the conclusion that Jesus is guilty of blasphemy and petitions the Jewish council for guidance on how to punish him.
Matthew’s account of Jesus’ suffering and death on the cross (referred to by Christians as “Jesus’ “passion”) has served as the inspiration for numerous books, plays, and musical compositions over the years, and it is a prominent part of Christian liturgy, particularly during the celebration of Easter.
It is said that Pontius Pilate, the Roman ruler of Judea, was fundamentally sympathetic to Jesus, but that he was unable to overcome the pressure from the Jews, who demanded that Jesus be put to death.
When Pilate arrives, the gathering members of the Jewish community tell him, “His blood be on us and on our children,” which is the most contentious verse in all of the passion accounts (Matthew 27:25).
According to Christian doctrine, succeeding generations of Jews are also guilty of deicide, the crime of murdering God, which was committed by their forefathers.
Church Fathers and Thereafter
An etching from 1845 portraying King Herod and Pontius Pilate exchanging handshakes. (Photo by F.A. Ludy courtesy of Wellcome Images/Wikimedia Commons) With even more clarity and power, this allegation emerges in the works of the Church Fathers, who are considered to be the most authoritative Christian theologians who lived after the New Testament period. After explaining to his Jewish interlocutor why the Jews had experienced exile and the destruction of their Temple, Justin Martyr (mid-second century) concludes that these “tribulations were justly placed on you since you have assassinated the Just One” (Jesus Christ) (Dialogue with Trypho, chapter 16).
- A historical King Solomon addresses the Jews in “The Mystery of Adam,” a religious drama from the 12th century that prophesies that they would eventually slay the son of God, as depicted in the play.
- This statement is subject to verification.
- The masters of the law will be the ones who do this.
- They’ll descend from a tremendous height, and may they be comforted in their bereaved state of affairs.
- In recent times, passion plays — large-scale outdoor theater events that dramatize the end of Jesus’ life and frequently feature hundreds of actors — have continued to spread this notion, as have other forms of religious expression.
In the Talmud
It’s worth noting that the notion that the Jews assassinated Jesus may be found in Jewish religious literature as well. Against the evidence of theBabylonian Talmud, on folio 43a of tractateSanhedrin, aberaita (a doctrine dating back to before the year 200 C.E.) says that Jesus was executed by a Jewish tribunal for the crimes of sorcery and insurrection. For this reason, there is a blank area near the bottom of that folio in normal Talmuds from Eastern Europe — or in American Talmuds that simply copied from them — since the possibly offending text has been omitted.
This section has been restored in a number of recent Talmudic versions.) When the Talmud claims that the incident occurred on the eve of Passover, it follows the timeline given in the gospel of John, which is supported by historical evidence.
Responsibility for the killing of Jesus is also given to the Jews in Jewish folk literature, such as the popular scurrilous Jewish biography of Jesus,Toledot Yeshu (which may be as old as the fourth century), and in Christian folk fiction.
From the first through the nineteenth century, the degree of hostility between Jews and Christians was such that both parties believed the accusation that the Jews were responsible for the death of Jesus.
People who believe the tales of the New Testament (or of the Talmud) to be credible historical sources should not be shocked if this belief prevails. You may read this article in Spanish (leer en espaol) if you want to learn more about who killed Jesus.
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Pontius Pilate was a Roman governor who served under Tiberius the Great during the first century AD. His most well-known role is that of the judge in Jesus’ trial.
Who Was Pontius Pilate?
Pontius Pilate is thought to have originated from the Samnium area of central Italy, where he was imprisoned. Pontius Pilate was the governor of Judaea from 26 to 36 A.D. throughout his reign. He accused Jesus of treason and said that Jesus considered himself to be the King of the Jews, and he ordered Jesus’ execution. Pilate died in the year 39 A.D. The exact reason of his death has not been determined. His presence was proved by an item discovered in 1961.
Prefect of Judea
Pontius Pilate was appointed prefect of the Roman provinces of Judaea, Samaria, and Iduma by the Roman Emperor Tiberius in 26 A.D., although Pilate is best remembered for his leadership of the Roman province of Judaea. While the average tenure for a Roman prefect was one to three years, Pilate was to keep his position as the fifth Roman procurator for a period of ten years, which was unprecedented at the time. Pontius Pilate became the successor of Valerius Gratus when he assumed his position.
His responsibilities as a prefect included routine activities like as tax collecting and project management for building projects.
Pontius Pilate made every effort to achieve this goal by whatever means necessary.
Pontius Pilate, as governor of Judaea, was confronted with a clash of interests between the Roman Empire and the Sanhedrin, the Jewish religious council. When Pontius inquired as to whether Jesus was the King of the Jews, he asserted that Jesus had accepted the title, which he never had done. The Roman authority regarded this claim as treasonous and prosecuted the accuser accordingly. Pontius Pilate, according to some historians, worked in collaboration with Jewish officials, who considered Jesus’ claim to authority as a political danger, when it came to pursuing Jesus.
All four of the Gospels portray him as a weak man who eventually caves in to the Jewish rulers’ demand to put Jesus on the cross.
Only Matthew 27:24 describes Pontius Pilate as refusing to participate in Jesus’ crucifixion: “So when Pilate saw that he was gaining nothing, but rather that a riot was beginning, he took water and washed his hands in front of the crowd, saying, “I am innocent of this man’s blood; see to it yourselves,” he said.
INRI was a Latin abbreviation for Jesus’ given name as well as his title as King of the Jews. Some feel that the term was intended to be sarcastic, in order to criticize Jesus for his lofty assertion.
The circumstances surrounding Pontius Pilate’s death, which occurred about 39 A.D., remain a mystery and a matter of debate. According to some legends, the Roman emperor Caligula ordered Pontius Pilate’s death by execution or suicide, which was carried out. According to some stories, Pontius Pilate was exiled and eventually committed suicide of his own free will. Some stories hold that after committing himself, his body was thrown into the Tiber River, which is where he is buried. Others, on the other hand, feel that Pontius Pilate’s destiny was tied to his conversion to Christianity and his canonization.
Whatever happened to Pontius Pilate in the end, one thing has been established: that he was a real person who lived in the first century A.D.
Antonio Frova discovered a piece of limestone etched with Pontius Pilate’s name in Latin, establishing a link between Pilate and Emperor Tiberius’ reign in the city.
Who Crucified Jesus?
Paintings by the Rembrant include “The Three Crosses,” which is the title of one of his most well-known works. When one looks at it, one’s attention is instantly attracted to the central cross, which represents Jesus’ death. One is struck by the facial expressions of those who participated in that heinous crime of crucifying God’s Son when one looks closer at the multitude assembled at the foot of the cross. These expressions convey so clearly the mindsets of those who participated in that heinous crime.
- According to the majority of commentators, that figure represents Rembrandt’s own likeness.
- It is simple to point the finger at the Jewish leaders, Pilate, the Roman troops, or the mob who sang, “Crucify him,” as the cause of the tragedy.
- It is quite another to assert that Christ died as a sacrifice for my transgressions.
- It wasn’t simply what they did that was wrong; it was who nailed Him to the tree as well.
- I joined in on the sneering.
“…seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame” —Hebrews 6:6
So, who was it that assassinated Jesus? 1. Was it the Romans who did it? Let us seek the answer in God’s Word to find out the truth. “And after they had crucified him, they divided his clothing among themselves by casting lots,” Matthew 27:35 says. We learn from this scripture that the Romans crucified Jesus on the cross. In reality, the crucifixion was a Roman method of punishing a convicted criminal. Jesus was considered a criminal in the eyes of the Romans. That is why they nailed Jesus on the cross.
They hammered the nails into his hands and feet until they were completely gone.
They were the ones who assassinated Jesus Christ, the Son of God.
Was it the Jews who were responsible?
And Peter addresses them as “Men of Israel.
In other words, Peter is informing the Jews that they were directly responsible for the crucifixion and death of Jesus on the cross.
The apostle Paul verifies this in 1 Thessalonians 2:14–15: “For you became imitators of the churches of God in Christ Jesus that are in Judea,” he says.
As Paul reminds us, “all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,” and that “the consequence of sin is death,” we are all guilty of sin (Rom.
As a result, you and I should have been the ones to be crucified on the cross, because we are the ones who have sinned against the Almighty and deserve death.
He stood in my place, bearing disgrace and scoffing rudely, sealing my forgiveness with his blood: Hallelujah, what a Saviour we have!
According to the contemporary song “How Deep the Father’s Love for Us,” this reality is articulated as follows: It was my own fault that kept Him confined.
It was in this sense that we crucified our Lord and Savior.
Who was the perpetrator?
Unfortunately, Jesus, my betrayal hath brought Thee to ruin.
I nailed Thee on the cross.
Was it His Father, or someone else?
It is important to note that Jesus died in accordance with God’s predetermined and foreordained plan.
Whether in the hands of the Romans, Jews, or even us, Jesus was never a victim of their or our actions.
His demise had been prepared by his Father from the beginning of time.
Who was it that crushed him to death?
Pay attention to Prophet Isaiah.
His wounds were inflicted on us because of our trespasses, and he was crushed because of our sins.
“Do you honestly think that it was God who slaughtered His own Son?” a perplexed atheist once inquired of me.
“Why would God do such a thing to His own Son?” he continued.
Conclusion So, who was responsible for Jesus’ death?
However, even if this is true, we can equally assert that no one intentionally stole His life because He chose to do it willingly.
and I am willing to give my life for the sheep.
No one can take it away from me, but I choose to put it down of my own free will.
Paul writes that the Son of God voluntarily opted to die on a cross for the redemption of those whom God had predestined from the beginning of time (Eph.
“There is no greater love than this, that someone would lay down his or her life for his or her companions” (John 15:13).
Jesus gave his life in order for us to be able to dwell with Him for all of eternity.
In case you ever have any doubts about whether Jesus loves you or not, turn back to Calvary and view the wonderful cross, and don’t stop examining it until you shout, “Love so amazing, so divine,Demands My Soul, My Life, My Everything.”